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Phylogeny and taxonomy of two new Plectosphaerella (Plectosphaerellaceae, Glomerellales) species from China
expand article infoZhi-Yuan Zhang, Wan-Hao Chen§, Xiao Zou, Yan-Feng Han, Jian-Zhong Huang|, Zong-Qi Liang, Sunil K. Deshmukh
‡ Guizhou University, Guiyang, China
§ Guiyang College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guiyang, China
| Fujian Normal University, Fujian, China
¶ The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi, India
Open Access

Abstract

The genus Plectosphaerella is the largest genus in the family Plectosphaerellaceae. Some species are plant pathogens, whereas others are soil-borne. Seven Plectosphaerella isolates were collected from various locations in the southwest of China. Using multi-locus phylogenetic (LSU, ITS, EF1α, RPB2) analyses combined with morphological characteristics, two new species, Plectosphaerella guizhouensis sp. nov. and Plectosphaerella nauculaspora sp. nov. are described, illustrated and compared with related species.

Keywords

Filamentous fungi, Plectosphaerellaceae, Multi-locus, Morphology, Taxonomy

Introduction

The genus Plectosphaerella Kleb., established in 1929, is the largest genus in the family Plectosphaerellaceae (Sordariomycetes, Glomerellales) (Giraldo and Crous 2019), consisting of some plant pathogen and soil-borne species. Previously, Plectosphaerella was proposed as a member of Hypocreaceae (Sordariomycetes, Hypocreales) (Gams and Gerlagh 1968, Barr 1990) or Sordariaceae (Sordariomycetes, Sordariales) (Uecker 1993). Zare et al. (2007) established the family Plectosphaerellaceae to accommodate Acrostalagmus Corda, Gibellulopsis Bat. & G. Maia, Plectosphaerella and Verticillium Nees. At that time, there were only five species in the genus Plectosphaerella, i.e. P. cucumerina (Lindf.) W. Gams, P. cucumeris Kleb., P. himantia (Pers.) Kirschst., P. melaena (Fr.) Kirschst. and P. silenes (Niessl) Kirschst. Carlucci et al. (2012) transferred all species of the anamorphic genus Plectosporium M.E. Palm, W. Gams & Nirenberg to Plectosphaerella. Subsequently, several new species and new combinations were introduced and transferred to the genus. To date, the genus Plectosphaerella contains 14 accepted species (Carlucci et al. 2012, Liu et al. 2013, Crous et al. 2015, Su et al. 2017, Wijayawardene et al. 2017, Giraldo and Crous 2019, Phookamsak et al. 2019).

Members of the genus Plectosphaerella are isolated from different habitats throughout the world, including plants, animals and soil. For example, P. tabacinum (J.F.H. Beyma) M.E. Palm, W. Gams & Nirenberg (the anamorph of P. cucumerina) has a cosmopolitan distribution with reports in Canada and the USA (North America), Belgium, England, Italy, The Netherlands and Switzerland (Europe), Egypt (Africa) etc. (Raimondo and Carlucci 2018, Giraldo and Crous 2019). It has been isolated from 11 species in 9 different plant genera: Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis sp., Cucumis melo, Galium spurium, Hydrilla verticillate, Nicotiana tabacum, Pyrus malus, Solanum lycospersicon, Viola odorata, Viola tricolor, Austropotamobius pallipes etc. (Alderman and Polglase 1985, Palm et al. 1995, Smith-Kopperl et al. 1999, Domsch et al. 2007, Giraldo and Crous 2019). Another common species, P. plurivora A.J.F. Phillips, Carlucci & M.L. Raimondo, has been reported from Australia, Belgium, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, New Zealand, UK, the USA etc. and is isolated from soil, Lolium perenne, Nicotiana tabacum, Solanum lycopersicum, Solanum tuberosum etc. (Giraldo and Crous 2019). Raimondo and Carlucci (2018) reported that Plectosphaerella spp. could result in root and collar rot, plus vascular and leaf symptoms. Only two species, P. oligotrophica T.T. Liu, D.M. Hu & L. Cai and P. humicola Giraldo López & Crous, have been isolated from soils (Liu et al. 2013, Giraldo and Crous 2019).

During the investigation of keratinolytic fungi from different soils in China, seven isolates in the genus Plectosphaerella were obtained in Guizhou Province, China. The aim of our project was to identify these isolates, based on combined molecular phylogeny and morphological characteristics.

Materials and methods

Isolates and Morphology

Soil samples were collected from Qianlingshan Park (26°60'N, 106°69'E), Guiyang city and the affiliated hospital of Zunyi Medical University (27°70'N, 106°94'E), Zunyi city, Guizhou Province, China by Zhi-Yuan Zhang on 10 Sept. 2016. Samples were collected 3–10 cm below the soil surface and placed in Ziploc plastic bags. Isolation and purification of strains were undertaken according to methods described by Zhang et al. (2019). Sterile chicken feathers and human hairs were combined with the soil samples. Samples were placed in sterile Petri dishes, which were moistened with ddH2O. The baited soil sample Petri dishes were incubated at 25 °C for 1 month and remoistened as necessary. Two grams of sample were added to test tubes containing 9 ml of ddH2O. The mixture was then diluted to 1:104 and 1 ml of suspension was evenly spread on plates containing Sabouraud’s dextrose agar (SDA, 10 g of peptone, 40 g of dextrose, 20 g of Agar, 1 litre of ddH2O) with anti-bacterial chloramphenicol and cycloheximide medium. Plates were incubated at 25 °C for 5 d. The axenic strains were then transferred to potato dextrose agar (PDA, Bio-way, China) plates for purification and to test-tube slants for storage at 4 °C.

Type collections of the novel species are deposited in the Mycological Herbarium of the Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China (HMAS). The ex-type living cultures and other strains of our study are deposited in the China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center (CGMCC) and the Institute of Fungus Resources, Guizhou University (GZAC). The axenic strains were incubated on PDA and Czapek agar (CA, Bio-way, China) at 25 °C in darkness. Macroscopic characterisation was undertaken after 14 d of incubation and the colony colours (surface and reverse) were observed. Preparations were mounted in ddH2O to study the mycelial morphology, conidiogenous cells, conidial structures and other microstructures from PDA cultures. Photomicrographs of diagnostic structures were made using an OLYMPUS BX53 microscope equipped with differential interference contrast (DIC) optics, an OLYMPUS DP73 high-definition colour camera and cellSens software v.1.18.

DNA extraction, PCR amplification and Sequencing

Total genomic DNA was extracted from fresh fungal mycelia using the BioTeke Fungus Genomic DNA Extraction Kit (DP2032, BioTeke, China), following the manufacturer’s instructions. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the 5’ end of the 28S nrRNA locus (LSU) were amplified and sequenced with the primer pairs ITS1/ITS4 (White et al. 1990) and LR0R/LR7 (Vilgalys and Hester 1990, Vilgalys and Sun 1994), respectively. Fragments of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1α) and the RNA polymerase Ⅱ (RPB2) genes were amplified with primer sets EF1-983F/EF-2218R (Rehner and Buckley 2005) and RPB2-5F/RPB2-7cR (Liu et al. 1999), respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed in 25 μl reactions containing 1.0 μl DNA template, 1.0 μl of each forward and reverse primers (10 μmol/l), 12.5 μl 2× MasterMix (Aidlab Biotechnologies Co. Ltd., Beijing, China) and 8.5 μl ddH2O. Cycling conditions were as follows: initial denaturation at 94 °C for 5 min; followed by 35 cycles at 94 °C for 45 s, annealing depending on the locus (54 °C for ITS, LSU and EF1α, 56 °C for RPB2) for 45 s and extension at 72 °C for 60 s; and a final extension at 72 °C for 10 min. Sequencing was performed by TSINGKE Biological Technology (Kunming, China), using the corresponding primers.

Phylogenetic Analyses

The DNA sequences, generated in this study, were assembled using Lasergene software (version 6.0, DNASTAR). Sequence data, mostly from Giraldo and Crous (2019), were downloaded from NCBI GenBank for molecular phylogenetic analyses (Table 1). Two sequences of Brunneochlamydosporium nepalense (isolates CBS 277.89 and CBS 971.72) were chosen as outgroup taxa. Sequences of each locus were aligned through MAFFT v.7.407 (Katoh and Standley 2013), using the default parameters and manually corrected in MEGA 6.06 (Tamura et al. 2013). The aligned sequences of multiple loci were concatenated by SequenceMatrix v.1.7.8 (Vaidya et al. 2011).

Strains included in the phylogenetic analyses.

Species Strain No. GenBank Accession Number
LSU ITS EF1α RPB2
Brunneochlamydosporium nepalense CBS 277.89 LR025812 LR026683 LR026385 LR026111
CBS 971.72 T LR025813 LR026684 LR026386 LR026112
Plectosphaerella alismatis CBS 113362 T LR025932 LR026794 LR026489 LR026196
P. citrullae CBS 131740 LR025933 LR026795 LR026490
CBS 131741 T LR025934 LR026796 LR026491 LR026197
P. cucumerina CBS 137.33 LR025935 LR026797 LR026492 LR026198
CBS 137.37 T LR025936 LR026798 LR026493 LR026199
CBS 139.60 LR025937 LR026799 LR026494 LR026200
CBS 286.64 LR025938 LR026800 LR026495 LR026201
CBS 355.36 LR025939 LR026801 LR026496
CBS 367.73 LR025940 LR026802 LR026497 LR026202
CBS 400.58 LR025941 LR026803 LR026498 LR026203
CBS 567.78 LR025942 LR026804 LR026499 LR026204
CBS 619.74 LR025943 LR026805 LR026500 LR026205
CBS 632.94 LR025944 LR026806 LR026501 LR026206
CBS 101014 LR025945 LR026807 LR026502 LR026207
CBS 101958 LR025946 LR026808 LR026503 LR026208
CBS 131739 LR025947 LR026809 LR026504
P. delsorboi CBS 116708 T LR025948 LR026810 LR026505 LR026209
P. guizhouensis CGMCC 3.19658 = GZUIFR-QL9.9.1 T MK880431 MK880441 MK930453 MK930460
CGMCC 3.19659 = GZUIFR-QL9.9.2 MK880432 MK880442 MK930454 MK930461
CGMCC 3.19660 = GZUIFR-QL9.9.3 MK880433 MK880443 MK930455 MK930462
P. humicola CBS 423.66 T LR025949 LR026811 LR026506 LR026210
P. melonis CBS 489.96 T LR025950 LR026812 LR026507
CBS 525.93 LR025951 LR026813 LR026508
P. oligotrophica CBS 440.90 LR025952 LR026814 LR026509 LR026211
P. oratosquillae NJM 0662 T AB425974
NJM 0665 AB425975
P. pauciseptata CBS 131744 LR025953 LR026815 LR026510
CBS 131745 T LR025954 LR026816 LR026511 LR026212
P. plurivora CBS 101.87 LR025955 LR026817 LR026512
CBS 215.84 LR025956 LR026818 LR026513
CBS 260.89 LR025957 LR026819 LR026514 LR026213
CBS 261.89 LR025958 LR026820 LR026515
CBS 291.38 LR025959 LR026821 LR026516
CBS 292.66 LR025960 LR026822 LR026517 LR026214
CBS 386.68 LR025961 LR026823 LR026518 LR026215
CBS 406.85 LR025962 LR026824 LR026519
CBS 417.81 LR025963 LR026825 LR026520
CBS 642.63 LR025964 LR026826 LR026521 LR026216
CBS 757.68 LR025965 LR026827 LR026522 LR026217
CBS 101607 LR025966 LR026828 LR026523 LR026218
CBS 131742 T LR025967 LR026829 LR026524 LR026219
CBS 131860 LR025968 LR026830 LR026525 LR026220
CBS 143233 T MG386133 MG386080 LR026526 LR026221
CGMCC 3.19654 = GZUIFR-H26.5.1 MK880436 MK880444 MK930456 MK930463
CGMCC 3.19655 = GZUIFR-H26.5.2 MK880437 MK880445 MK930457 MK930464
CBS 139623 T KR476783 KR476750 LR026527 LR026222
CBS 139624 MH878144 KR476751 LR026528 LR026223
P. ramiseptata CBS 131743 LR025969 LR026831 LR026529 LR026224
CBS 131861 T LR025970 LR026832 LR026530 LR026225
P. sinensis ACCC 39144 KX527892 KX527889
ACCC 39145 T KX527891 KX527888
P. nauculaspora CGMCC 3.19656 = GZUIFR-QL8.12.1 T MK880424 MK880439 MK930451 MK930458
CGMCC 3.19657 = GZUIFR-QL8.12.2 MK880425 MK880440 MK930452 MK930459

Maximum likelihood (ML) analyses were constructed with IQ-TREE v. 1.6.11 (Nguyen et al. 2015). The best-fit model of substitution for each locus was estimated using IQ-TREE’s ModelFinder function (Kalyaanamoorthy et al. 2017) under the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). The selected models were TIMe+R2 for LSU, TNe+R2 for ITS, TIM2+F+R3 for EF1α and TN+I+G4 for RPB2. Bootstrap analyses was performed using the ultrafast bootstrap approximation (Minh et al. 2013) with 1,000 replicates and a bootstrap support (BS) ≥ 95% was considered as statistically significant.

For Bayesian Inference (BI), a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm was used to generate phylogenetic trees with Bayesian probabilities using MrBayes v.3.2 (Ronquist et al. 2012) for the combined sequence datasets. The selection of the best-fit nucleotide substitution model for each locus was calculated by the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) with Modeltest v.3.7 (Posada and Crandall 1988). The GTR+I+G model was selected for all datasets (LSU, ITS, EF1α, RPB2). Two runs were executed simultaneously for 5,000,000 generations and sampled every 500 generations. After the BI analyses, both runs were examined with Tracer v.1.5 (Drummond and Rambaut 2007) to determine burn-in and check for convergence. The final tree was submitted to TreeBASE, submission ID: 24412 (http://www.treebase.org).

Results

Phylogenetic analyses

Fifty-five strains (including the seven with new sequence data) were included in our multi-locus dataset (Table 1), which comprised 2536 positions, of which 322 were phylogenetically informative (35 of LSU, 54 ITS, 76 EF1α, and 157 RPB2). Tree topology of the Bayesian analyses was similar to that of the Maximum likelihood analyses.

The analyses of concatenated dataset (Figure 1) showed that our isolates CGMCC 3.19658, CGMCC 3.19659 and CGMCC 3.19660 clustered in a single clade with maximum support (BI pp = posterior probability 1, ML BS 100). Similarly, the isolates CGMCC 3.19656 and CGMCC 3.19657 clustered in another single clade with high support (BI pp 1, ML BS 100). Furthermore, our isolates CGMCC 3.19654 and CGMCC 3.19655 clustered with other Plectosphaerella plurivora isolates from CBS in a single subclade supported by BI pp = 0.92.

Figure 1. 

Phylogenetic tree of Plectosphaerella species derived from Bayesian analyses and Maximum Likelihood analyses, based on the combined sequences dataset of LSU+ITS+EF1α+RPB2. Bayesian posterior probabilities (BI pp) greater than 0.7 and Maximum Likelihood bootstrap support values (ML BS) greater than 95% are shown above branches. New isolates are in bold and blue. The tree used Brunneochlamydosporium nepalense (CBS 277.89 and CBS 971.72) as outgroup.

Taxonomy

Plectosphaerella guizhouensis Zhi.Y. Zhang, Y.F. Han & Z.Q. Liang, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: MB 830971
Figure 2

Etymology

Referring to Guizhou, the province where the isolate was collected.

Description

Sexual morph not observed. Asexual morph on CA. Mycelium hyaline, smooth, septate, branched and thin-walled, 1–2 μm (=1.5 μm) wide. Conidiophores solitary, unbranched or rarely branched, hyaline, smooth, thin-walled, sometimes radiating out from hyphal coils. Conidiogenous cells growing from a short branch or directly from mycelia, phialides, discrete, polymorphic, cylindrical, sub-cylindrical or ampulliform; terminal or lateral, hyaline, smooth, solitary, straight at the apex, sometimes bent or helicoid, gradually tapering to the apex, 3.5–17 × 0.5–2 μm ( = 9.5 × 1.5 μm, n = 20), collarette cylindrical, 0.5–1 μm deep. Conidia aggregating in slimy heads, non-septate or 1-septate, fusiform or cylindrical, sometimes rounded at both ends, hyaline, smooth, thin-walled; 2–6.5 × 1.5–5 μm ( = 5.5 × 2 μm, n = 10) (1-septate), 3–5 × 1–1.5 μm ( = 4 × 1.5 μm, n = 10) (non-septate). Chlamydospores absent.

Figure 2. 

Plectosphaerella guizhouensis (HMAS 255618, holotype). A–B The front and reverse of colony on CA after 14 d at 25 °C C Septate and aseptate conidia D Hyphal coils E–N Phialides. Scale bars: 10 μm (C–N).

Culture characteristics

Colonies on PDA reaching 74–75 mm diam. in 14 d at 25 °C, milk white, flat, aerial hyphae sparse, floccose at periphery, sub-rounded, margin regular, reverse milk white. Colonies on CA reaching 65–67 mm diam. in 14 d at 25 °C, white to milk white, flat, floccose, margin weakly undulate to faintly fimbriate, reverse milk white.

Typification

CHINA, Guizhou, Guiyang, Qianlingshan Park, 26°60'N, 106°69'E, 1210 m a.s.l., on soil, 10 Sep. 2016, collected and isolated by Zhi-Yuan Zhang, HMAS 255618 (holotype), ex-type CGMCC 3.19658 (= GZUIFR-QL9.9.1); ex-isotype CGMCC 3.19659 (= GZUIFR-QL9.9.2) and CGMCC 3.19660 (= GZUIFR-QL9.9.3).

Notes

Based on multi-locus phylogenetic analyses (Figure 1, see Results) and similar morphological characteristics, the three strains are regarded as the same species, which cluster together very well and form a single clade separated from other species of Plectosphaerella (Figure 1). Morphologically, Plectosphaerella guizhouensis differs from others species by the fusiform or cylindrical conidia, non-septate conidia (average 4 × 1.5 μm) and separate conidia (5.5 × 2 μm) (see Key). Therefore, based on combined phylogenetic and morphological evidence, P. guizhouensis is identified as a new species of Plectosphaerella.

Plectosphaerella nauculaspora Zhi.Y. Zhang, Y.F. Han & Z.Q. Liang, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: MB 830972
Figure 3

Etymology

From “naucula”, referring to the navicular conidia.

Description

Sexual morph not observed. Asexual morph on CA. Mycelium hyaline, smooth, septate, branched and thin-walled, 1–1.2 μm (=1.5 μm) wide. Conidiophores solitary, unbranched or rarely branched, hyaline, smooth, thin-walled, hyphal coils not observed. Conidiogenous cells growing from short branch or directly from mycelia, phialides, discrete, polymorphic, cylindrical, sub-cylindrical or ampulliform; terminal or lateral, hyaline, smooth, gradually tapering to the apex, straight at the apex, sometimes bent or helicoid, 3–37 × 0.5–2 μm ( = 11 × 1 μm, n = 10), collarette minute, cylindrical, 0.5–1 μm deep. Conidia aggregating in slimy heads, 1- or 2–celled, mostly navicular, rarely fusiform or cylindrical, sometimes swollen at both ends, hyaline, smooth, thin-walled, 4–7 × 1–2 μm ( = 5 × 1.5 μm, n = 10) (1-septate), 3–5 × 1–1.5 μm ( = 4 × 1.5 μm, n = 6) (non-septate). Chlamydospores not observed.

Figure 3. 

Plectosphaerella nauculaspora (HMAS 248154, holotype). A–B The front and reverse of colony on CA after 14 d at 25 °C C–D Conidia E–P Phialides. Scale bars: 10 μm (C–P).

Culture characteristics

Colonies on PDA reaching 75–76 mm diam. in 14 d at 25 °C, milk white, flat, sub-rounded, margin regular, reverse milk white. Colonies on CA reaching 63–65 mm diam. in 14 d at 25 °C, milk white, aerial hyphae sparse, flat, margin weakly undulate to faintly fimbriate, reverse milk white.

Typification

CHINA, Guizhou, Guiyang, Qianlingshan Park, 26°60'N, 106°69'E, 1220 m a.s.l., on soil, 10 Sep. 2016, collected and isolated by Zhi-Yuan Zhang, HMAS 248154 (holotype), ex-type CGMCC 3.19656 (= GZUIFR-QL8.12.1); ex-isotypes CGMCC 3.19657 (= GZUIFR-QL8.12.2).

Notes

Phylogenetically, our two isolates CGMCC 3.19656 and CGMCC 3.19657 cluster together very well and form a single clade separated from the other species of Plectosphaerella (Figure 1). Morphologically, Plectosphaerella nauculaspora is the only species that produces navicular conidia in this genus. Therefore, based on both morphological and phylogenetic evidence, P. nauculaspora is proposed as a novel species.

Discussion

In the present study, seven strains of Plectosphaerella fungi were isolated from soil in the Guizhou Province, China. Multi-locus phylogenetic analyses in combination with morphological data were used for identification. Our study resulted in the description of two new species, P. guizhouensis (3 isolates) and P. nauculaspora (2 isolates). In addition, our two isolates CGMCC 3.19654 and CGMCC 3.19655 closely clustered with P. plurivora and their morphological characters are similar to the original description P. plurivora (Carlucci et al. 2012).

Plectosphaerella spp. have diverse life styles and habitat sources – including pathogens of several plants, endophytes of plants, pathogens of animals (mainly involving Austropotamobius pallipes and Oratosquilla oratoria) and saprophytes on soil (Alderman and Polglase 1985, Palm et al. 1995, Domsch et al. 2007, Duc et al. 2009, Carlucci et al. 2012, Liu et al. 2013, Su et al. 2017, Liang et al. 2017, Raimondo and Carlucci 2018, Giraldo and Crous 2019). Although Plectosphaerella spp. were initially isolated from plants (from healthy or symptomatic tissue), subsequent studies found that they also widely distributed on soils and do not necessarily exhibit host specificity (Carlucci et al. 2012, Raimondo and Carlucci 2018, Giraldo and Crous 2019). However, P. oratosquillae can only be isolated from animals and it exhibits host specificity (Duc et al. 2009). Likewise, some species (mainly P. oligotrophica and P. humicola) have so far only been isolated from soils. In comparison with these previous studies, our two new species and one known species of Plectosphaerella were obtained from the soil beside a park road by the baiting technique (a method specifically designed for isolating keratinophilic fungi, Zhang et al. 2019). More studies are needed to assess whether our new species could be isolated from other habitats.

At present, more and more studies use combined data from morphological characteristics and molecular phylogeny for identifying new species (e.g. Carlucci et al. 2012, Liu et al. 2013, Su et al. 2017, Giraldo and Crous 2019, Phookamsak et al. 2019). Throughout the years, several loci have been used in the phylogenetic analyses of Plectosphaerella and its allies, containing ITS, LSU, EF1α, β-tubulin, CaM and RPB2 (Zare et al. 2007, Duc et al. 2009, Carlucci et al. 2012, Liu et al. 2013, Su et al. 2017). Giraldo and Crous (2019) revised the Plectosphaerellaceae and their results suggested that the phylogeny based on LSU+ITS+EF1α+RPB2 can be used for resolving intergeneric and interspecific relationships within the family Plectosphaerellaceae. As a result, we also used the LSU+ITS+EF1α+RPB2 dataset for phylogenetic analyses of Plectosphaerella.

Key to the species of Plectosphaerella

1 Growing on crustaceans P. oratosquillae
On other substrates 2
2 Teleomorph known 3
Teleomorph unknown 5
3 Ascomata globose or subglobose to pyriform 4
Ascomata subglobose to ovoid, or obpyriform P. kunmingensis
4 Asci 50–80 × 6–9 μm P. cucumerina
Asci 31.4–43 × 6.2–8.2 μm P. plurivora
5 Chlamydospores present 6
Chlamydospores absent 8
6 Conidia mostly septate 7
Conidia mostly aseptate P. melonis
7 Conidia 13–19.5 × 2.5–3 μm P. alismatis
Conidia 6–10 × 1.5–4 μm P. sinensis
8 Phialides branched at tip 9
Phialides not branched at tip 11
9 Phialides 0–3-septate P. ramiseptata
Phialides 0–1-septate 10
10 Oligotrophic, polyphialides infrequently seen, collarette 1–2.5 μm P. oligotrophica
Non-oligotrophic, polyphialides frequently seen, collarette minute P. pauciseptata
11 Conidia ellipsoidal 12
Conidia cylindrical, ellipsoidal, fusiform, navicular 14
12 Conidia mostly septate P. delsorboi
Conidia aseptate 13
13 Conidia av. 4 × 2 μm P. populi
Conidia av. 7.9 × 3.5 μm P. citrullae
14 Conidia mostly navicular P. nauculaspora
Conidia mostly cylindrical or fusiform 15
15 Septate conidia 2–6.5 × 1.5–5 μm, aseptate conidia 3–5 × 1–1.5 μm P. guizhouensis
Septate conidia 7.5–11 × 2.5–3.5 μm, aseptate conidia 5–8 × 2.1–3.3 μm P. humicola

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the editor Danny Haelewaters (Purdue University, Indiana, USA) and the reviewers – Martina Réblová (Czech Academy of Sciences, Průhonice, Czech Republic) and Yong-Chun Niu (Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China) for comments on the manuscript. This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2013FY110400), Guangdong Technological Innovation Strategy of Special Funds (key areas of research and development programme) (2018B020205003), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31460010, 31860002) and Construction Program of Biology First-class Discipline in Guizhou (GNYL[2017]009).

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