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A first checklist of macrofungi for South Africa
expand article infoTonjock Rosemary Kinge§, Gary Goldman|, Adriaana Jacobs, George Gatere Ndiritu#, Marieka Gryzenhout§
‡ University of Bamenda, Bambili, Cambodia
§ University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
| MushroomFundi, Cape Town, South Africa
¶ National Collection of Fungi, Pretoria, South Africa
# Karatina University, Karatina, Kenya
Open Access

Abstract

Macrofungi are considered as organisms that form large fruiting bodies above or below the ground that are visible without the aid of a microscope. These fungi include most basidiomycetes and a small number of ascomycetes. Macrofungi have different ecological roles and uses, where some are edible, medicinal, poisonous, decomposers, saprotrophs, predators and pathogens, and they are often used for innovative biotechnological, medicinal and ecological applications. However, comprehensive checklists, and compilations on the diversity and distribution of mushrooms are lacking for South Africa, which makes regulation, conservation and inclusion in national biodiversity initiatives difficult. In this review, we compiled a checklist of macrofungi for the first time (excluding lichens). Data were compiled based on available literature in journals, books and fungorium records from the National Collection of Fungi. Even if the list is not complete due to numerous unreported species present in South Africa, it still represents an overview of the current knowledge of the macromycetes of South Africa. The list of names enables the assessment of gaps in collections and knowledge on the fungal biodiversity of South Africa, and downstream applications such as defining residency status of species. It provides a foundation for new names to be added in future towards developing a list that will be as complete as possible, and that can be used by a wide audience including scientists, authorities and the public.

Keywords

biodiversity, conservation, macrofungi, Myxomycetes, slimemolds, South Africa, species lists

Introduction

Macrofungi are fungi that form large fructifications visible without the aid of the microscope and include representatives from the Basidiomycota and Ascomycota (Roda 2010; Servi et al. 2010). Common names used to refer to these fungi include mushrooms, toadstools, cup fungi, gilled fungi, jelly fungi, coral fungi, stink fungi, bracket fungi, polypores, puffballs, earth starts, truffles, and birds nest fungi (Egbe et al. 2013) and illustrates the visibility of these fungi to the public. Ecologically, macrofungi can be grouped as saprobes, parasites and symbiotic species (for instance mycorrhiza). Most terrestrial macrofungi are saprobes or mycorrhizal symbionts, but some are pathogens of plants or fungi, while those fruiting on woody substrates are usually either saprobes or plant pathogens (Mueller et al. 2007; Maria and Tzenka 2014).

Many macrofungi are edible and rich sources of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals for humans (Ananbeh 2003; Gençcelep et al. 2009). They can be naturally harvested or cultivated commercially. For rural communities they serve as a source of protein and income, especially for women. Macrofungi have great bio-exploitation potential in medicine or industry such as in the production of penicillin, lovastatin, and other globally significant medicines, and they remain an untapped resource with enormous industrial potential (Hyde et al. 2019). Mushrooms and other types of macrofungi can grow on decayed organic matters rich in lignin, cellulose, and other complicated carbohydrates, breaking them down for other uses or for bioremediation purposes (Kulshrestha et al. 2014). Modern pharmacological research confirms that large parts of traditional knowledge regarding the medicinal effects of macrofungi are due to proven antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral or other medicinal properties, besides being used as functional foods (Wani et al. 2010). For instance, some of the best known substances present in fungi showing pharmacological properties (especially anticancer and immunological) are polysaccharides (Wasser 2002; Mordali et al. 2007; Zhang et al. 2007; Hyde et al. 2019). Polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes present in fungi have gained the attention of researchers because it is believed that they can inhibit tumor growth and boost the immune system of the organism. They can enhance host defensive potential or represent biological response modifiers (Leung et al. 2006; Mordali et al. 2007). However, regulation of fungal bio-exploration and research in South Africa is hampered by the absence of biodiversity knowledge.

The fruiting bodies of slime molds or myxomycetes are occasionally observed together with those of macrofungi. The first species was described in 1654 by naturalist Thomas Panckow, who thought it was a species of fungi because of its resemblance to puffballs (Martin and Alexopoulos 1969). Slime molds have two major stages in their lifecycles: a mobile trophic (feeding) and a static fruiting body (reproductive) stage. Modern classifications place them in the Mycetozoan group of Amoebozoa (Baudalf 2008; Fiore-Donno et al. 2010). As bacterivores, slime molds are major components of decomposition and nutrient cycles where they enhance release of nutrients tied up in the microbial biomass (Stephenson and Feest 2015). It is estimated that myxomycete amoebas alone represent more than 50% of the total amoebae for some agricultural soils (Feest and Campbell 1986). Recent studies suggest that more attention should be placed on the use of slime molds as indicators of soil quality.

A small percentage of the 2.2 to 3.8 million species of fungi estimated in the world are currently described and these are mostly in temperate regions (Hawksworth and Lücking 2017). The tropical regions with the highest fungal diversity have not been fully explored (Hawksworth 2001). The reasons for this disparity, even in First World countries, are taxonomic obstacles that are worsened by a paucity of trained mycologists and especially systematists. The low number of published, rigorous, long-term studies on fungal biodiversity also prevents conclusive answers (Mueller et al. 2007). Not even basic questions, such as those related to the number of macrofungal or slime mold species at a specific location, or whether such diversity is greater in one type of forest than in another, can often be answered.

Despite the importance of macrofungi, information on their diversity is scanty, especially in Africa (Osarenkhoe et al. 2014). Thus, due to the lack of human capacities, national monographs of biodiversity in many African countries rarely encompass fungi. This leads to an unfortunate bias in the complete assessment of biodiversity, the unawareness by the public and decision makers of fungi as important components of ecosystem functioning, and frustration from end users at the lack of information (Gryzenhout et al. 2012). Regulation of fungal natural resources and quarantine is thus severely impeded by the lack of lists and information readily available. Not surprisingly, the fungal biodiversity in southern Africa has been relatively poorly studied to date, and no host has been thoroughly treated (Crous et al. 2006; Gryzenhout et al. 2010, 2012). A working checklist will be greatly beneficial to illustrate strengths and gaps in our fungal biodiversity knowledge in South Africa, and will be useful for regulatory authorities.

To address the lack of basic information for macrofungi in South Africa, the aim of this review was to compile a macrofungal and slime mold names list based on current knowledge and resources. We defined macrofungi as having spore-bearing structures visible to the naked eye (mushrooms, brackets, puffballs, false-truffles, cup fungi, etc.). Since slime molds are also readily observed by the public and perceived as fungi (although they do not reside in the kingdom of Fungi), known slime molds from South Africa were also included. Lichens (structures formed by fungi living in close association with algae and cyanobacteria) were excluded from this review because they represent another ill-studied group without solid supportive capacity, but lichen species should be added in future.

Materials and methods

The species list was compiled from journal and book publications, and national fungorium records. It is not based on field observations. It is hosted on the website www.themycologyblog.com, which is live and can continuously be refined, expanded and updated. The species list is incorporated by the online resource Cybertruffle’s (http://www.cybertruffle.org.uk/) and the database of the National Collection of Fungi of South Africa (http://www.arc.agric.za/arc-ppri/Pages/Biosystematics/Mycology%20Unit%20(Fungi)/Mycology-National-Collection-of-Fungi.aspx).

Results

The macrofungal checklist compiled in this review (Table 1) presents the first national list for macrofungi and slime molds in South Africa. It includes macrofungal and slime mold species names from previous field guides, other publications, as well as names obtained from the National Collection of Fungi’s PREM fungorium (based on 3597 records), hosted by the Plant Health and Protection (http://www.arc.agric.za/arc-ppri/Pages/ARC-PPRI-Homepage), Agricultural Research Council, South Africa (Table 1). Myxomycete records include 107 species. In total, the South African checklist presented here includes 1160 species, 307 genera and 95 families.

Checklist of macrofungi and myxomycetes from South Africa.

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Authority Fungarium Field guides Previous publications (if not in field guides)
Fungi Ascomycota Leotiomycetes Helotiales Chlorociboriaceae Chlorociboria aeruginosa (Nyl.) Kanouse ex C.S. Ramamurthi, Korf & L.R. Batra Yes
Pezizomycetes Pezizales Helvellaceae Paxina leucomelas (Pers.) Kuntze Yes
Helvella crispa (Scop.) Fr. Yes
lacunosa Afzel. Yes
Morchellaceae Morchella conica Krombh. PREM Yes
elata Fr. Yes
hybrida Pers. PREM
Pezizaceae Kalaharituber pfeilii (Henn.) Trappe & Kagan-Zur Yes
Peziza ammophila Saut. Yes
dehnii Rabenh. PREM
hortensis P. Crouan & H. Crouan PREM
macropus Schumach. PREM
nilgherrensis Cooke PREM
ostracoderma Korf PREM
repanda Pers. PREM
silvestris (Boud.) Sacc. & Traverso PREM
spissa Berk. PREM
subrepanda Cooke & W. Phillips PREM
vesiculosa Bull. PREM
Pseudohelotium pineti (Batsch) Fuckel PREM
Terfezia austroafricana Marasas & Trappe Marasas and Trappe 1973
bourdieri Chatin Yes
claveryi Chatin Yes
Pyrenomataceae Anthracobia melaloma (Alb. & Schwein.) Arnould Yes
Isaria psychidae Pole-Evans PREM
sinclairii (Berk.) Lloyd Yes
Scutellinia badio-berbis (Berk. ex Cooke) Kuntze. PREM
margaritacea (Berk. ex Cooke) Kuntze. PREM
phlyctispora (Lepr. and Mont.) PREM
scutellata (L.) Lamb. PREM Yes
Rhizinaceae Rhizina undulata Fr. Yes
Sarcoscyphaceae Phillipsia kermesina Kalchbr. & Cooke Kalchbrenner and Cooke 1880
Tuberaceae Tuber aestivum (Wulfen) Spreng PREM
melanosporum Vittad. Yes
Choiromyces echinulatus Trappe & Marasas Trappe and Marasas 1973
Sordariomycetes Hypocreales Cordycipitaceae Cordyceps velutipes Massee Massee 1895
Fungi Ascomycota Sordariomycetes Xylariales Xylariaceae Daldinia concentrica (Bolton) Ces. & De Not. Yes
Poronia oedipus (Mont.) Mont. Yes
Xylaria longipes Nitschke Yes
hypoxylon L. (Grev.) Yes
polymorpha (Pers.) Grev. Yes
schreuderiana Van der Byl Van der Byl 1932
stilboidea Kalchbr. & Cooke Kalchbrenner and Cooke 1880
Penzigia verrucosa Mill Miller 1942
Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Agaricales Agaricaceae Agaricus actiniceps Kalchbr. & Cooke Kalchbrenner and Cooke 1881
abruptibulbus Peck PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
alboargillascens (A. Pearson) Bon
alveolatus Kalchbr. Kalchbrenner 1881
arvensis Schaeff. PREM Yes
augustus Fr. PREM Yes
aures (Massee) F.M. Bailey PREM
bisporus (J.E. Lange) Imbach PREM Yes
bitorquis (Quél.) Sacc. PREM Yes
caliginosus Jungh. PREM
campestris L. PREM Yes
chortophilus Berk. Berkeley 1843
comtulus Ces. ex Mussat PREM Yes
crocopeplus Berk. & Broome Yes
diminutivus Peck Yes
episphaeria Berk. Berkeley 1846
griseovinaceus A. Pearson ex Pegler Pearson 1996
inandae Cooke Cooke 1890
montagnei Kalchbr. PREM Yes
nobilis (A. Pearson) Heinem. PREM Yes
papilionaceus Bull. PREM
paurophyllus Berk. Berkeley 1876
peroxydatus Berk. Berkeley 1843
placomyces Peck PREM Yes
pleropus Kalchbr. & MacOwan PREM
pogonatus Kalchbr. Kalchbrenner 1881
purpurellus (F.H. Møller) F.H. Møller PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
sagittiformis Kalchbr. & Cooke Kalchbrenner and Cooke 1881
semotus Fr. PREM Yes
separatus L. PREM
silvaticus Schaeff. PREM Yes
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Agaricales Agaricaceae Agaricus silvicola (Vittad.) Peck Yes
sulphurellus Kalchbr. & Cooke PREM
trisulphuratus Berk. PREM Yes
umbellifer var. cinnabarinus Berk. Berkeley 1843
xanthodermus Genev. PREM Yes
xanthodermus var. griseus (A. Pearson) Bon & Cappelli PREM
xanthodermus var. lepiotoides Maire Yes
xanthodermus var. meleagrioides (A. Pearson) Bon & Cappelli Yes
Arachnion alborosella Verwoerd PREM
album Schwein. PREM
firmoderma Verwoerd PREM
scleroderma C.G. Loyd PREM
Battarrea levispora Massee PREM
lycoperdon (Dicks.) Pers. PREM
phalloides (Dicks.) Pers. PREM Yes As Battarrea stevenii
tepperiana F. Ludw. PREM
Battarreoides diguetii (Pat. & Har.) R. Heim & T. Herrera PREM
Bovista acocksii De Villiers, Eicker & Van der Westh. De Villiers et al. 1989
capensis (Fr.) J.C. Coetzee & A.E. van Wyk Coetzee & Van Wyk 2005
juglandiformis Berk. ex Massee Massee 1888
lilacina Mont. & Berk. PREM
promontorii Kreisel Kreisel 1967
umbrina Bottomley Bottomley 1948
Calvatia caelata (Bull.) Morgan PREM
candida (Rostk.) Hollós PREM
capensis (Lloyd) J.C. Coetzee, Eicker & A.E. van Wyk PREM
cyathiformis (Bosc) Morgan PREM
flava (Massee) Kreisel PREM
gigantea (Batsch) Lloyd PREM
incerta Bottomley Bottomley 1948
lepidophora (Ellis & Everh.) Coker & Couch PREM
lilacina (Mont. & Berk.) Henn. PREM Yes
rubroflava (Cragin) Lloyd PREM
Chlamydopus meyenianus (Klotzsch) Lloyd PREM
Chlorophyllum molybdites (G. Mey.) Massee PREM Yes
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Agaricales Agaricaceae Chlorophyllum africanum Z.W. Ge & A. Jacobs PREM Ge et al. 2018
palaeotropicum Z.W. Ge & A. Jacobs PREM Ge et al. 2018
Coniolepiota spongodes (Berk. & Broome) Vellinga Yes
Coprinellus curtus (Kalchbr.) Vilgalys, Hopple & Jacq. Johnson PREM
disseminatus (Pers.) J.E. Lange Yes
domesticus (Bolton) Vilgalys, Hopple & Jacq. Johnson Yes
ephemerus (Bull.) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo PREM
heptemerus (M. Lange & A.H. Sm.) Vilgalys, Hopple & Jacq. Johnson Yes
micaceus (Bull.) Vilgalys, Hopple & Jacq. Johnson PREM Yes
truncorum (Scop.) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo PREM
Coprinopsis atramentaria (Bull.) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo PREM Yes
cinerea (Schaeff.) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo PREM
lagopus (Fr.) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo Yes
nivea (Pers.) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo PREM Yes
picacea (Bull.) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo PREM Wood 2017
stercorea (Fr.) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo PREM
Coprinus agricola A. Pearson Pearson 1950
comatus (O.F. Müll.) Pers. PREM Yes
digitalis (Batsch) Fr. PREM
papillatus (Batsch) Fr. PREM
punctatus Kalchbr. PREM
Crucibulum vulgare Tul. & C. Tul. PREM
Disciseda candida (Schwein.) Lloyd PREM
castanea (Lév.) Bottomley PREM
cervina (Berk.) G.H. Cunningham PREM
hypogaea (Cooke & Massee) G. Cunn. PREM
verrucosa G. Cunn. PREM
Gyrophragmium delilei Mont PREM
Langermannia wahlbergii (Fr.) Dring PREM
Lepiota acutesquamosa (Weinm.) P. Kumm. PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
canescens A. Pearson PREM
citrinella Beeli PREM
Lepiota cristata (Bolton) P. Kumm. PREM Yes
cristatocystidiata A. Pearson PREM
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Agaricales Agaricaceae Lepiota cutifracta A. Pearson PREM
flava Beeli PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
fustiformis A. Pearson PREM
goossensiae Beeli PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
helveola Bres. Yes
hispida Gillet PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
ianthina Sacc. PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
lutea Matt. PREM
morganii (Peck) Sacc. PREM
naucina var. leucothites (Vittad.) Sacc. PREM
nympharum (Kalchbr.) Kalchbr. PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
praeclara A. Pearson Pearson 1950
parvannulata (Lasch) Gillet PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
rhizobola (Berk.) Sacc. PREM
roseolescens A. Pearson PREM
roseosquamosa Beeli PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
truncata A. Pearson PREM
umbrinozonata A. Pearson PREM
varians (Kalchbr. & MacOwan) Sacc. PREM
virescens Pat. PREM
Leucoagaricus bisporus Heinem. PREM Yes
leucothites (Vittad.) Wasser Yes
naucina (Vittad.) Wasser PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
rubrotinctus (Peck) Singer Yes
birnbaumii (Corda) Singer PREM Yes
brebissonii (Godey) Locq. Yes
cepistipes (Sowerby) Pat. PREM
fragilissimus (Ravenel ex Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Pat. Yes
zeyheri (Berk.) Singer PREM
Lycoperdon asperum (Lév.) Speg. PREM
caespitosum Welw. & Curr. PREM
caffrorum Kalchbr. & Cooke PREM
djurense Henn. PREM
duthiei Bottomley PREM
flavum Massee PREM
gunnii Berk. PREM
hiemale Vent. PREM
perlatum Pers. PREM Yes
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Agaricales Agaricaceae Lycoperdon polymorphum Vittad. PREM
pratense Pers. Yes As Vascellum pratense
pusillum Batsch PREM
qudenii Bottomley PREM
radicatum Durieu & Mont. PREM
subincarnatum Peck PREM
umbrinum Hornem. PREM
Macrolepiota excoriatus (Schaeff.) Wasser PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
procera (Scop.) Singer PREM Yes
prominens (Sacc.) M.M. Moser Yes
rhacodes (Vittad.) Singer Yes
zeyheri (Berk. & Singer) Heinem. PREM Yes
Montagnea aurenaria (DC.) Zeller Reid and Eicker 1991
haussknechtii Rabenh. Reid and Eicker 1991
Montagnites candollei Speg. PREM
Mycenastrum corium (Guers.) Desv. PREM
Parasola hemerobia (Fr.) Redhead, Vilgalys & Hopple PREM
plicatilis (Curtis) Redhead, Vilgalys & Hopple PREM Yes
Polyplocium inquinans Berk. PREM
Psalliota campestris (L.) Quél. PREM
alboargillascens A. Pearson PREM
arvensis Schaeff. PREM
arvensis var. hortensis W.G. Sm. PREM
comtula (Fr.) Quél. PREM
duriuscula Velen. PREM
mixta A. Pearson PREM
nobilis A. Pearson Pearson 1950
placomyces Peck PREM
pratensis (Schaeff.) Gillet PREM
rodmanni (Peck) Kauffman PREM
volvata A. Pearson Pearson 1950
xanthoderma var. meleagrioides A. Pearson PREM
Secotium gueinzii Kunze Kunze 1840
obtusum C.G. Loyd PREM
Tulostoma albicans V.S. White Yes
bonianum Pat. Yes
cyclophorum Lloyd Yes
exasperatosporum J.E. Wright PREM
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Agaricales Agaricaceae Tulostoma gracilipes J.E. Wright PREM
lesliei Van der Byl PREM
purpusii Henn. Yes
transvaalii C.G. Loyd PREM
Xanthagaricus luteolosporus (Heinem. & Little Flower) Little Flower, Hosag. & T.K. Abraham PREM Yes
Amanitaceae Amanita aureofloccosa Bas Yes
capensis Walleyn & Rammeloo Yes
excelsa (Fr.) Bertill. PREM Yes
foetidissima D.A. Reid & Eicker PREM Yes
mappa (Batsch) Bertill. Yes
muscaria (L.) Lam. PREM Yes
pantherina (DC.) Krombh. PREM Yes
phalloides (Vaill. ex Fr.) Link PREM Yes
phalloides var. alba Costantin & L.M. Dufour Yes
phalloides var. umbrina (Ferry) Maire Yes
reidii Eicker & Greuning Yes
pleropus (Kalchbr. & MacOwan) D.A. Reid PREM Yes
rubescens Pers. PREM Yes
solitaria (Bull.) Fr. PREM
strobiliformis (Paulet ex Vittad.) Bertill. PREM Yes
vaginata (Bull.) Lam. PREM
veldiei D.A. Reid & Eicker Yes
Limacella guttata (Pers.) Konrad & Maubl. Yes
Saproamanita praeclara (A. Pearson) Redhead, Vizzini, Drehmel & Contu PREM Yes
Bolbitiaceae Bolbitius titubans (Bull.) Fr. PREM Yes
vitellinus (Pers.) Fr. PREM Yes
liberatus (Berk.) R. Heim PREM
Conocybe apala (Fr.) Arnolds Yes
tenera (Schaeff.) Fayod PREM Yes
Galeropsis mitriformis (Berk.) R. Heim PREM
Pluteolus reticulatus (Pers.) Gillet PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
Broomeiaceae Broomeia congregata Berk. PREM Yes
ellipsospora Höhn. PREM Yes
Clavariaceae Clavaria abietina Schumach. PREM
capensis Thunb. Thunberg 1800
cinerea Bull. PREM
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Agaricales Clavariaceae Clavaria cladoniae Kalchbr. PREM
contorta Holmsk. PREM
corniculata Schaeff. PREM
cristata (Holmsk.) Pers. PREM
flaccida Fr. PREM
helicoides Pat. & Demange PREM
kunzei Fr. PREM
laeticolor Berk. & M.A. Curtis PREM
ligula Schaeff. PREM
persimilis Cotton PREM
pulchra Peck PREM
stricta Schumach. PREM
Clavulinopsis luteoalba (Rea) Corner Yes
ochracea Corner PREM
Mucronella aggregata (Fr.) Fr. PREM
Cortinariaceae Cortinarius argutus Fr. PREM
brunneolimosus A. Pearson PREM
camurus Fr. PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
castaneus (Bull.) Fr. PREM
fuscotinctus Rea PREM Van der Westbuizen and Eicker 1988
lepidopus Cooke PREM Van der Westbuizen and Eicker 1988
multiformis (Fr.) Fr. PREM
radiofibrillosus A. Pearson PREM
Locellina acetabulosa (Sowerby) Sacc. PREM
Cyphellaceae Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers.) Pouzar PREM Yes
Cyphella tabacina Cooke & W. Phillips PREM
applanata P.H.B. Talbot PREM
farinacea Kalchbr. & Cooke PREM
Entolomataceae Claudopus variabilis (Pers.) Fr. PREM
Clitopilus prunulus (Scop.) P. Kumm. PREM Yes
Entoloma lividum (Bull.) Quél. PREM
olivipes A. Pearson ex Pegler Pearson 1996
sagittiforme (Kalchbr. & Cooke) Sacc. PREM
Fistulinaceae Fistulina africana Van der Byl PREM Yes
Hydnangiaceae Laccaria amethystea (Bull.) Murrill PREM Yes
laccata (Scop.) Cooke PREM Yes
tortilis (Bolton) Cooke Yes
Hygrophoraceae Hygrocybe aurantiorufa A. Pearson ex Pegler Pearson 1996
chlorophana (Fr.) Wünsche Yes
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Agaricales Hygrophoraceae Hygrocybe conica Velen. PREM Yes
nigrescens (Quél.) Kühner PREM Yes
zuluensis Boertm. Boertman 1998
Hygrophorus coccineus (Schaeff.) Fr. PREM
conicus (Schaeff.) Fr. PREM
conicus var. nigrescens (Quél.) Konrad & Maubl. PREM
(Quél.) Konrad & Maubl. PREM
discolor (Feltgen) Sacc. & Trotter PREM
Incertae sedis Anellaria separata (L.) P. Karst. PREM
Panaeolina foenisecii (Pers.) Maire PREM Yes
Panaeolus caliginosus (Jungh.) Gillet PREM
campanulatus (L.) Quél. PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
fimicola (Pers.) Gillet PREM
fimicoloides A. Pearson PREM
papilionaceus (Bull.) Quél. PREM Yes
retirugus (Fr.) Gillet PREM
semiovatus (Sowerby) S. Lundell & Nannf. Yes
semiovatus f. exannulatus A. Pearson Pearson 1950
solidipes (Peck) Sacc. PREM
sphinctrinus (Fr.) Quél. PREM
subbalteatus (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. Yes
Inocybaceae Astrosporina maritima (P. Karst.) Rea PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
Crepidotus austroafricanus Pilát Pilát 1950
haustellaris (Fr.) P. Kumm. PREM
inandae Cooke PREM
mollis (Schaeff.) Staude PREM Yes
pogonatus Kalchbr. PREM
variabillis (Pers.) P. Kumm. PREM Yes
Inocybe cinnamomea A. Pearson ex Pegler Pearson 1996
congregata A. Pearson Pearson 1950
curvipes P. Karst. Vellinga et al. 2009
Inocybaceae Inocybe eutheles Sacc. PREM Yes
hirtella Bres. Yes
lanuginella (J. Schröt.) Konrad & Maubl Yes
microspora J.E. Lange PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
mixtilis (Britzelm.) Sacc. PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
* Gillet Yes
patouillardii Bres. Yes
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Agaricales Inocybaceae Inocybe pullata A. Pearson ex Pegler Pearson and Pegler 1996
Phaeoglabrotricha farinacea (Kalchbr. & Cooke) W.B. Cooke PREM
Phaeosolenia densa (Berk.) W.B. Cooke PREM
Lyophyllaceae Lyophyllum decastes (Fr.) Singer Yes
Podabrella microcarpa (Berk. & Broome) Singer PREM
Termitomyces clypeatus R. Heim Yes
microcarpus (Berk. & Broome) R. Heim Yes
reticulatus Van der Westh. & Eicker Yes
sagittiformis (Kalchbr. & Cooke) D.A. Reid Yes
schimperi (Pat.) R. Heim Yes
umkowaan (Cooke & Massee) D.A. Reid Yes
Marasmiaceae Calyptella capensis W.B. Cooke & P.H.B. Talbot PREM
capensis (Berk.) D.A. Reid Yes
Marasmius bekolacongoli Beeli Yes
calopus (Pers.) Fr. PREM
candidus (Bolton) Fr. PREM
delectans Morgan PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
epiphyllus (Pers.) Fr. PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
filaris Kalchbr. & MacOwan PREM
haematocephalus (Mont.) Fr. Yes
helvolus Berk. PREM
oreades (Bolton) Fr. Yes
oreadoides Pass. PREM
petalinus Berk. & M.A. Curtis PREM
rotula (Scop.) Fr. PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
scorodonius (Fr.) Fr. PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
siccus (Schwein.) Fr. PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
tener Berk. & M.A. Curtis PREM
thwaitesii Berk. & Broome PREM
titanosporus D.A. Reid & Jacot Guill. Reid and Guillarmod 1988
Marasmiaceae Marasmius zenkeri Henn. PREM
Solenia minima Cooke & W. Phillips PREM
natalensis W.B. Cooke PREM
rhoina W.B. Cooke PREM
Mycenaceae Cruentomycena viscidocruenta (Cleland) R.H. Petersen & Kovalenko Yes
Favolaschia thwaitesii (Berk. & Broome) Kuntze PREM Yes
Mycena acicula (Schaeff.) P. Kumm. PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
aetites (Fr.) Quél. Yes
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Agaricales Mycenaceae Mycena alcalina (Fr.) P. Kumm. PREM
alcalinoides A. Pearson PREM
clavicularis (Fr.) Gillet PREM
corticola (Schumach.) Quél. PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
hiemalis (Osbeck) Quél. PREM
hyalina A. Pearson PREM
pura (Pers.) P. Kumm. Yes
rhodiophylla (Kalchbr.) Sacc. PREM
rubromarginata (Fr.) P. Kumm. PREM
sciola (Kalchbr.) Sacc. PREM
vibecina A. Pearson PREM Yes
Niaceae Flagelloscypha applanata (P.H.B. Talbot) W.B. Cooke PREM
Lachnella alboviolascens (Alb. & Schwein.) Fr. PREM
Nidulariaceae Cyathus berkeleyanus (Tul. & C. Tul.) Lloyd PREM
dasypus Nees PREM
hookeri Berk. PREM
microsporus Tul. & C. Tul. PREM
minutosporus Lloyd PREM
montagnei Tul. & C. Tul. PREM
olla (Batsch) Pers. PREM Yes
pallidus Berk. & M.A. Curtis PREM
poeppigii Tul. & C. Tul. PREM
stercoreus (Schwein.) De Toni PREM
striatus (Huds.) Willd. Yes
vernicosus (Bull.) DC. PREM
Omphalotaceae Anthracophyllum nigritum (Lév.) Kalchbr. PREM
archeri (Berk.) Pegler Yes
Gymnopus androsaceus (L.) Della Magg. & Trassin. PREM Yes
Marasmiellus candidus (Fr.) Singer Yes
Omphalotus olearius (DC.) Singer Yes
Phelloriniaceae Phellorinia inquinans Berk. PREM
squamosa Kalchbr. & MacOwan PREM
strobilina (Kalchbr.) Kalchbr. PREM
Physalacriaceae Armillaria fuscipes Petch. Yes Coetzee et al. 2000
gallica Marxm. Coetzee et al. 2003
mellea (Vahl) P. Kumm. PREM Yes Coetzee et al. 2000
ramentacea (Bull.) Gillet PREM
Armillariella polymyces (Pers.) Singer & Clémençon Yes
Cyptotrama asprata (Berk.) Redhead & Ginns PREM Yes
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Agaricales Physalacriaceae Oudemansiella canarii (Jungh.) Höhn. PREM
Hymenopellis radicata (Relhan) Singer PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
Physalacria decaryi Pat. PREM
Xerula atrocaerulea R.H. Petersen & Bougher Petersen and Bougher 2008
Pleurotaceae Pleurotus applicatus (Batsch) P. Kumm. PREM
geesterani Singer Singer 1962
gilvescens (Kalchbr.) Sacc. PREM
lenticula (Kalchbr.) Sacc. PREM
limpidus (Fr.) Sacc. PREM
ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. PREM Yes
perpusillus (Lumn.) Gillet PREM
pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél. Yes
sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer PREM
sciadium (Kalchbr. & MacOwan) Sacc. PREM
septicus (Fr.) P. Kumm. PREM
Pluteaceae Pluteus atromarginatus (Konrad) Kühner PREM
pellitus (Pers.) P. Kumm. PREM
romelli (Britzelm.) Sacc. Yes
salicinus (Pers.) P. Kumm. Yes
semibulbosus (Lasch) Gillet Yes
thomsonii (Berk. & Broome) Dennis PREM
Volvariella speciosa (Fr.) Singer Yes
Podaxaceae Podaxis africana De Villiers, Eicker & Van der Westh. PREM
pistillaris (L.) Fr. PREM Yes
rugospora De Villiers, Eicker & Van der Westh. PREM
Psathyrellaceae Ozonium omnivorum Shear PREM
Psathyrella griseola A. Pearson PREM
condolleana (Fr.) Maire Yes
lionella A. Pearson ex Pegler Pearson 1996
Psathyrellaceae Psathyrella praelonga A. Pearson Pearson 1950
varicosa A. Pearson Pearson 1950
Pterullaceae Pterula subulata Fr. Yes
Schizophillaceae Schizophyllum commune Fr. Yes
Sebacinaceae Sebacina schweinitzii (Peck) Oberw. Yes
Strophariaceae Agrocybe praecox (Pers.) Fayod PREM Yes
pediades (Fr.) Fayod Yes
Deconica atrorufa (Schaeff.) P. Karst. PREM
coprophila (Bull.) Fr. PREM
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Agaricales Strophariaceae Deconica protea (Kalchbr.) Desjardin & B.A. Perry Kalchbrenner 1876 (as Agaricus proteus)
Flammula alnicola (Fr.) P. Kumm. PREM
harmoge (Fr.) Sacc. PREM
hybrida (Bull.) Gillet PREM
laetilamellata A. Pearson PREM
luxurians A. Pearson PREM
papillata A. Pearson PREM
penetrans (Fr.) Quél. PREM
sapinea (Fr.) Pat. PREM
Galera hypnorum (Batsch) Quél. PREM
lateritia (Fr.) P. Kumm. PREM
pygmaeoaffinis (Fr.) Quél. PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
spartea Velen. PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
tenera (Schaeff.) P. Kumm. PREM
tenera var. siliginea (Fr.) P. Kumm. PREM
Gymnopilus hybridus (Bull.) Maire Yes
junonius (Fr.) P.D. Orton PREM Yes
penetrans (Fr.) Murrill PREM Yes
sapineus (Fr.) Murrill Yes
Hebeloma angustispermum A. Pearson PREM
anthracophilum Maire PREM
crustuliniforme (Bull.) Quél. Yes
cylindrosporum Romagn. PREM Yes
nudipes (Fr.) Kalchbr. PREM
sinapizans (Paulet) Gillet Yes
spoliatum (Fr.) Gillet PREM
Hymenogaster albellus Massee & Rodway PREM
reticulatus Zeller & C.W. PREM
Hypholoma candolleanum (Fr.) Quél. PREM
fasciculare (Huds.) P. Kumm. PREM Yes
lateritium (Schaeff.) P. Kumm. PREM
Kuehneromyces mutabilis (Schaeff.) Singer & A.H. Sm. PREM
Leratiomyces ceres (Cooke & Massee) Spooner & Bridge 2008 Yes
Naucoria pediades (Fr.) P. Kumm. PREM
russa (Cooke & Massee) Sacc. PREM
scolecina (Fr.) Quél. PREM
semiorbicularis (Bull.) Quél. PREM
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Agaricales Strophariaceae Naucoria undulosa (Fr.) Sacc. PREM
Pholiota aurivella (Batsch) P. Kumm. PREM
caperata (Pers.) Gillet PREM
cylindracea (DC.) Gillet PREM
flammans (Batsch) P. Kumm. PREM
mutabilis (Schaeff.) P. Kumm. PREM
parva A. Pearson PREM
pseudoerebia A. Pearson PREM
squarrosa (Oeder) P. Kumm. Yes
spectabilis (Fr.) P. Kumm. PREM
togularis (Bull.) P. Kumm. PREM
unicolor (Vahl) Gillet PREM
Psilocybe coprophila (Bull.) P. Kumm. Yes
cylindrispora A. Pearson Pearson 1950
natalensis Gartz, D.A. Reid, M.T. Sm. & Eicker PREM
Stropharia coccinea A. Pearson ex Pegler Pearson 1996
semiglobata (Batsch) Quél. Yes
Tubaria furfuracea (Pers.) Gillet Yes
Tricholomataceae Amparoina spinosissima (Singer) Singer Yes
Cellypha rhoina (W.B. Cooke) W.B. Cooke PREM
Clitocybe expallens (Pers.) P. Kumm. PREM
fragrans (With.) P. Kumm. PREM
gentianea Quél. PREM
nuda (Bull.) H.E. Bigelow & A.H. Sm. PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988 (as Lepista nuda)
rivulosa (Pers.) P. Kumm. PREM
splendens (Pers.) Gillet PREM
toxica Stephens Stephens 1966
Collybia acervata (Fr.) P. Kumm. PREM
albuminosa (Berk.) Petch PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
butyracea (Bull.) P. Kumm. PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
chrysopepla (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) A. Pearson PREM
distorta (Fr.) Quél. PREM Yes
dryophila (Bull.) P. Kumm. PREM Yes
extuberans (Fr.) Quél. PREM
extuberans (Fr.) Quél. PREM
fragrantissima A. Pearson PREM
fusipes (Bull.) Quél. PREM Yes
macilenta (Fr.) Gillet PREM
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Agaricales Tricholomataceae Collybia maculatoides A. Pearson PREM
ocellata (Fr.) P. Kumm. PREM
radicata (Relhan) Quél. PREM
stridula (Fr.) Sacc. PREM
velutipes (Curtis) P. Kumm. PREM
Lepista caffrorum (Kalchbr. & MacOwan) Singer PREM Yes
sordida (Schumach.) Singer PREM Yes
Macrocybe lobayensis (R. Heim) Pegler & Lodge PREM Yes
titans (H.E. Bigelow & Kimbr.) Pegler, Lodge & Nakasone PREM
Melanoleuca brevipes (Bull.) Pat. PREM
melaleuca (Pers.) Murrill PREM
Omphalia glaucophylla (Lasch) Sacc. PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
micromeles (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. PREM
oniscus (Fr.) Gillet PREM
pyxidatoides A. Pearson PREM
rustica (Fr.) Quél. PREM
Tricholoma albobrunneum (Pers.) P. Kumm. Yes
eucalypticum A. Pearson Pearson 1950
melaleucum f. acystidiatum A. Pearson PREM
meridianum A. Pearson Pearson 1950
saponaceum (Fr.) P. Kumm. Yes
ustale (Fr.) P. Kumm. Yes
Tricholomopsis rutilans (Schaeff.) Singer Yes
Tricholosporum laeteviolaceum D.A. Reid, Eicker, Clémençon & Cec. Roux PREM
Trogia cantharelloides (Mont.) Pat. Yes
Auriculariales Auriculariaceae Auricularia auricula-judae (Bull.) Quél. PREM Yes
delicata (Mont.) Henn. PREM
emini Henn. PREM
fuscosuccinea (Mont.) Henn. PREM
mesenterica (Dicks.) Pers. PREM
polytricha (Mont.) Sacc. PREM
sambucina Mart. PREM
Eichleriella macrospora (Ellis & Everh.) G.W. Martin PREM
Exidia glandulosa (Bull.) Fr. PREM Yes
purpureocinerea MacOwan & Kalchbr. PREM
Heterochaete byliana Talbot PREM
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Auriculariales Auriculariaceae Heterochaete grandispora P.H.B. Talbot PREM
Incertae sedis Aporpium caryae (Schwein.) Teixeira & D.P. Rogers PREM
Boletales Boletaceae Aureoboletus gentilis (Earle) Klofac Yes
Boletus aureus Schaeff. Yes
aestivalis (Paulet) Fr. PREM Yes
bovinus Rostk. PREM
bovinus var. viridocaerulescens A. Pearson PREM
collinitus Fr. PREM
edulis Rostk. PREM Yes
flavus Pollini PREM
grevillei Klotzsch PREM
curtipes Massee Massee 1908
pinicola Sw. Yes
reticulatus Schaeff. Yes
stellenbossiensis Van der Byl Van der Byl 1925
subflammeus Berk. Berkeley 1876
Buchwaldoboletus hemichrysus (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Singer Yes
Chalciporus piperatus (Bull.) Bataille PREM Yes
Imleria badia (Fr.) Vizzini PREM Yes
Leccinum duriusculum (Schulzer ex Kalchbr.) Singer PREM Yes
Octaviania africana Lloyd PREM
flava (Rodway) G. Cunn. PREM
Xerocomellus chrysenteron (Bull.) Šutara Yes
Boletinellaceae Phlebopus sudanicus (Har. & Pat.) Heinem. PREM Yes
Boletinellaceae Phlebopus colossus (R. Heim) Singer Yes
Coniophoraceae Coniophora arida (Fr.) P. Karst. PREM
cerebella (Pers.) Pers. PREM
fodinarum P.H.B. Talbot PREM
incrustata P.H.B. Talbot PREM
mollis Ginns Ginns 1982
olivacea Massee PREM
papillosa P.H.B. Talbot PREM
Gyrodontium capense D.A. Reid Reid 1963
Gyroporaceae Gyroporus castaneus (Bull.) Quél. PREM Yes
Paxillaceae Melanogaster ambiguus (Vittad.) Tul. & C. Tul. PREM
Paxillus extenuatus Fr. PREM
involutus (Batsch) Fr. PREM Yes
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Boletales Paxillaceae Paxillus panuoides (Fr.) Fr. PREM Yes
Rhizopogonaceae Rhizopogon capensis C.G. Loyd PREM
luteolus Fr. & Nordholm Yes
Sclerodermataceae Pisolithus tinctorius (Mont.) E. Fisch. PREM Yes
Scleroderma capense C.G. Loyd PREM
cepa Pers. Yes
citrinum Pers. Yes
flavidum Ellis & Everh. Yes
verrucosum (Bull.) Pers. Yes
stellenbosiensis Verwoerd PREM
Serpulaceae Serpula himantioides (Fr.) P. Karst. Yes
Suillaceae Suillus bellinii (Inzenga) Watling Yes
bovinus (L.) Roussel Yes
granulatus (L.) Roussel Yes
luteus (L.) Roussel Yes
Cantharellales Cantharellaceae Cantharellus cibarius Fr. PREM
longisporus Heinem. Yes
Ceratobasidiaceae Pellicularia asperula D.P. Rogers PREM
filamentosa (Pat.) D.P. Rogers PREM
fodinarum P.H.B. Talbot & V.C. Green PREM
vaga (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) D.P. Rogers ex Linder PREM
Clavulinaceae Clavulina cinerea (Bull.) J. Schröt. PREM
cristata (Holmsk.) J. Schröt. PREM Yes
Corticiales Corticiaceae Corticium argillaceum Bres. PREM
Corticium armeniacum Sacc. PREM
coeruleum (Lam.) Fr. PREM
confluens (Fr.) Fr. PREM
gloeosporum P.H.B. Talbot PREM
laetum (P. Karst.) Bres. PREM
luteocystidiatum P.H.B. Talbot PREM
moniliforme P.H.B. Talbot PREM
portentosum Berk. & M.A. Curtis PREM
punctulatum Cooke PREM
salmonicolor Berk. & Broome PREM
scutellare Berk. & M.A. Curtis PREM
tumulosum P.H.B. Talbot PREM
vagum Berk. & M.A. Curtis PREM
Cytidia flocculenta (Fr.) Höhn. & Litsch. PREM
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Corticiales Corticiaceae Dendrothele duthiei P.H.B. Talbot PREM
Laetiporus baudonii (Pat.) Ryvarden Yes
sulphureus (Bull.) Murrill PREM Yes
Tretopileus sphaerophorus (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) S. Hughes & Deighton PREM
Geastrales Geastraceae Geasteropsis conrathi Hollós PREM
Geastrum ambiguum Mont. PREM
arenarium Lloyd PREM
bryantii Berk. PREM
campestre Morgan PREM
coronatum Pers. PREM
dissimile Bottomley PREM
fimbriatum Tul. & C. Tul. PREM
floriforme Vittad. PREM
fornicatum (Huds.) Hook. PREM
hieronymi Henn. PREM
hygrometricum Pers. PREM
kotlabae V.J. Staněk Yes
lageniforme Cooke PREM
limbatum Fr. PREM Yes
mammosum De Toni PREM
minimum Chevall. PREM
mirabile Mont. PREM
nanum Pers. PREM
pectinatum Pers. PREM Yes
pouzarii V.J. Staněk PREM
quadrifidum DC. ex Pers. PREM
rabenhorstii Kunze PREM
saccatum Speg. PREM Yes
schmidelii Vittad. PREM
schweinitzii (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Zeller Yes
sessile (Sowerby) Pouzar Yes
smardae V.J. Staněk PREM
striatum Quél. PREM
triplex Jungh. PREM Yes
velutinum Morgan PREM
Myriostoma coliforme (Dicks.) Corda PREM Yes
coliforme var. capillisporum V.J. Staněk Staněk 1958
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Gloeophyllales Gloeophyllaceae Gloeophyllum sepiarium (Wulfen) P. Karst. PREM Yes
trabeum (Pers.) Murrill PREM Yes
Gomphales Gomphaceae Ramaria formosa (Pers.) Quél. Yes
Clavariadelphaceae Clavariadelphus clavulinoides R.H. Petersen Petersen 1967
Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetaceae Coltricia perennis (L.) Murrill PREM Yes
Fomitoparia capensis M. Fisch., Cloete, L. Mostert & Halleen Cloete et al. 2014
Fomitoparia punctata (P. Karst.) Murrill Yes
Fuscoporia gilva (Schwein.) T. Wagner & M. Fisch. Yes
Hydnum auriscalpium Lour. PREM
longospinosum Lloyd PREM
mucidum Pers. PREM
sclerodontium Mont. & Berk. PREM
setosum Pers. PREM
Hymenochaete cinnamomea (Pers.) Bres. PREM
contiformis G. Cunn. PREM
fasciculata P.H.B. Talbot PREM
fulva Burt PREM
luteobadia (Fr.) Höhn. & Litsch. PREM
ochromarginata P.H.B. Talbot PREM Yes
pinnatifida Burt PREM
rubiginosa (Dicks.) Lév. PREM Yes
semistupposa Petch PREM
tabacina (Sowerby) Lév. PREM
Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetaceae Hymenochaete tristicula (Berk. & Broome) Massee PREM
Phellinus gilvus (Schwein.) Pat. PREM Yes
igniarius (L.) Quél. Yes
resupinatus M. Fisch., Cloete, L. Mostert & Halleen Cloete et al. 2016
rimosus (Berk.) Pilát PREM Yes
Polystictus albobadius C.G. Loyd PREM
doidgei C.G. Loyd PREM
subiculoides C.G. Loyd PREM
Trichaptum byssogenum (Jungh.) Ryvarden Yes
Incertae sedis Incertae sedis Cotylidia aurantiaca f. infundibuliformis D.A. Reid PREM
Grandinia bicolor P.H.B. Talbot PREM
Heterochaete byliana P.H.B. Talbot PREM
Heterochaete grandispora P.H.B. Talbot PREM
Oxyporus populinus (Schumach.) Donk PREM
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Incertae sedis Incertae sedis Riessia semiophora Fresen. PREM
Phallales Phallaceae Anthurus archeri (Berk.) E. Fisch. PREM
Aseroë rubra Labill. PREM Yes
Blumenavia angolensis (Welw. & Curr.) Dring Yes
Clathrella roseolescens E. Fisch. PREM
Clathrus affinis Lloyd PREM
archeri (Berk.) Dring PREM Yes
gracilis (Berk.) Schltdl. PREM
pseudocancellatus (E. Fisch.) Lloyd PREM
transvaalensis Eicker & D.A. Reid Yes
Ileodictyon gracile Berk. Bottomley 1948; Coetzee 2010
Itajahya galericulata Möller PREM Yes
rosea (Delile) E. Fisch. Yes
Jaczewskia phalloides Mattir. PREM
Kalchbrennera corallocephala (Welw. & Curr.) Kalchbr. PREM Yes
Lysurus cruciatus (Lepr. & Mont.) Henn. Bottomley 1948; Coetzee 2010
gardneri Berk. PREM
Mutinus bambusinus (Zoll.) E. Fisch. PREM
caninus (Huds.) Fr. PREM
simplex Lloyd. PREM
Phallus duplicatus Bosc Yes
impudicus L. PREM Yes
indusiatus Vent. PREM Yes
Phallus rubicundus (Bosc) Fr. PREM Yes
Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Daedalea biennis (Bull.) Fr. PREM
hobbsii Van der Byl PREM
quercina (L.) Pers. PREM Yes
Fomitopsis ochroleuca (Berk.) G. Cunn. PREM
Gloeocystidium tenue (Pat.) Höhn. & Litsch. PREM
Phaeolus schweinitzii (Fr.) Pat. PREM Yes
Rhodofomitopsis lilacinogilva (Berk.) B.K. Cui, M.L. Han & Y.C. Dai PREM Yes
Ganodermataceae Amauroderma leptopus (Pers.) J.S. Furtado PREM
fuscoporia Wakef. Wakefield 1948
rude (Berk.) Torrend PREM Yes
schomburgkii (Mont. & Berk.) Torrend PREM
sprucei (Pat.) Torrend Yes
zuluense Talbot PREM
Ganoderma alluaudi Pat. & Har. PREM
annulare (Fr.) Gilb. PREM
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Polyporales Ganodermataceae Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat. PREM Yes
aridicola J.H. Xing & B.K. Cui Xing et al. 2016
austroafricanum Coetzee, M.J. Wingf., Marinc., Blanchette Crous et al. 2014
chilense (Fr.) Pat. PREM
colossus Fr.) C.F. Baker PREM
cf. cupreum (Sacc.) Bres. Tchotet et al. 2019
curtisii (Berk.) Murrill PREM
destructans M.P.A. Coetzee, Marinc., M.J. Wingf. Coetzee et al. 2015
dunense Tchotet, Rajchenb. & Jol. Roux Tchotet et al. 2018
eickeri Tchotet, M.P.A. Coetzee, Rachjenb. & Jol. Roux Tchotet et al. 2019
eminii Henn. PREM
cf. cupreum (Sacc.) Bres Tchotet et al. 2019
enigmaticum M.P.A. Coetzee, Marinc., M.J. Wingf. Coetzee et al. 2015
fulvellum Bres. PREM
hildebrandii Henn. PREM
knysnamense Tchotet, M.P.A. Coetzee, Rachjenb. & Jol. Roux Tchotet et al. 2019
lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst. PREM Yes
mastoporum (Lév.) Pat. PREM
mollicarnosum (Lloyd) Sacc. & Trotter PREM
nigrolucidum (Lloyd) D.A. Reid PREM
oerstedii (Fr.) Torrend PREM
oregonense Murrill PREM
oroflavum (Lloyd) C.J. Humphrey PREM
resinaceum Boud. PREM Yes Tchotet et al. 2019
tornatum (Pers.) Bres. PREM
zonatum Murrill PREM
Incertae sedis Crustodontia chrysocreas (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Hjortstam & Ryvarden Yes
Meruliaceae Acia conferta P.H.B. Talbot PREM
stenodon (Pers.) Bourdot & Galzin PREM
uda (Fr.) P. Karst. PREM
Aegerita webberi H.S. Fawc PREM
Bjerkandera adusta (Willd.) P. Karst. PREM Yes
Cymatoderma elegans Jungh. PREM Yes
Gloeoporus conchoides Mont. PREM
dichrous (Fr.) Bres. PREM
Irpex dregeanus (Berk.) P.H.B. Talbot PREM
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Irpex flavus (Jungh.) Kalchbr. PREM
grossus Kalchbr. PREM
modestus Berk. ex Cooke PREM
obliquus (Schrad.) Fr. PREM
villereus Berk. & Broome PREM
Laschia frieseana (Henn.) Sacc. PREM
pustulata Berk. & Broome PREM
volkensii Bres. PREM
Merulius corium (Pers.) Fr. PREM
gelatinosus Petch PREM
himantioides Fr. PREM
lacrymans (Wulfen) Schumach. PREM
molluscus Fr. PREM
pinastri (Fr.) Burt PREM
rufus Pers. PREM
squalidus Fr. PREM
tremellosus Schrad. PREM
Mycoleptodon ochraceus (Pers.) Bourdot & Galzin PREM
Odontia arguta (Fr.) Quél. PREM
bicolor (Alb. & Schwein.) Quél. PREM
mellea (Berk. & Broome) Rea PREM
Phlebia strigosozonata (Schwein.) Lloyd PREM
Podoscypha affinis (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Pat. PREM
involuta (Klotzsch) Imazeki PREM
parvula (Lloyd) D.A. Reid PREM Yes
Phanerochaetaceae Pseudolagarobasidium acaciicola Ginns Wood and Ginns 2006
Podoscyphaceae Abortiporus biennis (Bull.) Singer Yes
Polyporaceae Coriolopsis lata (Berk.) Ryvarden PREM
polyzona (Pers.) Ryvarden PREM Yes
strumosa (Fr.) Ryvarden PREM
Coriolus azureus (Fr.) G. Cunn. PREM
obducens (Pers.) Bourdot & Galzin PREM
pubescens (Schumach.) Quél. PREM
unicolor (Bull.) Pat. PREM
zonatus (Nees) Quél. PREM
Daedaleopsis confragosa (Bolton) J. Schröt. PREM Yes
Favolus brasiliensis (Fr.) Fr. PREM
europaeus Fr. PREM
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Polyporales Polyporaceae Favolus friesii Berk. & M.A. Curtis PREM
hispidulus Berk. & M.A. Curtis PREM
spathulatus (Jungh.) Lév. PREM Yes
Fomes annosus (Fr.) Cooke PREM
caliginosus (Berk.) Cooke PREM
caryophylli (Racib.) Bres. PREM
conchatus (Pers.) Gillet PREM
connatus (Weinm.) Gillet PREM
fraxineus (Bull.) Cooke PREM
fulvus (Scop.) Gillet PREM
geotropus (Cooke) Cooke PREM
gibbosus (Blume & T. Nees) Sacc. PREM
gilvus (Schwein.) Lloyd PREM
glaucoporus Lloyd PREM
hornodermus (Mont.) Cooke PREM
kamphoeveneri (Fr.) Sacc. PREM
langloisii Murrill) Sacc. & D. Sacc. PREM
laricis (F. Rubel) Murrill PREM
leucophaeus (Mont.) Cooke PREM
lignosus (Klotzsch) Bres. PREM
lividus (Kalchbr. ex Cooke) Sacc. PREM
macgregorii Bres. PREM
marginatus (Pers.) Fr. PREM
marmoratus (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Cooke PREM
melanoporus (Mont.) Sacc. PREM
minutulus Henn. PREM
pachyphloeus Corner PREM
pectinatus Lloyd PREM
pinicola (Sw.) Cooke PREM
putearius Weir PREM
ribis (Schumach.) Gillet PREM
rimosus (Berk.) Cooke PREM
robinsoniae (Murrill) Sacc. & Trotter PREM
roburneus Lázaro Ibiza PREM
roseus (Alb. & Schwein.) Fr. PREM
scalaris (Berk.) Sacc. PREM
senex (Nees & Mont.) Cooke PREM
sessilis (Murrill) Sacc. & D. Sacc. PREM
ulmarius (Sowerby) Gillet PREM
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Polyporales Polyporaceae Fomes ungulatus Lázaro Ibiza PREM
velutinus Bres. PREM
yucatanensis (Murrill) Sacc. & D. Sacc. PREM
zambesianus (Lloyd) Sacc. PREM
zuluensis Wakef. PREM
Funalia gallica (Fr.) Bondartsev & Singer Yes
leonina (Klotzsch) Pat. PREM
protea (Berk.) D.A. Reid Yes
trogii (Berk.) Bondartsev & Singer Yes
Grammothele pseudomappa P.H.B. Talbot PREM
Heliocybe sulcata (Berk.) Redhead & Ginns Yes
Hexagonia albida Lloyd PREM
crinigera Fr. PREM
discopoda Pat. & Har. PREM
dregeana Lév. PREM
friesiana Speg. PREM
glabra (P. Beauv.) Ryvarden PREM
hirta f. hystrix (Cooke) O. Fidalgo PREM
pobeguinii Har. PREM
polygramma (Mont.) Fr. PREM
rigida Berk. PREM
speciosa Fr. PREM
tenuis (Hook.) Fr. PREM Yes
tricolor Fr. PREM
zambesiana Torrend PREM
Lentinus arcularius (Batsch) Zmitr PREM Yes
bissus Quél. PREM
fastuosus Kalchbr. & MacOwan PREM
flabelliformis (Bolton) Fr. PREM
lecomtei Fr. PREM
murrayi Kalchbr. & MacOwan PREM
nigripes Fr. PREM
omphalodes var. africanus A. Pearson Pearson 1950
sajor-caju (Fr.) Fr. PREM Yes
strigosus Fr. PREM Yes
stuppeus Klotzsch PREM Yes
tigrinus (Bull.) Fr. PREM
tuber-regium (Fr.) Fr. PREM
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Polyporales Polyporaceae Lentinus velutinus Fr. PREM Yes
villosus Klotzsch PREM Yes
zeyheri Berk. PREM
Lenzites abietina (Bull.) Fr. PREM
aspera (Klotzsch) Fr. PREM
betulina (L.) Fr. PREM Yes
guineensis (Afzel. ex Fr.) Fr. PREM
junghuhnii Lév. PREM
palisoti (Fr.) Fr. PREM
quercina (L.) P. Karst. PREM
repanda (Mont.) Fr. PREM
tricolor (Bull.) Fr. PREM
Lopharia lirellosa Kalchbr. & MacOwan Kalchbrenner & MacOwan 1881
mirabilis (Berk. & Broome) Pat. PREM
Lignosus sacer (Afzel. ex Fr.) Ryvarden PREM Yes
Microporus xanthopus (Fr.) Kuntze PREM Yes
Nigroporus vinosus (Berk.) Murrill PREM
Neolentinus lepideus (Fr.) Redhead & Ginns PREM Yes
Panus stipticus (Bull.) Fr. PREM
stipticus var. farinaceus (Schumach.) Rea PREM
stuppeus (Klotzsch) Pegler & R.W. Rayner PREM
Perenniporia ochroleuca (Berk.) Ryvarden PREM
Picipes badius (Pers.) Zmitr. & Kovalenko Yes
Phellinus badius (Cooke) G. Cunn. PREM Yes
robustus (P. Karst.) Bourdot & Galzin PREM Yes
Polyporus adustus (Willd.) Fr. PREM
affinis Blume & T. Nees PREM
anebus Berk. PREM
arenosobasus Lloyd PREM
australiensis Wakef. PREM
baurii Kalchbr. PREM
berkeleyi Fr. PREM
biformis Fr. PREM
chilensis Speg. PREM
cichoriaceus Berk. PREM
conchatus C.G. Loyd PREM
cotoneus Pat. & Har. PREM
cuticularis (Bull.) Fr. PREM
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Polyporales Polyporaceae Polyporus dictyopus Mont. PREM Yes
doidgeae Wakef. PREM
durbanensis Van der Byl PREM
durus (Timm) Kreisel PREM
favoloides Henn. PREM
flabelliformis Klotzsch PREM
flexilis Van der Byl PREM
fruticum Berk. & M.A. Curtis PREM
gilvus (Schwein.) Fr. PREM
grammocephalus Berk. PREM
heteroclitus (Bolton) Fr. PREM
immaculatus Berk. ex Lloyd PREM
isidioides Berk, Berkeley 1843
mastoporus Lév. PREM
ochrolaccatus Mont. PREM
ochroleucus Berk. PREM
ochroporus Van der Byl PREM
patouillardi Lloyd PREM
picipes Rostk. PREM
pocula (Fr.) Berk. & M.A. Curtis PREM
radiatus (Sowerby) Fr. PREM
rhipidium Berk. PREM
rubidus Berk. PREM
rugulosus Lasch PREM
rusticus C.G. Loyd PREM
schweinitzii Fr. PREM
semipileatus Peck PREM
setiporus Berk. PREM
squamosus (Huds.) Fr. PREM
subradiatus Bres. PREM
telfairii Klotzsch PREM
trichiliae Van der Byl PREM
undatus Pers. PREM
varius (Pers.) Fr. PREM
vibecinus var. antilopum Kalchbr. PREM
Pycnoporus sanguineus (L.) Murrill PREM Yes
Trametes albotexta C.G. Loyd PREM
capensis Lloyd Doidge 1950
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Polyporales Polyporaceae Trametes cingulata Berk. Yes
elegans (Spreng.) Fr. PREM Yes
gibbosa (Pers.) Fr. Yes
griseolilacina Van der Byl PREM
hirsuta (Wulfen) Loyd PREM Yes
keetii Van der Byl PREM
meyenii (Klotzsch) Lloyd Yes
subflava C.G. Loyd PREM
versicolor (L.) Loyd PREM Yes
Russulales Auriscalpiaceae Lentinellus omphalodes var. africanus A. Pearson Yes
Hericiaceae Dentipellicula austroafricana Jia J. Chen, L.L. Shen & Y.C. Dai Chen et al. 2015
Laxitextum bicolor (Pers.) Lentz PREM Yes
Lachnocladiaceae Asterostroma cervicolor (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Massee PREM
Dichostereum rhodosporum (Wakef.) Boidin & Lanq. PREM
Lachnocladium cristatum Lloyd PREM
zenkeri Henn. PREM
Peniophoraceae Peniophora arenata P.H.B. Talbot PREM
aspera (Pers.) Sacc. PREM
carnea (Willd.) P. Karst. PREM
cinerea (Pers.) Cooke PREM
filamentosa (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Moffatt PREM
gigantea (Fr.) Massee PREM
heterocystidia Burt PREM
longispora var. brachyspora P.H.B. Talbot & V.C. Green PREM
lycii Höhn. & Litsch. PREM
pelliculosa P.H.B. Talbot PREM
quercina (Pers.) Cooke PREM
rimicola (P. Karst.) Höhn. & Litsch. PREM
roumeguerei (Bres.) Bres. PREM
tenuis (Pat.) Massee PREM
tristicula (Berk. & Broome) Boidin & Lanq. PREM
velutina (DC.) Cooke PREM
Russulaceae Lactarius deliciosus (L.) Gray PREM Yes
hepaticus Plowr. PREM Yes
Lactifluus piperatus (L.) Pers. PREM Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1988
Russula agaricina (Kalchbr. ex Berk.) Trappe & T.F. Elliott Berkeley 1876
caerulea Fr. Yes
Fungi Basidiomycota Agaricomycetes Russulales Russulaceae Russula capensis A. Pearson Yes
fallax (Fr.) Fr. Yes
sardonia Fr. PREM Yes
sororia (Fr.) Romell Yes
xerampelina (Schaeff.) Fr. Yes
Stereaceae Aleurodiscus acerinus var. longispora Höhn. & Litsch., PREM
disciformis (DC.) Pat. PREM
limonisporus D.A. Reid PREM
mirabilis (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Höhn. PREM
polygonioides (P. Karst.) Pilát PREM
roseus (Pers.) Höhn. & Litsch. PREM
Stereum adnatum C.G. Loyd PREM
australe Lloyd Yes
erumpens Burt Burt 1920
hirsutum (Wild.) Pers. PREM Yes
laxum C.G. Loyd PREM
ostrea (Blume & T. Nees) Fr. Yes
rimosum var. africanum P.H.B. Talbot PREM
subpiliatum Berk. & M.A. Curtis PREM
tomentosum Van der Byl PREM
turgidum C.G. Loyd PREM
Thelephorales Thelephoraceae Hypochnus eylesii Van der Byl PREM
michelianus Caldesi PREM
Thelephora penicillata C.G. Loyd PREM
terrestris Ehrh. Yes
Dacrymycetes Dacrymycetales Dacrymycetaceae Arrhytidia involuta (Schwein.) Coker PREM
Calocera cornea (Batsch) Fr. PREM Yes
viscosa (Pers.) Fr. PREM
Dacrymyces deliquescens (Bull.) Duby PREM
palmatus (Schwein.) Burt PREM
Dacryopinax elegans (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) G.W. Martin PREM
spathularia (Schwein.) G.W. Martin PREM Yes
Femsjonia natalensis Cooke PREM
Incertae sedis Incertae sedis Incertae sedis Naematoloma capnoides (Fr.) P. Karst. PREM
fasciculare (Huds.) P. Karst. PREM
Tremellomycetes Tremellales Tremellaceae Tremella fuciformis Berk. Yes
mesenterica (Schaeff.) Retz. Yes
Fungi Basidiomycota Tremellomycetes Tremellales Tremellaceae Tremella micropera Kalchbr. & Cooke Kalchbrenner and Cooke 1880
microspora Lloyd Lloyd 1920
Phaeotremella foliaceae (Pers.) Wedin, J.C. Zamora & Millanes Yes
Sirobasidiaceae Sirobasidium magnum Boedijn 1934 Yes
Mucoromycota Thelephoraceae Mucorales Pilobolacecae Pilobolus crystallinus (F.H. Wigg.) Tode Yes
Amoebozoa Mycetozoa Myxomycetes Echinosteliales Echinosteliaceae Echinostelium coelocephalum T.E.Brooks & H.W.Keller See text
Liceales Cribrariaceae Cribraria argillacea (Pers. ex J.F.Gmel.) Pers. See text
cancellata (Batsch) Nann.-Bremek. See text
intricata Schrad. See text
tenella Schrad. See text
Dictydiaethaliaceae Dictydiaethalium plumbeum (Schumach.) Rostaf. See text
Liceaceae Licea biforis Morgan See text
kleistobolus G.W.Martin See text
pedicellata (H.C.Gilbert) H.C.Gilbert See text
Tubiferaceae Lycogala epidendrum (L.) Fr. See text
flavofuscum (Ehrenb.) Rostaf. See text
Reticularia lycoperdon Bull. See text
Tubifera ferruginosa (Batsch) J.F. Gmel. See text
Physarales Didymiaceae Diachea leucopodia (Bull.) Rostaf. See text
Diderma subdictyospermum (Rostaf.) G.Lister See text
effusum (Schwein.) Morgan See text
hemisphaericum (Bull.) Hornem. See text
saundersii (Berk. & Broome ex Massee) Lado See text
Didymium melanospermum (Pers.) T.Macbr. See text
difforme (Pers.) Gray See text
eximium Peck See text
iridis (Ditmar) Fr. See text
nigripes (Link) Fr. See text
squamulosum (Alb. & Schwein.) Fr. & Palmquist See text
Mucilago crustacea F.H.Wigg. See text
Physaraceae Badhamia foliicola Lister See text
macrocarpa (Ces.) Rostaf. See text
affinis Rostaf. See text
nitens Berk. See text
spinispora (Eliasson & N.Lundq.) H.W.Keller & Schokn. See text
utricularis (Bull.) Berk. See text
Badhamiopsis ainoae (Yamash.) T.E.Brooks & H.W.Keller See text
Amoebozoa Mycetozoa Myxomycetes Physarales Physaraceae Craterium leucocephalum (Pers. ex J.F.Gmel.) Ditmar See text
aureum (Schumach.) Rostaf. See text
dictyosporum (Rostaf.) H.Neubert, Nowotny & K.Baumann See text
minutum (Leers) Fr. See text
Fuligo cinerea (Schwein.) Morgan See text
muscorum Alb & Schwein See text
septica (L.) F.H.Wigg. See text
Leocarpus fragilis (Dicks.) Rostaf. See text
Physarella oblonga (Berk. & M.A.Curtis) Morgan See text
Physarum cinereum (Batsch) Pers. See text
melleum (Berk. & Broome) Massee See text
pezizoideum (Jungh.) Pavill. & Lagarde See text
album (Bull.) Chevall. Yes See text
auriscalpium Cooke See text
bitectum G.Lister See text
bivalve Pers. See text
bogoriense Racib. See text
citrinum Schumach. See text
compressum Alb. & Schwein. See text
confertum T.Macbr. See text
didermoides (Pers.) Rostaf. See text
digitatum G.Lister & Farquharson Yes See text
flavicomum Berk. See text
gyrosum Rostaf. See text
javanicum Racib. See text
leucophaeum Fr. See text
leucopus Link See text
mutabile (Rostaf.) G.Lister See text
notabile T.Macbr. See text
nucleatum Rex See text
penetrale Rex See text
pusillum (Berk. & M.A.Curtis) G.Lister See text
roseum Berk. & Broome See text
stellatum (Massee) G.W.Martin See text
tenerum Rex See text
vernum Sommerf. See text
viride (Bull.) Pers. See text
Willkommlangea reticulata (Alb. & Schwein.) Kuntze See text
Amoebozoa Mycetozoa Myxomycetes Stemonitales Stemonitidaceae Amaurochaete atra (Alb. & Schwein.) Rostaf. See text
Comatricha alta Preuss See text
nigra (Pers. ex J.F.Gmel.) J.Schröt. See text
Enerthenema papillatum (Pers.) Rostaf. See text
Lamproderma arcyrioides (Sommerf.) Rostaf. See text
scintillans (Berk. & Broome) Morgan See text
Stemonaria irregularis (Rex) Nann.-Bremek., R.Sharma & Y.Yamam. See text
longa (Peck) Nann.-Bremek. See text
Stemonitis splendens Rostaf. See text
axifera (Bull.) T.Macbr. See text
fusca Roth See text
herbatica Peck See text
pallida Wingate See text
Stemonitopsis typhina (F.H.Wigg.) Nann.-Bremek. See text
Trichiales Dianemaceae Calomyxa metallica (Berk.) Nieuwl. See text
Trichiaceae Arcyria cinerea (Bull.) Pers. See text
denudata (L.) Wettst. See text
incarnata (Pers. ex J.F.Gmel.) Pers. See text
insignis Kalchbr. & Cooke See text
minuta Buchet See text
obvelata (Oeder) Onsberg See text
oerstedii Rostaf. See text
pomiformis (Leers) Rostaf. See text
Hemitrichia clavata (Pers.) Rostaf. See text
serpula (Scop.) Rostaf. ex Lister See text
Metatrichia vesparia (Batsch) Nann.-Bremek. ex G.W.Martin & Alexop. See text
Oligonema schweinitzii (Berk.) G.W.Martin See text
Perichaena depressa Lib. See text
corticalis (Batsch) Rostaf. See text
Trichia persimilis P.Karst. See text
affinis de Bary See text
botrytis (J.F.Gmel.) Pers. See text
favoginea (Batsch) Pers. See text
scabra Rostaf. See text
varia (Pers. ex J.F.Gmel.) Pers. See text
Protostelids Protosteliales Ceratiomyxaceae Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa (O.F.Müll.) T.Macbr. See text
Ceratium sphaeroideum Kalchbr. & Cooke Kalchbrenner and Cooke 1880

The Basidiomycota consisted of 1008 species, 251 genera and 72 families. At the class level, the Agaricomycetes had the highest number (Fig. 1) of species (992), genera (242), and families (68) hosting 86% of the total number of species of macrofungi. The largest order was represented by the Agaricales (504 species) followed by the Polyporales (251 species), Boletales (50 species), Russulales (49 species) and Geastrales (33 species). The smallest orders were the Gloeophyllales and Gomphales with only two species. The largest family was the Agaricaceae (180 species) followed by the Polyporaceae (172 species). Orders with only two species were the Gloeophyllale and Gomphales, while the Thelephorales had four, and the Tremmelales 6 species.

Figure 1. 

Bargraph indicating proportions of families, genera and species per order.

The Ascomycota was represented by 44 species distributed among 20 genera and 10 families. The Pezizomycetes had 34 species, Sordariomycetes 9 species and the Leotiomycetes one species (Table 1). However, the total number of species in these groups are biased in this study to include only those that can be considered as a macrofungus. One member of the Mucorales (Pilobolus crystallinus, Mucoromycota) was also included (Table 1).

More than hundred slime molds have been recorded from South Africa based on the list (Table 1, Fig. 1), with the Physarales (Myxomycota) having the most species (57 species). The 107 names of slime molds contributed originated from published and unpublished sources (Duthie 1917a, b; Doidge 1950; Ndiritu et. al. 2009; Ndiritu and De Haan 2017; Winset KE unpubl. data). Only accepted taxonomic names following the nomenclatural criteria proposed by Lado (2005–2018), which is recognized by the Encyclopedia of Life under Species 2000 and ITIS Catalogue of Life (http://eol.org/), were used. All of the five orders of myxomycetes are present in South Africa, and include the Echinosteliales (represented by one family and one genus), Liceales (four families and six genera), Physarales (two families and three genera), Stemonitales (one family and seven genera) and Trichiales (two families and seven genera). The Protosteliales (Protostelids), a sixth order though not generally regarded as myxomycetes, is represented by only two species, Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa (O.F. Müll.) T. Macbr and Ceratium sphaeroideum Kalchbr. & Cooke (Kalchbrenner and Cooke 1880; Spiegel et al. 2017).

As expected, cosmopolitan and widespread species in Africa have been reported from South Africa, such as Arcyria cinerea (Bull.) Pers., Arcyria denudata (L.) Wettst., Stemonitis fusca Roth, Physarum pusillum (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) G. Lister, P. compressum Alb. & Schwein., Lycogala epidendrum (L.) Fr., Diderma hemisphaericum (Bull.) Hornem., Stemonitis splendens Rostaf., Didymium squamulosum (Alb. & Schwein.) Fr. & Palmquist, Fuligo septic (L.) F.H. Wigg., Hemitrichia serpula (Scop.) Rostaf. ex Lister, Metatrichia vesparia (Batsch) Nann.-Bremek. ex G.W. Martin & Alexop. and Pericheana depressa Lib (http://www.discoverlife.org/). The number of species reported from South Africa also compares favorably with the approximately 375 myxomycete species reported from the African continent and its territories (Ndiritu and de Haan 2017). However, this is fewer than the 431 species reported from 30 countries in the Neotropics and 880 species from across the world (Lado 2005–2018).

Myxomycetes are not represented in PREM. This large deficit is most likely because slime molds have a different biology from fungi. This also reflects the limited focus that the broad fungal diversity has received in South Africa, with a much larger focus on disease causing fungi of plants, animals and humans. Even within mycological circles, slime molds have received very limited attention and there has been no expertise in studying them.

Discussion

The checklist gives an overview of the visible mycobiota of South Africa from different sources of data. The checklist presented in this publication is the first for South African macrofungi and is as comprehensive as can be of currently collected and published macrofungi. The list will serve as a foundation to add names to a future real-time, developing, online list that should eventually become as complete as possible, similar to what is available for other organisms in South Africa such as plants and animals. Information on South African macrofungi is still scanty and a great degree of inventorying is needed to document existing species, as well as new species, in order to produce more detailed checklists of macrofungi of South Africa. It will also need future refinement and additions are already forthcoming, including ecological and distribution information.

South Africa has a long history of mycology. Based on what was published in the available field guides on macrofungi for South Africa (Stephens and Kidd 1953a, b; Levin et al. 1985; Van der Westhuizen and Eicker 1994; Branch 2001; Gryzenhout 2010; Goldman and Gryzenhout 2019), the most common macrofungal species reported across all the years belonged to several genera, including Agaricus L., Amanita Pers., Boletus L., Coprinus Pers., Lactarius Pers., Laetiporus Murr., Macrolepiota Singer, Russula Pers., and Suillus Gray. There exists a level of overlap of species mentioned in the different field guides, but each field guide also included unique species while not one of them is complete or comprehensive due to publishing constraints. However, even the guides combined do not yet encompass the diversity of known and unknown species present in South Africa.

A number of scientific publications exist that listed macrofungi for South Africa in general. Doidge (1950) summarized the content of her book in tabular form, listing 835 Ascomycete species, 1704 Basidiomycetes species (36%) and several species of myxomycetes. The phytopathogenic component of these species, and species discovered since then, were summarized by Crous et al. (2000). Van der Westhuizen and Eicker (1988) listed the various fungi known at that stage in the Pretoria area (Gauteng Province), while Gorter and Eicker (1988) provided Afrikaans names for a list of fungi. Vellinga et al. (2009) and Wood (2017) listed a number of fungi, including macrofungi that they considered to be introduced into South Africa.

Eicker and Baxter (1999) presented a good overview of research done on basidiomycetes from 1977 to 1999. Their publication provides references to studies on the genera and species of Phaeolus (Pat.) Pat., Pisolithus Alb. & Schwein., Termitomyces R. Heim, Amanita Pers., Chlorophyllum Massee, Clathrus P. Micheli ex L., Hymenagaricus Heinem., Lepiota (Pers.) Gray, Macrolepiota Singer, Leucoagaricus Locq. ex Singer, Leucocoprinus Pat., Montagnea Fr. and Hymenochaete Lév. A monograph on resupinate and stereoid Hymenomycetes, a revision of Hymenochaete Lév. (Hymenochaetaceae) (Job, 1987) and a series of papers dealing with Stereum Pers., Lopharia Kalchbr. & MacOwan, Cymatoderma Jungh. and the Thelephoraceae (Gorter, 1979). Paul A. van der Byl was known for his pioneering work on polypores or bracket fungi while Averil M. Bottomley documented South African Gasteromycetes (Bottomley, 1948). New species of Gasteromycetes were described, such as Bovista acocksii De Villiers, Eicker & Van der Westhuizen (De Villiers et al. 1989), but limited information is still available for the Geasteraceae of South Africa (Coetzee and Van Wyk 2003). A new basidiomycetous species, namely Pseudolagarobasidium acaciicola Ginns, was considered to be a potential biocontrol against the invasive weed Acacia cyclops (Wood and Ginns 2006; Kotzé et al. 2015).

A number of recent studies on macrofungi included DNA phylogenetic data. For example, studies during the early part of the last century reported Armillaria mellea (Vahl: Fr.) P. Kumm. in South Africa (Pole 1933; Kotzé 1935; Bottomley 1937), that was largely associated with an expanding plantation forestry industry and the pathogenic nature of the fungus. However, recent morphologic and DNA-based studies showed that the fungus killing pine trees in South Africa is A. fuscipes Petch (Coetzee et al. 2000), while the Northern Hemisphere species A. mellea and A. gallica Marxm. & Romagn. are restricted to the Western Cape on non-native trees and dying Protea plants in the Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens, respectively (Coetzee et al. 2000, 2003). However, recent studies alarmingly showed that A. mellea is spreading to native fynbos areas and is able to infect a number of native plants in natural ecosystems of the Western Cape (Coetzee et al. 2018).

A number of new Ganoderma species were discovered through the use of DNA sequences. These include Ganoderma austroafricanum Coetzee, M.J. Wingf., Marinc., Blanchette on Jacaranda mimosifolia, which was assumed to be the main causal agent of root rot on these trees (Crous et al. 2014), G. enigmaticum M.P.A. Coetzee, Marinc., M.J. Wingf. and G. destructans M.P.A. Coetzee, Marinc., M.J. Wingf. (Coetzee et al. 2015). Ganoderma destructans, another novel species G. dunense Tchotet, Rachjenb. & Jol. Roux, an undescribed novel species of Ganoderma, and Pseudolagaricobasidion acaciicola were also found associated with dying plants of the invasive weed Acacia cyclops in the Eastern and Western Cape Province (Tchoumi et al. 2018). A survey (Tchotet et al. 2017) on wood-rotting basidiomycetes from various declining native tree species in the Garden Route National Park (Western Cape) also showed Ganoderma to be the most prominent associated group, together with Innonotus, Fomitoparia and Wrightoporia to a lesser degree. The study also defined other operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with sequence data from such symptoms, and assigned tentative identities based on closest sequence hits on the UNITE database. In Tchotet et al. (2019) the OTU’s belonging to Ganoderma was further characterized based on multi-gene phylogenies and brought up the number of Ganoderma species present in South Africa to 13. From the study another two new species, namely G. eickeri Tchotet, M.P.A. Coetzee, Rachjenb. & Jol. Roux and G. knysnamense Tchotet, M.P.A. Coetzee, Rachjenb. & Jol. Roux, were described, and the two phylogenetetic groups named as G. cf. resinaceum Boud. and G. cf. cupreum (Sacc.) Bres. could indicate the first reports of these species in South Africa. Ganoderma cf. cupreum has not been previously collected or observed (Table 1), while specimens of G. resinaceum are present in PREM and the species has been recorded previously (Table 1).

A new Fomitiporia species, F. capensis M. Fisch., M. Cloete, L. Mostert, F. Halleen, was described from South Africa based on fruit body morphology and combined internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large-subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU) sequence comparisons (Cloete et al. 2014). The new species Phellinus resupinatus M. Fisch., M. Cloete, L. Mostert, F. Halleen, was found to be associated with the disease esca and white rot on grape vines (Cloete et al. 2016). Two new Chlorophyllum species, namely C. palaeotropicum Z.W. Ge & A. Jacobs and C. africanum Z.W. Ge & A. Jacobs, were described based on morphology and DNA sequences of the ITS, partial LSU, the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2) and translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1) sequences (Ge et al. 2018). The jacaranda stinkhorn (Itajahya galericulata Möller) in Pretoria was also typed phylogenetically (Marincowitz et al. 2015).

Fungi associated with termite mounds formed the focus of a number of studies. Termitomyces spp. associated with some termite species are arguably some of the best known fungi among non-specialists in South Africa, as they are rather obvious, numerous, interesting and a well-loved delicacy. A number of species have been described from South Africa (Botha and Eicker 1991a, b; Eicker and Baxter 1999; Fine Licht et al. 2005), but not all species of Termitomyces associated with the 42 South African fungus growing termite species have been characterized. Neither have the Xylaria Hill ex Schrank species (Ascomycetes, Xylariaceae) associated with termite nests been fully characterized. However, X. fioriana Sacc. was identified and described in South Africa (Saccardo 1891). Another well-known associate with termite mounds, Podaxis pistillaris (L.) Fr., was also found to consist of more than one phylogenetic lineage, including several collections from Africa, that could be supported morphologically and ecologically (Conlon et al. 2016, 2019).

A total of 105 myxomycete species (Table 1) are known from South Africa (Ndiritu and De Haan 2017). The first record of myxomycetes of South African myxomycetes was published in 1917 (Duthie 1917a). Additional published surveys included Duthie (1917b) and Doidge (1950). One would expect more species in South Africa especially when considering the presence of diverse habitats across such a large surface area. Clearly, this is a vastly understudied and underexploited group in South Africa supported by no local expertise.

A number of species presented in past field guides (Table 1), which should present studied fungi, do not have specimens lodged in PREM (15%, excluding slime molds) and are thus not present in our National Collection. For instance, none of the important termite-cultivated Termitomyces species, including the iconic Termitomyces umkowaan (Cooke & Massee) D.A. Reid that is readily consumed by many, has fungorium specimens in PREM. These even include commonly occurring species such as Schizophyllum commune Fr. that are widespread throughout South Africa and that can even be observed in dry conditions. Only 14% of fungi (excluding slime molds) published in previous field guides are also lodged in PREM (Table 1).

Conversely, a very large proportion of species in PREM (77% excluding slime molds) have not been included in popular field guides and are thus largely unknown to citizens interested in these fungi, and even professional mycologists. These pieces of forgotten knowledge are crucial to complete the current and future status of our fungal biodiversity, and represent a glimpse of the diversity in earlier times. For instance, 11 species of Pholiota (Fr.) P. Kumm. are lodged in PREM but did not feature in previous field guides. A twelfth species, P. squarrosa (Oeder) P. Kumm., is the only species currently listed in field guides but specimens for this species are not lodged in PREM (Table 1). Many of these collections representing genera or closely related groups, however, represent invaluable research opportunities to update the status of species in South Africa in the form of monographs and contemporary phylogenetic studies, to add new samples and possibly describe novel species.

Although great care was taken to eliminate possible synonyms present in the list, and to provide the most recent names for species listed under previous names (Index Fungorum 2019; Crous et al. 2004), a number of synonyms and previous names most likely are still present. It is impossible to continuously crosscheck the list, but errors can be rectified with future revisions for certain groups in the list that aim to eliminate these problems. It is also important to remember when using the list for research, that previous synonyms (including original published or collected names as listed in the contemporary taxonomic databases Index Fungorum and Mycobank) must also be searched.

A number of names listed in Doidge (1950) are not yet present in the list. Since a large proportion of these listed names have new combinations, it was uncertain whether the original author/-s observed them in the sense of what they are called today, or to what genus or species they were attributed to in the past. Some of these names also proved to be non-existent. Due to the importance of Doidge (1950) and the large number of names it contains, it was thus decided to rather treat the names included in Doidge (1950) separately where they can be more carefully linked to existing names and collections and their validity verified, before inclusion in the current checklist published here.

We emphasize that data obtained from publications and books were based on names only at this stage, because although published, some names were not supported by voucher collections that can be used to validate the accuracy of the included names. Even lists obtained from the fungorium, although tied to specimens, may represent misidentifications, previous synonyms or specimens not yet updated to recent systematic schemes for the particular taxon. Furthermore, a large number of macrofungi are still unnamed in South Africa, remain undiscovered, or new reports continue to be generated where discovered fungi could be identified. However, the working list presented here should form a solid foundation to revise names and add more names in future, especially if tied to certain targets or priorities matched to existing expertise and collaborations.

Having a fungal name list is invaluable. It is the first step towards compiling an atlas for macrofungi, similar to what exists for other organisms in South Africa (for example, Harrison et al. 1997). Such an atlas can also include distribution, ecological and biological data useful for diverse end users in governmental institutions, and those linked to conservation, ecology, academia and citizen science (Gryzenhout 2015). Additional products would be used to compile, for the first time, a red-list of macrofungi based on International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria, and guidelines to protect them based on their biology. It will aid to identify indicator species to monitor ecological integrity and change. The residency status of macrofungi can be defined better, and species that are truly endemic, naturalized, introduced or invasive can be defined properly within each group. The need for this is already evident where fungi have been previously listed (Vellinga et al. 2009; Wood 2017) but there was no national list for comparison. In fact, one species listed in Vellinga et al. (2009), Inocybe curvipes P. Karst., is not present in previous publications or in PREM (Table 1). The checklist information can be used in education for the sustainable and safe use of fungal natural resources, to produce conservation awareness and regulation to protect naturally harvested species and habitats from over-harvesting (Gryzenhout et al. 2010, 2012). Lastly, the lists will be instrumental to do gap assessments from the compiled data to help identify research needs in future, for example where to focus surveys and collections, revisions, and where the greatest gaps for species descriptions exist. A list will also enable citizen scientist collaboration and participation and make the study of fungi more transparent (Gryzenhout 2015).

Human capacity should be developed in the area of mycology and biodiversity conservation. The species found in each region of South Africa is still unknown and there have not been any recent monographic works. Furthermore, a great need exists to continue revising the list, to ensure that more representatives of species are added and taxonomic revisions are undertaken and included in the list. The list should also be enabled to continue and long-term plans should be developed to ensure its sustainability.

The list presented is only based on species and specimens that could be named. A great deal of unknown taxa of macrofungi still exist. In fact, approximately 200 ‘‘unknown’’ macrofungal species of the fungorium records were left out from the list. Furthermore, approximately half of the records lodged in MushroomMap (http://adu.org.za/) represent fungi that could not be identified, whereas a great number of equally unknown fungi is posted on the Mushrooms for South Africa Facebook page (https://www.facebook.com/groups/MushroomsSouthernAfrica/), or communicated by citizen scientists (Gryzenhout 2015). This great deficit or inability to name numerous South African macrofungi is indicative of the great diversity that we have, the large proportion that are still undiscovered, unstudied, and hence under-utilized, and the paucity of human capacity to do this (South African Fungal Diversity Network 2013). Without active description and characterization, these fungi will remain in obscurity.

Acknowledgements

Without financial support from the Foundational Biodiversity Information Programme (FBIP), South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, this would not have been possible. Thanks also to Dr Paul Kirk (UK) for providing us with a list of species that was first described from South Africa, and the invaluable comments of the reviewers. Paul Kirk for providing us with a list of species first described from South Africa, and Dr David Minter for inclusion of the data in Cybertruffle (both from Centre of Bioscience and Agriculture, UK). We also thank the reviewers for their invaluable comments.

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