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Two new species of Perenniporia (Polyporales, Basidiomycota)
expand article infoChao-Ge Wang, Shi-Liang Liu§, Fang Wu
‡ Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China
§ Institute of Microbiology, Beijing, China
Open Access

Abstract

Two new species of Perenniporia, P. pseudotephropora sp. nov. and P. subcorticola sp. nov., are introduced respectively from Brazil and China based on morphological characteristics and molecular data. Perenniporia pseudotephropora is characterised by perennial, pileate basidiocarps with distinctly stratified tubes, grey pores, tissues becoming dark in KOH, a dimitic hyphal system with slightly dextrinoid arboriform skeletal hyphae and broadly ellipsoid to subglobose, truncate, weakly dextrinoid, cyanophilous basidiospores, measuring 4.9–5.2 × 4–4.8 μm. Perenniporia subcorticola is characterised by resupinate basidiocarps, yellow pores with thick dissepiments, tissues becoming dark in KOH, flexuous skeletal hyphae, ellipsoid, truncate and slightly dextrinoid basidiospores, measuring 4.2–5 × 3.5–4.2 µm. The morphologically-similar species and phylogenetically closely-related species to the two new species are discussed.

Keywords

phylogeny, polypore, taxonomy, wood-decaying fungi

Introduction

Perenniporia Murrill (Polyporales, Basidiomycetes) is typified by Polyporus unitus Pers. (Decock and Stalpers 2006). Species in the genus are important, not only for the wood-decaying, but also for their potential application in both biomedical engineering and biodegradation (Younes et al. 2007; Dai et al. 2009; Zhao et al. 2013; Si et al. 2016). Perenniporia is characterised by mostly perennial, resupinate to pileate basidiocarps, a dimitic to trimitic hyphal system with generative hyphae bearing clamp connections, cyanophilous and variably dextrinoid skeletal hyphae or skeletal-binding hyphae in most species and ellipsoid, to subglobose, truncate or not, thick-walled, variably dextrinoid and cyanophilous basidiospores. All Perenniporia species cause a white rot (Ryvarden and Gilbertson 1994; Decock and Ryvarden 1999; Cui et al. 2019).

Extensive studies on the genus have been carried out during the last 20 years showing a high species diversity and nowadays, 120 taxa have been found (e.g. Hattori and Lee 1999; Decock 2001a, b; Decock et al. 2001; Dai et al. 2002; Decock and Stalpers 2006; Cui et al. 2007; Xiong et al. 2008; Cui and Zhao 2012; Zhao and Cui 2012; Zhao et al. 2013; Decock and Ryvarden 2015; Jang et al. 2015; Decock 2016; Viacheslav and Ryvarden 2016; Huang et al. 2017; Ji et al. 2017; Liu et al. 2017; Shen et al. 2018; Cui et al. 2019; Zhao and Ma 2019).

According to the phylogenetic analysis, based on ITS and nuclear ribosomal partial LSU DNA sequences, Robledo et al. (2009) demonstrated the fundamental phylogeny of Perenniporia s.l., combined with such characteristics as a diversity of the vegetative hyphae and basidiospores morphology. In their study, Perenniporia s.s. and Perenniporia s.l. were scattered into distinct clades, which is also supported by different morphological traits. Zhao et al. (2013) divided Perenniporia s.l. into seven clades, based on ITS and nLSU DNA phylogenetic inferences, each of these seven clades being distinguished by a specific combination of morphological characteristics that supported recognition at the genus level. Some genera, having similar morphological characteristics to Perenniporia, such as Amylosporia B.K. Cui et al., Murinicarpus B.K. Cui & Y.C. Dai, Vanderbylia D.A. Reid, Truncospora Pilát and Hornodermoporus Teixeira, were also proved to form distinct lineages in DNA-based phylogenetic analyses (Cui et al. 2019). Besides, several new species were proved to belong to Perenniporia, based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic evidence, which improved the understanding of the phylogenetic structure of Perenniporia (Jang et al. 2015; Huang et al. 2017; Ji et al. 2017; Liu et al. 2017; Zhao and Ma 2019).

During a study of wood-inhabiting polypore from Brazil and China, two unknown species of Perenniporia were distinguished by both morphology and molecular data. In this study, the two species are described and illustrated.

Materials and methods

Morphological studies

The studied specimens are deposited in the herbaria of the Institute of Microbiology, Beijing Forestry University (BJFC) and Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (URM). Morphological descriptions are based on field notes and herbarium specimens. Microscopic analyses follow Zhao and Cui (2013). In the description: KOH = 5% potassium hydroxide, IKI = Melzer’s reagent, IKI– = neither amyloid nor dextrinoid, CB = Cotton Blue, CB+ = cyanophilous in Cotton Blue, CB– = acyanophilous, L = arithmetic average of all spore length, W = arithmetic average of all spore width, Q = L/W ratios, n = number of spores/measured from given number of specimens. Colour terms are cited from Anonymous (1969) and Petersen (1996).

Molecular studies and phylogenetic analysis

A CTAB rapid plant genome extraction kit-DN14 (Aidlab Biotechnologies Co., Ltd, Beijing) was used to obtain PCR products from dried specimens, according to the manufacturer’s instructions with some modifications (Shen et al. 2019; Sun et al. 2020). Two DNA gene fragments, ITS and nrLSU were amplified using the primer pairs ITS5/ITS4 (White et al. 1990) and LR0R/LR7 (http://www.biology.duke.edu/fungi/mycolab/primers.htm). The PCR procedures for ITS and nLSU followed Zhao et al. (2013) in the phylogenetic analyses. DNA sequencing was performed at Beijing Genomics Institute and the newly-generated sequences were deposited in the GenBank database. Sequences generated for this study were aligned with additional sequences downloaded from GenBank, using BioEdit (Hall 1999) and ClustalX (Thompson et al. 1997).

In the study, nuclear ribosomal RNA genes were used to determine the phylogenetic position of the new species. Sequence alignment was deposited at TreeBase (submission ID 26254). Sequences of Donkioporia expansa (Desm.) Kotl. and Pouzar and Pyrofomes demidoffii (Lév.) Kotl. and Pouzar, obtained from GenBank, were used as outgroups (Zhao et al. 2013).

Phylogenetic analyses, used in this study, followed the approach of Han et al. (2016) and Zhu et al. (2019). Maximum parsimony (MP) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) analyses were conducted for the datasets of ITS and nLSU sequences. The best-fit evolutionary model was selected by hierarchical likelihood ratio tests (hLRT) and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) in MrModeltest 2.2 (Nylander 2004) after scoring 24 models of evolution by PAUP* version 4.0b10 (Swofford 2002).

The MP topology and bootstrap values (MP-BS) obtained from 1000 replicates were performed using PAUP* version 4.0b10 (Swofford 2002). All characters were equally weighted and gaps were treated as missing. Trees were inferred using the heuristic search option with TBR branch swapping and 1000 random sequence additions. Max-trees were set to 5,000, branches of zero length were collapsed and all parsimonious trees were saved. Descriptive tree statistics tree length (TL), consistency index (CI), retention index (RI), rescaled consistency index (RC) and homoplasy index (HI) were calculated for each Maximum Parsimonious Tree (MPT) generated. Sequences were also analysed using Maximum Likelihood (ML) with RAxML-HPC2 through the CIPRES Science Gateway (www.phylo.org; Miller et al. 2009). Branch support (BT) for ML analysis was determined by 1000 bootstrap replicates.

Bayesian phylogenetic inference and Bayesian posterior probabilities (BPP) were performed with MrBayes 3.1.2 (Ronquist and Huelsenbeck 2003). Four Markov chains were run for 4,650,000 generations until the split deviation frequency value was less than 0.01 and trees were sampled every 100 generations. The first 25% of the sampled trees were discarded as burn-in and the remaining ones were used to reconstruct a majority rule consensus and calculate Bayesian posterior probabilities (BPP) of the clades.

Branches that received bootstrap support for maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian posterior probabilities (BPP) ≥ 75% (ML-BS), 75% (MP-BT) and 0.95 (BPP) were considered as significantly supported, respectively.

Results

Phylogeny results

The combined ITS and nLSU dataset contained 101 sequences from 101 specimens referring to 59 taxa in this study. They were downloaded from GenBank and the sequences about Perenniporia corticola, P. pseudotephropora and P. subcorticola are new (Table 1). The dataset had an aligned length of 2089 characters in the dataset, of which, 1400 characters are constant, 181 are variable and parsimony-uninformative and 508 are parsimony informative. Maximum Parsimony analysis yielded one equally-parsimonious tree (TL = 2627, CI = 0.389, RI = 0.711, RC = 0.277, HI = 0.611) and a strict consensus tree of these trees is shown in Fig. 1. Best model applied in the Bayesian analysis: GTR+I+G, lset nst = 6, rates = invgamma; prset statefreqpr = dirichlet (1, 1, 1, 1). Bayesian analysis resulted in a same topology with an average standard deviation of split frequencies = 0.009950.

Table 1.

Information for the sequences used in this study.

Species Sample namber ITS nLSU
Abundisporus sclerosetosus MUCL 41438 FJ411101 FJ393868
A. violaceus MUCL 38617 FJ411100 FJ393867
Donkioporia expansa MUCL 35116 FJ411104 FJ393872
Hornodermoporus latissima Cui 6625 HQ876604 JF706340
H. martius MUCL 41678 FJ411093 FJ393860
MUCL 41677 FJ411092 FJ393859
Microporellus violaceo-cinerascens MUCL 45229 FJ411106 FJ393874
Perenniporia africana Cui 8674 KF018119 KF018128
P. africana Cui 8676 KF018120 KF018129
P. aridula Dai 12396 JQ001854 JQ001846
Dai 12398 JQ001855 JQ001847
P. corticola Dai 17778 MT117219 MT117224
Dai 18526 MT117216 MT117221
Dai 18641 MT117218 MT117223
Dai 18633 MT117217 MT117222
P. bambusicola Cui 11050 KX900668 KX900719
P. bannaensis Cui 8560 JQ291727 JQ291729
Cui 8562 JQ291728 JQ291730
P. bostonensis CL Zhao 2855 MG491285 MG491288
CL Zhao 2854 MG491284 MG491287
P. chiangraiensis Dai 16637 KY475566
P. cinereofusca Dai 9289 KF568893 KF568895
Cui 5280 KF568892 KF568894
P. subcorticola Cui 2655 HQ654093 HQ848483
Dai 7330 HQ654094 HQ654108
Cui 1248 HQ848472 HQ848482
P. ellipsospora Cui 10276 KF018124 KF018132
Cui 10284 JQ861739 KF018133
P. fraxinea Cui 8871 JF706329 JF706345
P. fraxinea Cui 8885 HQ876611 JF706344
P. gomezii Dai 9656 KX900672 KX900722
P. hainaniana Cui 6366 JQ861745 JQ861761
Cui 6365 JQ861744 JQ861760
P. japonica Cui 7047 HQ654097 HQ654111
P. koreana KUC 20091030-32 KJ156313 KJ156305
KUC 20081002J-02 KJ156310 KJ156302
P. lacerata Cui 7220 JX141448 JX141458
Dai 11268 JX141449 JX141459
P. luteola Harkonen 1308a JX141456 JX141466
Harkonen 1308b JX141457 JX141467
P. macropora Zhou 280 JQ861748 JQ861764
P. maackiae Cui 8929 HQ654102 JF706338
Cui 5605 JN048760 JN048780
P. medulla-panis MUCL 43250 FJ411087 FJ393875
Cui 3274 JN112792 JN112793
P. minor Dai 9198 KF495005 KF495016
Cui 5782 HQ883475 HQ654115
P. minutissima Cui 10979 KF495003 KF495013
Dai 12457 KF495004 KF495014
P. mopanshanensis CL Zhao 5145 MH784912 MH784916
CL Zhao 5152 MH784913 MH784917
P. nanlingensis Cui 7620 HQ848477 HQ848486
P. nonggangensis Dai 17857 MT232521 MT232515
GXU 2098 KT894732 KT894733
P. piceicola Cui 10460 JQ861742 JQ861758
Dai 4181 JF706328 JF706336
P. pseudotephropora Dai 17383 MT117215 MT117220
P. pyricola Dai 10265 JN048761 JN048781
Cui 9149 JN048762 JN048782
P. rhizomorpha Dai 7248 JF706330 JF706348
Cui 7507 HQ654107 HQ654117
P. robiniophila Cui 7144 HQ876608 JF706341
Cui 5644 HQ876609 JF706342
P. russeimarginata Yuan 1244 JQ861750 JQ861766
P. straminea Cui 8858 HQ654104 JF706334
Cui 8718 HQ876600 JF706335
P. subacida Cui 10053 KF495006 KF495017
Dai 8224 HQ876605 JF713024
P. subadusta Cui 8459 HQ876606 HQ654113
P. substraminea Cui 10177 JQ001852 JQ001844
Cui 10191 JQ001853 JQ001845
P. subtephropora Dai 10964 JQ861753 JQ861769
Dai 10962 JQ861752 JQ861768
P. tenuis Wei 2969 JQ001859 JQ001849
Wei 2783 JQ001858 JQ001848
P. tephropora Cui 9029 HQ876601 JF706339
Cui 6331 HQ848473 HQ848484
P. tibetica Cui 9459 JF706327 JF706333
P. tianmuensis Cui 2648 JX141453 JX141463
Cui 2715 JX141454 JX141464
P. truncatospora Cui 6987 JN048778 HQ654112
Dai 5125 HQ654098 HQ848481
P. yinggelingensis Cui 13856 MH427957 MH427965
Cui 13625 MH427960 MH427967
Perenniporiella chaquenia MUCL 47647 FJ411083 FJ393855
P. chaquenia MUCL 47648 FJ411084 FJ393856
P. micropora MUCL 43581 FJ411086 FJ393858
P. neofulva MUCL 45091 FJ411080 FJ393852
Pyrofomes demidoffii MUCL 41034 FJ411105 FJ393873
Truncospora detrita MUCL 42649 FJ411099 FJ393866
T. macrospora Cui 8106 JX941573 JX941596
T. ochroleuca MUCL 39563 FJ411097 FJ393864
MUCL 39726 FJ411098 FJ393865
Dai 11486 HQ654105 JF706349
T. ohiensis MUCL 41036 FJ411096 FJ393863
Cui 5714 HQ654103 HQ654116
Vanderbylia delavavi Dai 6891 JQ861738 KF495019
V. fraxinea DP 83 AM269789 AM269853
V. vicina MUCL 44779 FJ411095 FJ393862

From the phylogenetic tree (Fig. 1), P. pseudotephropora and P. subcorticola were absorbed in the genus Perenniporia. Moreover, P. subcorticola formed a direct lineage with a high approval rating (98/99/1.00) and P. pseudotephropora produced an independent lineage.

Figure 1. 

Phylogeny of Perenniporia and related species generated by maximum parsimony analysis, based on combined ITS and nLSU sequences. Bootstrap supports for Maximum Likelihood (ML), Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian posterior probabilities (BPP) are not lower than: 50% (ML-BS), 50% (MP-BT) and 0.90 (BPP) on the branches.

Taxonomy

Perenniporia pseudotephropora Chao G. Wang & F. Wu, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: MycoBank No: 835122
Figs 2, 3

Diagnosis

The very thick dissepiments (thicker than pore diameter), tissues becoming pale olivaceous to dark in KOH, flexuous and arboriform skeletal hyphae, ellipsoid to globose, truncate and slightly dextrinoid basidiospores measuring 4.9–5.2 × 4–4.8 μm highlight the species in Perenniporia.

Holotype

Brazil. Manaus, Parque Municipal Cachoeira das Orqideas, on rotten angiosperm wood, 12. V. 2017, Y.C. Dai 17383 (BJFC024919).

Etymology

Pseudotephropora (Lat.): referring to the species similar to Perenniporia tephropora.

Basidiocarps

Perennial, resupinate or effused-reflexed to pileate, without odour or taste when fresh, becoming hard corky when dry. Pilei applanate, semicircular to fan-shaped, projecting up to 1 cm, 3.5 cm wide and about 1 cm thick at base. Pileal surface pinkish-buff, grey to greyish-brown, smooth. Pore surface greyish to pale brown; pores tiny, round, 8–9 per mm; dissepiments thick, thicker than pore diameter, entire. Context thin, fawn to brown, corky, up to 0.5 mm thick. Tubes buff to brown, darker than pore surface, distinctly stratified, hard corky, up to 9.5 mm long.

Figure 2. 

Basidiocarps of Perenniporia pseudotephropora (Holotype, Y.C. Dai 17383). Scale bar: 1 cm. Photo by Fang Wu.

Hyphal structure

Hyphal system dimitic; generative hyphae bearing clamp connections; skeletal hyphae arboriform branched, slightly dextrinoid, CB+; tissues becoming pale olivaceous to dark in KOH.

Context

Generative hyphae infrequent, hyaline, thin-walled, bearing clamp connections, 1.6–2.2 μm in diam.; skeletal hyphae dominant, thick-walled with a wide lumen, hyaline to pale brown, frequently arboriform branched, flexuous, interwoven, 1.5–2.8 μm.

Figure 3. 

Microscopic structures of Perenniporia pseudotephropora (Holotype, Dai17383) a basidiospores b A basidium c basidioles d cystidioles e arboriform skeletal hyphae f hyphae from trama g hyphae from context.

Tubes

Generative hyphae infrequent, hyaline, thin-walled, bearing clamp connections, 1.5–2 μm in diam.; skeletal hyphae dominant, thick-walled with a wide lumen, hyaline to pale brown, frequently arboriform branched, flexuous, interwoven, 1.5–3 μm in diam. Cystidia absent, cystidioles present, clavate or fusoid, hyaline, thin-walled, 11–12.5 × 3–4 μm; basidia barrel- to pear-shaped, with four sterigmata and a basal clamp connection, 12.3–13.7 × 6.2–7.5 μm; basidioles in shape similar to basidia, but smaller.

Spores

Basidiospores broadly ellipsoid to subglobose, hyaline to pale brown, truncate, thick-walled, smooth, slightly dextrinoid, CB+, (4.5–)4.9–5.2(–5.3) × 4–4.8(–5) μm, L = 5.02 μm, W = 4.22 μm, Q = 1.19 (n = 30/1).

Perenniporia subcorticola Chao G. Wang & F. Wu, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: MycoBank No: 835519
Figs 4, 5

Diagnosis

Perenniporia subcorticola is characterised by resupinate basidiocarps, yellow pores with thick dissepiments, tissues becoming dark in KOH, flexuous skeletal hyphae, ellipsoid, truncate and slightly dextrinoid basidiospores measuring 4.2–5 × 3.5–4.2 µm.

Holotype

China. Fujian Province, Wuyishan Nature Reserve, on rotten wood of Pinus, 21.X.2005, Y.C. Dai 7330 (BJFC001421).

Etymology

Subcorticola (Lat.): referring to the species similar to Perenniporia corticola.

Figure 4. 

A basidiocarp of Perenniporia subcorticola (from Dai 3257). Scale bar: 1 cm. Photo by Yu-Cheng Dai.

Basidiocarps

Perennial, resupinate, soft corky and without odour or taste when fresh, becoming corky when dry, up to 10 cm long, 5 cm wide, 3.5 mm thick at centre. Pore surface yellow when fresh, becoming buff-yellow to curry-yellow when dry; margin narrow, thinning out; pores tiny, round, 7–8 per mm; dissepiments thick, entire. Subiculum thin, cream, up to 2 mm thick. Tubes concolorous with pore surface, up to 1.5 mm long.

Hyphal structure

Hyphal system dimitic; generative hyphae with clamp connections; skeletal hyphae weakly dextrinoid, CB+; tissues darkening in KOH.

Subiculum

Generative hyphae infrequent, hyaline, thin-walled, occasionally branched, 2–3 µm in diam.; skeletal hyphae dominant, thick-walled with a wide lumen, frequently branched, interwoven, 2–3.5 µm in diam.

Tubes

Generative hyphae infrequent, hyaline, thin-walled, occasionally branched, 2–3µm in diam.; skeletal hyphae dominant, thick-walled with a wide lumen, frequently branched, interwoven, 1.8–3 µm in diam. Cystidia absent, fusoid cystidioles present, hyaline, thin-walled, 14–18 × 4.5–7.5 µm; basidia barrel-shaped, with four sterigmata and a basal clamp connection, 13–16 × 6.5–9 µm; basidioles dominant, mostly pear-shaped to capitate, slightly smaller than basidia.

Figure 5. 

Microscopic structures of Perenniporia subcorticola (Holotype, Dai 7330) a basidiospores b basidia and basidioles c cystidioles d hyphae from trama e hyphae from subiculum.

Spores

Basidiospores ellipsoid, truncate, hyaline, thick-walled, smooth, dextrinoid, CB+, (4–)4.2–5(–5.5) × (3–)3.5–4.2(–4.7) µm, L = 4.66 µm, W = 3.91 µm, Q = 1.16–1.23 (n = 60/2).

Additional specimens (paratypes) examined

China. Hunan Province, Liuyang, Daweishan Forest Park, fallen angiosperm trunk, 21.XII.2000, Dai 3257 (BJFC009205); Zhejiang Province, Tianmushan Nature Reserve, on fallen angiosperm branch, 10.X.2005, Cui 2655 (BJFC001422).

Perenniporia corticola (Corner) Decock, Mycologia 93: 776 (2001)

Fig. 6

Note

Perenniporia corticola and P. dipterocarpicola Hattori & S.S. Lee were described from Malaysia (Corner 1989; Hattori and Lee 1999). Decock (2001a) restudied the types of the two taxa and treated P. dipterocarpicola as a synonym of P. corticola. Perenniporia corticola grows on Dipterocarpus in lowland forests of Southeast Asia (Decock 2001a; Hattori and Lee 1999) and was not phylogenetically analysed. In this study, P. corticola is closely related to P. citrinoalba and P. pseudotephropora. However, P. citrinoalba has larger basidiospores, 5.5–6 ×4.7–5.2 µm (Cui et al. 2019); while basidiospores are 4.6–5(–5.1) × 3.5–4(–4.1) μm in P. corticola (4.4–5 × 3.4–4 μm from the type, Decock 2001a). Perenniporia pseudotephropora differs from P. corticola by resupinate or effused-reflexed to pileate basidiocarps with greyish to pale brown pores, absence of dendrohyphidia and larger basidiospores (4.9–5.2 × 4–4.8 μm vs. 4.6–5 × 3.5–4 μm).

Figure 6. 

Basidiocarps of Perenniporia corticola a Dai 18641 b Dai 18633 c Dai 17778. Scale bars: 1 cm. Photos by Yu-Cheng Dai.

Specimens examined

Malaysia. Selangor, Kota Damansara, Community Forest Reserve, on angiosperm stump, 17. IV. 2018, Y.C. Dai 18641 (BJFC026929), Y.C. Dai 18633 (BJFC026921); Taman Botani Negara Shah Alam, on rotten angiosperm wood, 12. IV. 2018, Y.C. Dai 18526 (BJFC026815), Singapore. Singapore Botanical Garden, on rotten angiosperm wood, 17. VII. 2017, Y.C. Dai 17778 (BJFC025310).

Discussion

Perenniporia pseudotephropora is somehow related to P. corticola and P. citrinoalba B.K. Cui, C.L. Zhao & Y.C. Dai in our phylogeny (Fig. 1). However, the latter two species have completely resupinate basidiocarps with white to yellow pores. Perenniporia corticola has smaller basidiospores, 4.6–5 × 3.5–4 μm, while P. citrinoalba has larger basidiospores, 5.5–6 × 4.7–5.2 (Cui et al. 2019) vs. 4.9–5.2 × 4–4.8 μm in P. pseudotephropora.

Perenniporia tephropora (Mont.) Ryvarden is similar to P. pseudotephropora in having perennial, resupinate to pileate basidiocarps with grey or greyish to pale brown pore surface, tissues becoming pale olivaceous to dark in KOH and broadly ellipsoid, truncate, dextrinoid basidiospores (Ryvarden and Johansen 1980; Corner 1989) . However, P. tephropora has larger pores (4–6 per mm, Ryvarden and Johansen 1980). In addition, the two species are phylogenetically distantly related.

Phylogenetically, Perenniporia subcorticola is related to P. maackiae (Bondartsev & Ljub.) Parmasto and P. tenuis (Schwein.) Ryvarden (Fig. 1) and all these three species have yellow pores. However, P. maackiae has effused-reflexed basidiocarps, strongly dextrinoid skeketal hyphae, ellipsoid basidiospores measuring 5–6.5 × 3.5–4.5 μm and grows exclusively on Maackia (Dai et al. 2002); while P. subcorticola has completely resupinate basidiocarps, weakly dextrinoid skeketal hyphae, basidiospores measuring 4.2–5 × 3.5–4.2 µm and grows on a different tree. Perenniporia tenuis is different from P. subcorticola by larger pores (3–5 per mm), distinct dextrinoid skeketal hyphae and slightly larger basidiospores measuring 5.5–6.5 × 4.5–5.5 µm (Dai et al. 2002).

Macromorphologically, Perenniporia subcorticola is similar to P. corticola by its yellow pores and almost the same size of basidiospores and that is the reason why the specimens of P. subcorticola were previously treated as P. cf. subcorticola (Dai et al. 2002). However, P. corticola has arboriform branched skeletal hyphae and dendrohyphidia at dissepiments and it is a tropical species usually growing on the wood of Dipterocarpaceae (Decock 2001a); while P. subcorticola lacks arboriform branched skeletal hyphae and dendrohyphidia and it seems to be a warm temperate species growing on both gymnosperm and angiosperm wood.

Perenniporia xantha Decock & Ryvarden and P. subcorticola have yellow hymenophore and almost the same size of pores and basidiospores, but P. xantha has arboriform skeletal hyphae, lacks cystidioles and its basidiospores are weakly dextrinoid (Decock and Ryvarden 1999); while P. subcorticola lacks arboriform skeletal hyphae, has cystidioles and its basidiospores are distinctly dextrinoid.

Acknowledgements

We express our gratitude to Prof. Yu-Cheng Dai (BJFC, China) who allowed us to study his specimens. The research is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project No. 31701978).

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