Research Article
Research Article
Ganoderma sichuanense (Ganodermataceae, Polyporales) new to Thailand
expand article infoAnan Thawthong§, Kalani K. Hapuarachchi|, Ting-Chi Wen, Olivier Raspé#, Naritsada Thongklang§, Ji-Chuan Kang, Kevin D. Hyde§¤
‡ Guizhou University, Guiyang, China
§ Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, Thailand
| Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, China
¶ Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium
# Botanic Garden Meise, Meise, Belgium
¤ Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
Open Access


Ganoderma sichuanense (Ganodermataceae) is a medicinal mushroom originally described from China and previously confused with G. lucidum. It has been widely used as traditional medicine in Asia since it has potential nutritional and therapeutic values. We collected 8 specimens of Ganoderma species from Thailand and show that they represent the first record of G. sichuanenese for Thailand. In this paper, we describe our specimens of Ganoderma sichuanense based on fresh basidiomes, and provide line drawings and photographs. The data from macro- and microscopic features are consistent with the characteristics of the species. Analysis of ITS sequence data indicates that the Thai collections cluster in same species clade as the epitype of G. sichuanense.

Key words

Ganoderma lingzhi , Ganoderma lucidum , Phylogeny, Taxonomy


The genus Ganoderma was established by Karsten (1881) based on Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst. The genus Ganoderma includes the subgenera Ganoderma (which in turn includes sections Ganoderma and Phaenema), Elfvingia, and Trachyderma (Zhao and Zhang 2000). Many members of this genus are found in subtropical and tropical regions and appear to thrive in hot and humid conditions (Pilotti et al. 2004). Ganoderma species grow as facultative parasites of trees but can also live as saprobes on rotting stumps and roots (Turner 1981, Pilotti 2005). Basidiomes are commonly in the form of a bracket (Pilotti et al. 2004). Bioactive compounds from Ganoderma show a huge structural and chemical diversity (Deepalakshmi and Mirunalini 2011). These bioactive constituents are reported to be responsible for anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, immunomodulatory, immunodeficiency, anti-diabetic, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-hypertensive, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-aging, anti-androgenic, hepatoprotective, radical scavenging properties, neuroprotection, sleep promotion, cholesterol synthesis inhibition, preventing hypoglycemia, inhibition of lipid peroxidation/oxidative DNA damage, maintenance of gut health, prevention of obesity, and stimulation of probiotics (Paterson 2006, De Silva et al. 2012a, b, De Silva et al. 2013, Bishop et al. 2015, Hapuarachchi et al. 2016a, 2016b). The traditional taxonomy of Ganoderma is based on morphological traits, and the genus was divided into two distinct groups, the laccate (G. lucidum complex) and the non–laccate (G. applanatum complex) groups, which correspond to the subgenera Ganoderma and Elfvingia, respectively (Zheng et al. 2007). There are 437 epithets listed in Index Fungorum (2017) for Ganoderma, of which 414 are accepted by Species Fungorum in May, 2017) (

“Lingzhi” is the Chinese name mainly referring to G. lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst, which has been widely used in China for medicinal purposes for over two millennia (Sliva 2006). However, this species was originally described from Europe (Ryvarden and Gilbertson 1993). Patouillard (1907) reported G. lucidum from China for the first time and Teng (1934) described collections of G. lucidum from different regions in China. Liu (1974) compiled a monograph of traditional Chinese medicinal fungi, and he reported G. lucidum in his book. Since then, G. lucidum was accepted as the scientific binomial of “Lingzhi” in many reports on Chinese edible and medicinal mushrooms (Ying et al. 1987, Mao 1998, Dai et al. 2009). Moncalvo et al. (1995) mentioned that G. lucidumsensu stricto was distributed in northern and southern Europe, and probably extended to China. However, their further studies confirmed that the species named G. lucidum from both Europe and mainland China was not conspecific based on analyses of ITS and 25S ribosomal DNA sequences. Later, other authors (Pegler and Yao 1996, Smith and Sivasithamparam 2000, Hong and Jung 2004) have confirmed the same idea.

Hawksworth (2005) suggested to conserve the name G. lucidum for an Asian type and introduce a new name for the European species. Later, it was found that G. lucidum from tropical Asia is not conspecific with G. lucidumsensu stricto, and not even conspecific with the real “Lingzhi” distributed in East Asia, and was named G. multipileum Ding Hou, (Wang et al. 2009). Cao et al. (2012) named the medicinal species G. lucidum from China as G. lingzhi. Among the Chinese Ganoderma species, G. flexipes Pat, G. multipileum D. Hou, G. sichuanense J.D. Zhao and X.Q. Zhang, G. tropicum (Jungh.) Bres. and G. tsugae Murrill are the most similar species to G. lingzhi. However, the validity of the separation of G. lingzhi and G. sichuanense has been debated recently. Wang et al. (2012) proposed that ‘G. lucidum’ for Chinese species is incorrect and this should be corrected to Ganoderma sichuanense. Furthermore, Cao et al. (2012) proposed the name G. lingzhi for “Lingzhi” species which has an eastern Asian distribution based on strong morphology and molecular evidence. Yao et al. (2013) proposed G. lingzhi and G. sichuanense as synonyms based on morphological data from an epitype of G. sichuanense. However, Zhou et al. (2015) again challenged this opinion, with G. lingzhi and G. sichuanense being an independent and taxonomically valid species by stressing that species types depends on their ecological environments. Richter et al. (2015) stated that the new taxon G. lingzhi is taxonomically superfluous because the rules of fungal nomenclature require that the oldest valid name of any given taxon should be given preference. In 2016, Mark Stadler annotated this record in Mycobank ( Now G. lingzhi is regarded as a later synonym of G. sichuanense in Species Fungorum ( and Mycobank. Despite all this taxonomic work, the Chinese “Lingzhi” has continuously been referred to as G. lucidum in monographs of Ganodermataceae in China (Hapuarachchi et al. 2015).

The aim of this study is to report and illustrate the new findings of this medicinal species in Thailand and further, to improve the understanding of species delimitation in the genus Ganoderma.

Materials and methods

Sample collection

Eight Ganoderma specimens growing up from soil were collected in a single site in Mae On District, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand (18°52.02'N, 99°18.18'E) during the rainy season between June 2015 and September 2015.

Macroscopic and microscopic characterization

Macro-morphological characters were described based on fresh material, and on the photographs provided here. Colour codes (e.g. 3A3) are from Kornerup and Wanscher (1978). Specimens were dried and placed separately in plastic bags. Material was deposited at Mae Fah Luang University herbarium (MFLU), Chiang Rai, Thailand. Living cultures were not obtained in this study. For micro-morphological examination, basidiomes were examined under a stereo dissecting microscope (Motic SMZ 168 series) and sections were cut with a razor blade, mounted in 5% KOH, and then observed, measured, and illustrated under a compound microscope (Nikon ECLIPSE 80i) equipped with a camera (Canon 600D). Measurements were made using Tarosoft (R) Image Frame Work v. 0.9.7. At least 20 basidiospores were measured from each mature specimen except for very scanty materials. The basidiospore size was measured both with and without the myxosporium based on those with collapsed apex, but only spore sizes with myxosporium were used for comparisons. The cuticle sections were taken from the mature pileus portion and mounted in Melzer’s reagent for observations. In the description of the basidiospores: n indicates the number of spores which were measured; Lm is the mean spore length over a population of spores; Wm the mean spore width over a population of spores; Q the length/width ratio (L/W) of a spore in side view; and Qm the average Q of all spores measured. The Facesoffungi number is provided as explained in Jayasiri et al. (2015).

DNA Extraction, PCR and sequencing

Dried samples of basidiome were used to extract genomic DNA. Genomic DNA was extracted using an EZgene Fungal gDNA Kit (Biomiga, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer instructions. DNA concentrations were estimated visually in agarose gel by comparing band intensity with a DNA ladder 1Kb (Invitrogen Biotech). The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) was amplified using primers ITS5 and ITS4 (White et al. 1990). Reaction mixtures (20 µl) contained 1 µl template DNA (ca. 10 ng), 10 µl distilled water, and 1 µl (10 µM) of each primer (ITS5/ITS4) and 7 µl 2× BenchTop Taq Master Mix (Biomigas). Amplification conditions were 35 cycles of 95 °C for 30 s, 59 °C for 30 s and 72 °C for 1 min, followed by a final extension at 72 °C for 10 min. Amplified PCR products were verified by 1% agarose gel electrophoresis stained with ethidium bromide in 1x TBE. The PCR products were sequenced by Invitrogen Biotechnology (Beijing).

Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis

Other sequences used in the analyses (Table 1) were obtained from GenBank based on ITS BLAST searches in GenBank (Benson et al. 2017) and recently published data. Sequences that had possibly been contaminated by fungi or other unnamed species (such as those with aff. in the species name) were discarded, ambiguous regions were excluded and gaps were treated as missing data in the analysis (Nilsson et al. 2012). 110 strains representing 40 species of Ganodermataceae from Asia, America and Europe were retrieved and those retrieved sequences and the newly generated sequences were aligned with MAFFT v. 7 (; Katoh and Standley 2013). The resulting alignment was improved manually when necessary using BioEdit v. (Hall 1999). The Maximum Likelihood (ML) analyses were performed using RAxML-HPC2 (Stamatakis 2014) on the CIPRES Science Gateway V. 3.3 (Miller and Blair 2009), with default settings except that the number of bootstrap replicates was set to 1,000. A partitioned model analysis was performed with ITS1+ITS2 and 5.8S. For Bayesian analysis (BY), the GTR+I+G model of nucleotide evolution was selected with the help of MrModeltest 2.2 (Nylander 2004) as the best-fit model and posterior probabilities (PP) (Rannala and Yang 1996) were determined by Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling (BMCMC) using MrBayes v3.1.2 (Ronquist et al. 2012). BY analyses were conducted with six simultaneous Markov chains and trees were summarized every 100th generation. The analyses were stopped after 5,000,000 generations when the average standard deviation of split frequencies was below 0.01. The convergence of the runs was checked using TRACER v1.6 (Rambaut et al. 2013). The first 25% of the resulting trees were discarded as burn-in, and PP were calculated from the remaining sampled trees. In both ML and BY analyses, Tomophagus colossus was selected as the outgroup. ML bootstrap values and BY posterior probabilities greater than or equal to 70% and 0.95, respectively, were considered as significant support. The phylogenetic tree was visualized with FigTree version 1.4.0 (Rambaut 2012) available at

Table 1.

Sequences used in the phylogenetic analysis.

Species Voucher /strain Origin 5.8 ITS Reference
Ganoderma adspersum ITA 39 Unknown EF060011 GenBank
Ganoderma adspersum PF263 Italy JN176908 GenBank
Ganoderma applanatum GA165 Unknown DQ425009 GenBank
Ganoderma applanatum K(M)120829 UK AY884179 GenBank
Ganoderma annulare KCTC 16803 Unknown JQ520160 Park et al. 2012
Ganoderma atrum 7 Unknown JQ886403 GenBank
Ganoderma australe HMAS86595 England AY884184 GenBank
Ganoderma australe GDGM25831 China JX195200 Genbank
Ganoderma boninense WD2085 (FFPRI) Japan KJ143906 Zhou et al. 2015
Ganoderma boninense WD2028 (FFPRI) Japan KJ143905 Zhou et al. 2015
Ganoderma carnosum K(M) 109415 UK AY884175 GenBank
Ganoderma cupreum HMAS130804 Australia JX840345 GenBank
Ganoderma curtisii CBS 100131 NC, USA JQ781848 Zhou et al. 2015
Ganoderma curtisii CBS 100132 NC, USA KJ143967 Zhou et al. 2015
Ganoderma destructans CMW43672 South Africa KR183858 Coetzee et al. 2015
Ganoderma destructans CMW43671 South Africa KR183857 Coetzee et al. 2015
Ganoderma flexipes Wei5200 (IFP) JN383978 Cao and Yuan 2013
Ganoderma flexipes Wei5494 (IFP) Hainan, China JN383979 Cao and Yuan, 2013
Ganoderma fornicatum TN23 India FJ655476 GenBank
Ganoderma fornicatum KR20 India FJ655474 GenBank
Ganoderma fornicatum BCRC35374 Taiwan JX840349 Wang et al. 2014
Ganoderma fornicatum TNM-F0010592 China JX84034 Wang et al. 2014
Ganoderma fornicatum TNM-F0009926 China JX840348 Wang et al. 2014
Ganoderma fulvellum xsd08051 Unknown FJ478088 GenBank
Ganoderma gibbosum XSD-34 Unknown EU273513 GenBank
Ganoderma hoehnelianum Dai 12096 China KU219989 GenBank
Ganoderma hoehnelianum Dai 11995 China KU219988 GenBank
Ganoderma leucocontextum GDGM44303 China KJ027607 Li et al. 2014
Ganoderma leucocontextum TL-2013 China KF011548 Li et al. 2014
Ganoderma lipsiense FIN 131R610 Unknown EF060004 GenBank
Ganoderma lipsiense NOR74/67/5 Unknown EF060002 GenBank
Ganoderma lingzhi HKAS76642 (Iso type) Yunnan, China KC222318 Yang and Feng 2013
Ganoderma lingzhi Dai12574 (IFP) Liaoning, China KJ143908 Cao et al. 2012
Ganoderma lingzhi HSD06B Taihang mountains, China KC511557 GenBank
Ganoderma lingzhi Dai3583 China JQ781868 Cao et al. 2012
Ganoderma lingzhi Dai12374 China JQ781867 Cao et al. 2012
Ganoderma lingzhi Li245 China JQ781863 Cao et al. 2012
Ganoderma lingzhi Dai12426 China JQ781870 Cao et al. 2012
Ganoderma lingzhi Cui6982 China JQ781862 Cao et al. 2012
Ganoderma lingzhi Cui4018 China JQ781856 Cao et al. 2012
Ganoderma lobatum JV 0402/24 Unknown KF605677 GenBank
Ganoderma lobatum JV 1212/10J Unknown KF605676 GenBank
Ganoderma lucidum Dai11593 (IFP) Finland JQ781852 Cao et al 2012
Ganoderma lucidum K175217 UK KJ143911 Zhou et al. 2015
Ganoderma lucidum MT2610 (BRNM) Czech Republic KJ143912 Zhou et al. 2015
Ganoderma lucidum Dai2272 (IFP) Sweden JQ781851 Cao et al. 2012
Ganoderma lucidum HKAS76455 Yunnan, China(Cultivated) KC222320 Yang and Feng 2013
Ganoderma lucidum HKAS76643 Yunnan, China KC222323 Yang and Feng 2013
Ganoderma lucidum HKAS71088 Yunnan, China KC222321 Yang and Feng 2013
Ganoderma lucidum OE–234 India AY636059 GenBank
Ganoderma lucidum GICN04 Italy AM906058 Guglielmo et al. 2008
Ganoderma lucidum XZ-G-B Unknown HQ235632 GenBank
Ganoderma lucidum CSAAS0801 Unknown FJ940919 GenBank
Ganoderma lucidum XZ-G-A1 Unknown HQ235630 GenBank
Ganoderma lucidum CSAAS0801 Unknown FJ940919 GenBank
Ganoderma lucidum GIT 099 Italy AM269773 GenBank
Ganoderma mastoporum CMU-HM1 Thailand JN643730 GenBank
Ganoderma mastoporum TNM-F0018838 China JX840350 Wang et al. 2012
Ganoderma mastoporum Gma-1 Unknown GU213486 GenBank
Ganoderma multipileum HMAS242384 Sichuan Province, China JF915409 Wang et al. 2012
Ganoderma multipileum CWN04670 Taiwan, China KJ143913 Wang et al. 2012
Ganoderma multipileum Dai9447 Hainan, China KJ143914 Wang et al. 2012
Ganoderma multipileum DYU Taiwan, China KJ868083 GenBank
Ganoderma multiplicatum URM83346 Brazil JX310823 GenBank
Ganoderma neojaponicum ASI 7032 Unknown JQ520193 Park et al. 2012
Ganoderma orbiforme BCC22324 Thailand JX997990 Isaka et al. 2013
Ganoderma oregonense CBS 265.88 OR, USA JQ781875 Zhou et al. 2015
Ganoderma oregonense CBS 266.88 OR, USA JQ781876 Zhou et al. 2015
Ganoderma oerstidii GO138 Argentina DQ425011 GenBank
Ganoderma parvulum URM83343 Brazil JQ618246 GenBank
Ganoderma parvulum URM80765 Brazil JX310822 GenBank
Ganoderma pfeifferi CBS 747.84 Netherlands JQ520198 Park et al. 2012
Ganoderma pfeifferi K(M)120818 UK AY884185 GenBank
Ganoderma pfeifferi 874 (CAS–IM) Czech Republic AM906059 Guglielmo et al. 2008
Ganoderma philippi E7098 Indonesia, Sumatra islands AJ536662 GenBank
Ganoderma philippi E7425 Malaysia, Selangor AJ608713 GenBank
Ganoderma ramosissium xsd08085 Unknown FJ478127 GenBank
Ganoderma ramosissium xsd08032 Unknown EU918700 GenBank
Ganoderma resinaceum BR 4150 (Rivoire) France KJ143915 Zhou et al. 2015
Ganoderma resinaceum Gre4 Italy (Modena) KJ509598 GenBank
Ganoderma resinaceum CBS 194.76 Netherlands KJ143916 Zhou et al. 2015
Ganoderma sichuanense MFU 16-2667 Thailand KY244061 This study
Ganoderma sichuanense MFU 16-2668 Thailand KY244062 This study
Ganoderma sichuanense MFU 16-2669 Thailand KY244063 This study
Ganoderma sichuanense MFU 16-2709 Thailand KY244068 This study
Ganoderma sichuanense MFU 16-2670 Thailand KY404119 This study
Ganoderma sichuanense MFU 16-2671 Thailand KY244064 This study
Ganoderma sichuanense MFU 16-2672 Thailand KY244065 This study
Ganoderma sichuanense MFU 16-2673 Thailand KY244066 This study
Ganoderma sichuanense CGMCC5.2175 (epitype) Sichuan, China KC662402 Yao et al. 2013
Ganoderma sichuanense Cui 7691 (BJFC) Guangdong, China JQ781878 Zhou et al. 2015
Ganoderma sinense GS175 Unknown DQ425014 GenBank
Ganoderma sinense GS92 Unknown DQ424982 GenBank
Ganoderma subresinosum T162 Unknown KJ654376 GenBank
Ganoderma subresinosum 7-SU-3-C-70(M)-B Indonesia KJ654472 GenBank
Ganoderma subresinosum 3C-29 Indonesia KJ654406 GenBank
Ganoderma subresinosum 5-D-3-D-26 Indonesia KJ654467 GenBank
Ganoderma tornatum NPG1 Malaysia KJ767488 GenBank
Ganoderma tropicum BCRC37122 (TNM) Taiwan, China EU021457 Wang et al. 2009
Ganoderma tropicum He 1232 China KF495000 GenBank
Ganoderma tropicum Dai9724 China JQ781879 Cao et al. 2012
Ganoderma tropicum AP17 India FJ491960 GenBank
Ganoderma tsugae Dai3937 (IFP) China JQ781853 Cao et al. 2012
Ganoderma tsugae 12751b (BJFC) USA(CT) KJ143919 Zhou et al. 2015
Ganoderma tsugae AFTOL-ID771 Unknown DQ206985 Matheny et al. 2007
Ganoderma tsugae Yuan5649 China JQ781854 Cao et al. 2012
Ganoderma tsugae Dai12760 USA KJ143920 Zhou et al. 2015
Ganoderma valesiacum CBS 428.84 USA JQ520218 Park et al. 2012
Ganoderma zonatum FL02 (TNM) USA(FL) KJ143921 Zhou et al. 2015
Ganoderma zonatum FL03 (TNM) USA(FL) KJ143922 Zhou et al. 2015
Tomophagus colossus TC-02 (TNM) Vietnam KJ143923 Zhou et al. 2015



The tree topologies obtained from ML and BY were identical. Therefore, only the ML tree is shown (Fig. 1). Six major clades were identified in Ganoderma (Fig. 1). Our eight collections of Ganoderma sichuanenese from Thailand clustered with all G. sichuanenese sequences, including the epitype, in a well-supported clade (BS=98%; BPP=1.0).

Figure 1. 

Phylogram generated by maximum likelihood analysis of 5.8S-ITS rDNA sequences. Bootstrap support values for maximum likelihood (in black) greater than 70% and Posterior Probabilities (PP) from Bayesian Inference (in blue) ≥0.95 are given above branches. The tree was rooted with Tomophagus colossus. The strain numbers are mentioned after the species names. Specimens of the newly recorded species are indicated in red and type specimens are indicated in black bold. (Treebase ID 20740)


Ganoderma sichuanense J.D. Zhao & X.Q. Zhang, Acta Mycologica Sinica 2:159. 1983.

Ganoderma lucidum sensu S.C. Teng, Sinensia 5: 198. 1934. Misapplied name.

Ganoderma lingzhi Sheng H. Wu, Y. Cao & Y.C. Dai, in Cao, Wu & Dai, Fungal Diversity 56, 1: 54, 2012. Synonymy.


Basidiome annual to perennial, with distinctly contracted base to stipitate, corky, becoming hard corky to woody hard when dry. Pileus 4.5–8 cm, up to 0.5 cm thick at the base, dimidiate, subreniform; upper surface when young pale yellow (3A3) to light orange (5A5), becoming brownish orange (7C8) when old, strongly laccate to partly laccate, distinctly concentrically sulcate, distinctly radially rugose. Spore deposit usually pale orange; margin abruptly paler, pale yellow, slightly lobate. Context duplex, not completely homogeneous in color, greyish orange (5B3) corky; generative hyphae (1.1–1.3 µm diam, colorless, thin-walled; binding hyphae (2.1–3.1) µm in diam., branched, with clamp-connections, skeleton hyphae (3.05–3.1) µm in diam. thick walled, sometimes branched, reddish brown in KOH, dextrinoid. Pore surface pale yellow when young, becoming brownish orange (6C4) when old; tubes up to 0.2 cm long in total, pale brown or smoky brown, without context layer between tube layers; pores sub circular. Basidiospores with a dark brown eusporium bearing thick echinulae, overlaid by a hyaline myxosporium, (8.2)8.3–9.8(10.2) × (5.6)5.7–6.8(7.3) µm (with myxosporium), (5.3)6.2–7.5(7.7) × (4.2)4.2–5.3(5.7) µm (without myxosporium), ellipsoid, Qm = 1.37 (n = 20). Lm = 9.09 μm, Wm = 6.27μm, Cutis 4–12 mm thick, pale brown streaks the cutis, a closely-packed palisade, yellowish brown, clavate terminal elements, about 15–30 µm long. Stipe flattened or sub cylindrical to cylindrical, lateral to horizontally lateral or eccentric, (6–9) × (1.5 along stipe) cm, dark brown (8F5).

Material examined

THAILAND, Chiang Mai Province, Mae On District, (18°52.02'N, 99°18.18'E), eight specimens (MFU 16-2667, MFU 16-2668, MFU 16-2669, MFU 16-2670, MFU 16-2671, MFU 16-2672, MFU 16-2673, MFU 16-2709).


Rotten wood, in dry dipterocarp forest and in upper mixed deciduous forest and growing up from soil.


Tropical and temperate regions of China; Thailand (this study).


Ganoderma strains used in this study were clustered in six major clades (G. applanatum, G. sichuanense, other laccate and non laccate Ganoderma, G. lucidum species complex, G. orbiforme and Ganoderma species). Sequences obtained from the eight Thai collections clustered in the well-supported G. sichuanense group. The Thai specimens are closely related to the originally described Chinese G. lingzhi taxa (Cui 9166, Cui 6982 and Dai 12426) and the epitype of G. sichuanense (CGMCC5.2175), forming a monophyletic group with G. sichuanense from China with 98% bootstrap support. However, one of the strains of G. sichuanense (Cui7691) of which we retrieved a sequence from GenBank clustered in the G. lucidum species complex. This strain was most likely wrongly identified. The specimens have been collected at some geographical distance (min. 100 m between two collection points), which makes it unlikely that all come from the same mycelium. Nevertheless it is interesting to note that all new isolates cluster together and could not be segregated based on our phylogenetic analyses (Fig. 1). Given the phylogenetic results obtained herein where our new collections are found in a clade with G. sichuanense – including the type specimen – we believe that it would taxonomically more appropriate to establish them as new records of G. sichuanense. Furthermore, the deep nodes are not supported well in the tree, but this does not affect the final conclusions of the study. However, to obtain a better view of the evolution of the genus, a phylogeny with more genes, and in particular single-copy nuclear genes such as tef1 or rpb2 would be recommended.

Ganoderma sichuanense was originally described from the Sichuan Province in 1983 and was diagnosed as having a distinctly radially rugose pileus, with a verrucose or tuberculose upper surface; pore surface yellowish when young, becoming brown or black when bruised; and small spores (Fig. 2) distinguished from other Ganoderma species (Zhao and Zhang 2000). The size range of basidiospores was described as (7.4–9.5 × 5–7) µm cum myxosp., in the original description (Zhao et al. 1983). Later, this range was updated to (7.8–10.4 × 5.2–6.4) µm cum myxosp. (Zhao et al. 1989, Zhao and Zhang 2000) and (9–11.5 × 6.5–8) µm cum myxosp. (Wang et al. 2012). In this study basidiospores were (8.2)8.3–9.8(10.2) × (5.6)5.7–6.8(7.3) µm cum myxosp., which lies within the range given by the original authors and is not distinct from those of basidiospores found in other specimens. Cao et al. (2012) stated that G. sichuanense differs from G. lingzhi in its sessile basidiocarps and smaller basidiospores (7.4–9.2 × 5–6.6) μm (Fig. 3). Furthermore, they revealed that the original description was a mixture of G. sichuanense and G. weberianum especially with the small spores and smooth or slightly echinulate eusporium. Ganoderma curtisii, originally described from North America (Moncalvo and Ryvarden 1997) is a sister taxon to G. sichuanense in the phylogenetic estimate. Ganoderma flexipes, G. multipileum and G. tropicum are also closely related with G. sichuanense and are reported from China.

Figure 2. 

Ganoderma sichuanense (MFU 16-2668). A upper surface B lower surface C cut side of pileus D pore surface E–H spore I generative hyphae J binding hyphae K skeleton hyphae. Scale bars: 10 µm.

Figure 3. 

Microscopic structures of Ganoderma sichuanense (MFU 16-2668) A basidiospores B hyphae from trama C hyphae from context. Scale bars: 5 μm.


Macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular data all confirm that the collections from Thailand belong to G. sichuanense. This is the first discovery of the species in Thailand. The study of more collections of this species is needed to better estimate the variability of this taxon.


This work was financed by the Science Research Foundation of Guizhou University (No. 201309), the featured microbial resources and diversity investigation in Southwest Karst area (2014FY120100), Thailand Research Fund grant – Taxonomy, Phylogeny and biochemistry of Thai Basidiomycetes (BRG 5580009), Research and researcher for industries (RRi) (PhD57I0036), and Higher Education Research Promotion and National Research University Project of Thailand, Office of the Higher Education Commission (2559A30762012).


  • Benson DA, Cavanaugh M, Clark K, Karsch-Mizrachi I, Lipman DJ, Ostell J, Sayers EW (2017) GenBank. Nucleic Acids Research 45(D1): D37–D42.
  • Bishop KS, Kao CHJ, Xu Y, Glucinac MP, Paterson RRM, Ferguson LR (2015) From 2000 years of Ganoderma lucidum to recent developments in nutraceuticals, Phytochemistry. Special Issue: Ganoderma Phytochemistry 114: 56–65.
  • Coetzee MP, Marincowitz S, Muthelo VG, Wingfield MJ (2015) Ganoderma species, including new taxa associated with root rot of the iconic Jacaranda mimosifolia in Pretoria, South Africa. IMA Fungus 6(1): 249–256.
  • Dai YC, Yang ZL. Cui BK, Yu CJ, Zhou LW (2009) Species diversity and utilization of medicinal mushrooms and fungi in China. The International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 11(3): 287–302.
  • De Silva DD, Rapior S, Fons F, Bahkali AH, Hyde KD (2012a) Medicinal mushrooms in supportive cancer therapies: an approach to anti–cancer effects and putative mechanisms of action. Fungal Diversity 55(1): 1–35.
  • De Silva DD, Rapior S, Sudarman E, Stadler M, Xu J, Alias SA, Hyde KD (2013) Bioactive metabolites from macrofungi: ethnopharmacology, biological activities and chemistry. Fungal Diversity 62(1): 1–40.
  • Deepalakshmi K, Mirunalini S (2011) Therapeutic properties and current medical usage of medicinal mushroom: Ganoderma lucidum. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research 2(1): 1922–1929.
  • Guglielmo F, Gonthier P, Garbelotto M, Nicolott G (2008) A PCR-based method for the identification of important wood rotting fungal taxa within Ganoderma, Inonotus s.l. and Phellinus s.l. FEMS Microbiology Letters 282(1): 228–237.
  • Hall TA (1999) BioEdit: a user–friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. In: Nucleic Acids Symposium Series 41: 95–98.
  • Hapuarachchi KK, Wen TC, Deng CY, Kang JC, Hyde KD (2015) Mycosphere Essays 1: Taxonomic confusion in the Ganoderma lucidum species complex. Mycosphere 6(5): 542–559.
  • Hapuarachchi KK, Wen TC, Jeewon R, Wu XL, Kang JC, Hyde KD (2016a) Mycosphere Essays 7: Ganoderma lucidum - are the beneficial anti-cancer properties substantiated. Mycosphere 7(3): 305–332.
  • Hapuarachchi KK, Wen TC, Jeewon R, Wu XL, Kang JC (2016b) Mycosphere Essays 15: Ganoderma lucidum - are the beneficial medical properties substantiated. Mycosphere 7(3): 687–715.
  • Hawksworth DL (2005) Reflections on changing names and related nomenclatural issues in edible and medicinal mushrooms. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 7(1–2): 29–38.
  • Isaka M, Chinthanom P, Kongthong S, Srichomthong K, Choeyklin R (2013) Lanostane triterpenes from cultures of the Basidiomycete Ganoderma orbiforme BCC 22324. Phytochemistry 87: 133–139.
  • Jayasiri SC, Hyde KD, Ariyawansa HA, Bhat J, Buyck B, Cai L, Dai YC, Abd-Elsalam KA, Ertz D, Hidayat I, Jeewon R, Jones EBG, Bahkali AH, Karunarathna SC, Liu JK, Luangsa-ard JJ, Lumbsch HT, Maharachchikumbura SSN, McKenzie EHC, Moncalvo JM, Ghobad-Nejhad M, Nilsson H, Pang KA, Pereira OL, Phillips AJL, Raspé O, Rollins AW, Romero AI, Etayo J, Selçuk F, Stephenson SL, Suetrong S, Taylor JE, Tsui CKM, Vizzini A, Abdel-Wahab MA, Wen TC, Boonmee S, Dai DQ, Daranagama DA, Dissanayake AJ, Ekanayaka AH, Fryar SC, Hongsanan S, Jayawardena RS, Li WJ, Perera RH, Phookamsak R, de Silva NI, Thambugala KM, Tian Q, Wijayawardene NN, Zhao RL, Zhao Q, Kang JC, Promputtha I. (2015) The Faces of Fungi database: fungal names linked with morphology, phylogeny and human impacts. Fungal Diversity 74(1): 3–18.
  • Karsten PA (1881) Enumeralio boletinearum et polypore arum fennicarum, systemate novo dispositarum. Revue de Mycologie 3: 16–19.
  • Katoh K, Standley DM (2013) MAFFT multiple sequence alignment software version 7: improvements in performance and usability. Molecular biology and Evolution 30(4): 772–780.
  • Kornerup A, Wanscher JH (1978) Methuen handbook of colour (3rd edn.) Methuen. London, England.
  • Li TH, Hu HP, Deng WQ, Wu SH, Wang DM, Tsering T (2014) Ganoderma leucocontextum, a new member of the G. lucidum complex from southwestern China. Mycoscience 56(1): 81–85.
  • Liu B (1974) The Chinese medical fungi. Shanxi Peoples Press, Taiyuan, 1–196.
  • Matheny PB, Wang Z, Binder M, Curtis JM, Lim YW, Nilsson RH, Hughes KW, Hofstetter V, Ammirati JF, Schoch CL, Langer E, Langer G, McLaughlin DJ, Wilson AW, Frøslev T, Ge ZW, Kerrigan RW, Slot JC, Yang ZL, Baroni TJ, Fischer M, Hosaka K, Matsuura K, Seidl MT, Vauras J, Hibbett DS (2007) Contributions of rpb2 and tef1 to the phylogeny of mushrooms and allies (Basidiomycota, Fungi). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43(2): 430–451.
  • Mao XL (1998) Economic fungi of China. Science Press, Beijing, 762 pp. [In Chinese]
  • Moncalvo JM, Wang HF, Hseu RS (1995) Gene phylogeny of the Ganoderma lucidum complex based on ribosomal DNA sequences. Comparison with traditional taxonomic characters. Mycological Research 99(12): 1489–1499. (09)80798-3
  • Moncalvo JM, Ryvarden L (1997) A nomenclatural study of the Ganodermataceae Donk. Fungi flora 10: 1–114.
  • Nilsson RH, Tedersoo L, Abarenkov K (2012) Five simple guidelines for establishing basic authenticity and reliability of newly generated fungal ITS sequences. MycoKeys 4: 37–63.
  • Nylander JAA (2004) MrModeltest v2.2. Program distributed by the author: 2. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, 1–2.
  • Park YJ, Kwon OC, Son ES, Yoon DE, Han W, Nam JY, Yoo YB, Lee CS (2012) Genetic diversity analysis of Ganoderma species and development of a specific marker for identification of medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. African Journal of Microbiology Research 25(6): 5417–5425. https://
  • Patouillard N (1907) Champignons du Kouy-tcheou. Le Monde des Plantes 2: 31.
  • Pegler DN, Yao YJ (1996) Oriental species of Ganoderma section Ganoderma. In: Wasser SP (Ed.) Botany and mycology for the next millennium: collection of scientific articles devoted to the 70th Anniversary of Academician Sytnik KM.Kholodny NG Institute of Botany. National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 336–347.
  • Rannala B, Yang Z (1996) Probability distribution of molecular evolutionary trees: a new method of phylogenetic inference. Journal of molecular evolution 43(3): 304–311.
  • Ronquist F, Teslenko M, van der Mark P, Ayres DL, Darling A, Höhna S, Larget B, Liu L, Suchard MA, Huelsenbeck JP (2012) MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space. Systematic Biology 61(3): 539–542.
  • Ryvarden L, Gilbertson RL (1993) European Polypores. (1) Abortiporus – Lindtneria. Fungi flora, Oslo, 387 pp.
  • Smith BJ, Sivasithamparam K (2000) Internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequence of five species of Ganoderma from Australia. Mycological Research 104(8): 943–951.
  • Wang DM, Wu SH, Su CH, Peng JT, Shih YH (2009) Ganoderma multipileum, the correct name for ‘G. lucidum’ in tropical Asia. Botanical Studies 50: 451–458.
  • White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ (Eds) PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. San Diego.
  • Yao YJ, Wang XC, Wang B (2013) Epitypification of Ganoderma sichuanense J. D. Zhao and X. Q. Zhang (Ganodermataceae). Taxon 62(5): 1025–1031.
  • Ying JZ, Mao ZL, Ma QM, Zong LC, Wen HA (1987) Icons of medicinal fungi from China, Science Press, Beijing, 1–579. [In Chinese]
  • Zhao B, Li X, He R, Cheng S, Wenjuan X (1989) Scavenging effect of extracts of green tea and natural antioxidants on active oxygen radicals. Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics 14(2): 175–185. https://
  • Zhao JD, Xu LW, Zhang XQ (1983) Taxonomic studies on the family Ganodermataceae of China II. Acta Mycologica Sinica 2: 159–167.
  • Zhao JD, Zhang XQ (2000) Ganodermataceae. Flora Fungorum Sinicorum Science Press, Beijing 18: 1–178.
  • Zheng L, Jia D, Fei X, Luo X, Yang Z (2007) An assessment of the genetic diversity within Ganoderma strains with AFLP and ITSPCR–RFLP. Microbiological Research 164(3): 312–321.
  • Zhou LW, Cao Y, Wu SH, Vlasák J, Li DW, Li MJ, Dai YC (2015) Global diversity of the Ganoderma lucidum complex (Ganodermataceae, Polyporales) inferred from morphology and multilocus phylogeny. Phytochemistry 114: 7–15.
login to comment