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Recognition of Mycena sect. Amparoina sect. nov. (Mycenaceae, Agaricales), including four new species and revision of the limits of sect. Sacchariferae
expand article infoQin Na, Tolgor Bau
‡ Chinese Ministry of Education for Edible and Medicinal Fungi, Changchun, China
Open Access

Abstract

Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that Mycena stirps Amparoina, which is traditionally classified in sect. Sacchariferae, should be treated at section level. Section Amparoina is characterised by the presence or absence of cherocytes, the presence of acanthocysts and spinulose caulocystidia. Eight species referred to Mycena sect. Amparoina sect. nov. are recognised in China. Of these taxa, four new species classified in the new section are formally described: M. bicystidiata sp. nov., M. griseotincta sp. nov., M. hygrophoroides sp. nov. and M. miscanthi sp. nov. The new species are characterised by the absence of both cherocytes and a basal disc, along with the presence of acanthocysts on the pileus, spinulose cheilocystidia and caulocystidia. Descriptions of the new species, accompanied by illustrations of morphological characters and comparisons with closely related taxa, are provided. A multi-locus analysis utilising the ITS + nLSU + SSU regions was carried out using maximum likelihood and Bayesian Inference. A key to the 12 species of sect. Amparoina sect. nov. and sect. Sacchariferae that are found in China is provided.

Keywords

Agarics, new taxon, systematics, taxonomy

Introduction

The genus Mycena (Pers.) Roussel is characterised by small basidiomata, thin and convex pileus with sulcate margin, non-deliquescent lamellae and hollow stipe (Persoon 1797). The genus comprises more than 500 species and is distributed worldwide (Kirk et al. 2008). Mycena sect. Sacchariferae Kühner ex Singer, which is one of the largest sections in the genus, was first published as a nomen nudum by Kühner (1938), who defined the section to include members that possess a granulose or “sugar coated” pileus. In 1958, Singer erected the monotypic genus Amparoina Singer to house Marasmius spinosissimus Singer based on the collections from Argentina (Singer 1958). Later, Singer (1976) established Amparoinaceae with A. spinosissima (Singer) Singer as type species and introduced another species in Amparoina, A. heteracantha Singer. Meanwhile he suggested that Amparoina was similar to sect. Sacchariferae, but maintained the autonomy of the former due to inamyloid basidiospores and revised sect. Sacchariferae to be characterised by a pileipellis with acanthocysts, which remain as terminal cells overlaid by a universal veil (Singer 1976). The pileus of cherocytes and acanthocysts distinguish taxa of sect. Sacchariferae from all other Mycena species. Section Sacchariferae was subdivided by Desjardin (1995) into stirps Amparoina Desjardin, stirps Alphitophora Desjardin and stirps Adscendens Desjardin, with 55 epithets classified into 27 taxa, based on presence or absence of a basal disc, cherocytes, and diverse caulocystidia. Maas Geesteranus and de Meijer (1997) established a fourth stirps, named stirps Fuscinea Maas Geest. & de Meijer, in which the acanthocysts possess brown contents, a character similar to that of stirps Amparoina. Only two species have been classified in stirps Fuscinea, namely M. fuscinea Maas Geest. & de Meijer and M. fuliginea Maas Geest. & de Meijer (Maas Geesteranus and de Meijer 1998). The morphology-based infrasectional classification of Mycena sect. Sacchariferae, proposed by Desjardin (1995), has been widely adopted. However, no phylogenetic reconstruction of relationships in sect. Sacchariferae has been published to assess the validity of the infrasectional classification.

Previous studies of sect. Sacchariferae have focused on species distributed in Europe and North and South America, with more than 60 species studied in the past 30 years (Maas Geesteranus 1983, 1992a, 1992b; Lodge 1988; Takahashi 1999; Perry 2002; Grgurinovic 2003; Robich 2003, 2016; Tanaka and Hongo 2003; Nealel 2009; Robich and Hausknecht 2009; Zamora and Català 2013; Cortéspérez et al. 2015; Aronsen and Læssøe 2016). In contrast, studies of Asian taxa have been scanty until recent years. Aravindakshan and Manimohan (2015) described ten taxa, including six new species in sect. Sacchariferae from India. Only three species, M. anoectochili L. Fan & S.X. Guo, M. alphitophora (Berk.) Sacc. and M. cornephora Maas Geest., were formerly reported from China (Guo et al. 1997; Li et al. 2015). However, recently, three new taxa of sect. Sacchariferae were described, namely M. castaneicola T. Bau & Q. Na, M. hyalinostipitata T. Bau & Q. Na and M. substylobates T. Bau & Q. Na, from subtropical regions of China (Na and Bau 2019).

A phylogenetic reconstruction of Mycena was incongruous with the traditional classification of stirps Amparoina within sect.Sacchariferae and indicated that the taxonomic classification of the section should be reconsidered. During our ongoing research on Mycena, four new taxa without a basal disc and cherocytes, belonging to the new section, were found in southern China in Chongqing City, Guangdong Province, Henan Province, Hubei Province, Tibet Autonomous Region, Yunnan Province and Zhejiang Province. These species are described here. Based on the phylogenetic analyses, an identification key to the 12 species of sect. Sacchariferae and sect. Amparoina currently known from China is provided.

Materials and methods

Morphological study

Macroscopic characters were described from fresh specimens following conventional taxonomic methods. Colour terms and notations refer to those of Kornerup and Wanscher (1978). Microscopic characters were observed from dried specimens rehydrated in 5% potassium hydroxide (KOH) and stained with Congo red, using a Nikon 80i light microscope. Melzer’s reagent was used for testing amyloid and dextrinoid reactions of all tissues (Horak 2005). The spore shape quotient (spore length divided by spore width; Q = L/B) was calculated from 40 mature basidiospores; 90% of the numerical range is indicated outside parentheses and the 10% extreme values are enclosed in parentheses. Author abbreviations are based on those used in Index Fungorum (https://www.indexfungorum.org). Voucher specimens have been deposited in the Herbarium Mycology of Jilin Agricultural University (HMJAU).

DNA extraction, PCR amplification and DNA sequencing

Material for DNA isolation was taken from dried specimens. Genomic DNA was extracted from samples using the NuClean Plant Genomic DNA Kit (Kangwei Century Biotechnology Company Limited, Beijing, China). The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was amplified with the primer pair ITS1 and ITS4 (White et al. 1990). The nLSU and SSU regions were amplified using the primers LROR/LR7 and MS1/MS2, respectively (Ward et al. 1992; Hopple and Vilgalys 1999). The PCR cycling schedule for the ITS, nLSU and SSU region used a touchdown programme (Na and Bau 2018). All newly generated sequences were deposited in GenBank (Table 1).

Sequenced specimens used in phylogenetic analysis.

Taxa Voucher Locality GenBank accession no.
ITS nLSU SSU
Infundibulicybe gibba (Pers.) Harmaja AFTOL-ID 1508 USA DQ490635 DQ457682
I. gibba FLAS-F-60947 Unpublished MH016906
Mycena abramsii (Murrill) Murrill HMJAU 43282 Jilin: Jingyuetan National Scenic Area, Changchun City MH396626 MK629348 MK629326
M. abramsii HMJAU 43468 Jilin: Jingyuetan National Scenic Area, Changchun City MH396627 MK629328
HMJAU 43523 Jilin: Songjiang Town, Jiaohe City MH396628 MK629350 MK629330
HMJAU 43606 Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region: Mangui Town, Hulunbeier City MH396629 MK629355 MK629336
M. adscendens Maas Geest. Orstadius329-05 Norway: Strengsdal Village, Vestfold KT900141
M. adscendens Aronsen061119 Norway: Strengsdal Village, Vestfold KT900142
Aronsen120826 Norway: Strengsdal Village, Vestfold KT900143
M. alphitophora HMJAU 43498 Jilin: Shenglihe forest farms, Jiaohe City MH136830 MK629329
HMJAU 43686 Yunnan: Zixi Mountain National Nature Reserve, Chuxiong City MH136831 MK629343
M. arcangeliana Bres. 252b Italy: Venice Museum of Natural History, Venice JF908401
M. arcangeliana 252f Italy: Venice Museum of Natural History, Venice JF908402
M. bicystidiata T.Bau & Q.Na HMJAU 43589 Hubei: Yandongwan, Lichuan County MK309774
M. bicystidiata HMJAU 43593 Hubei: Xingdou Mountain National Nature Reserves MK309775 MK629354
HMJAU 43648, Type Chongqing: Dafengbao Scenic Regions, Huangshui Town MK309773 MK629359 MK629341
HMJAU 43744 Zhejiang: Tianmu Mountain National Nature Reserves, Hangzhou City MK309776
M. castaneicola T.Bau & Q.Na HMJAU 43578, Type Henan: Jigong Mountain National Nature, Xinyang City MH136826 MK629334
M. castaneicola HMJAU 43581 Henan: Bolden National Forest Park, Xinyang City MH136827
M. citrinomarginata Gillet HMJAU 43563 Shanxi: Wutai Mountain National Nature, Xinzhou City MG654739 MK629351 MK629331
M. citrinomarginata 317h Italy: Venice Museum of Natural History, Venice JF908416
AD4TN Tunisia: Aïn Draham KU973883
M. corynephora Maas Geest. HMJAU 43574 Henan: Xinyang City MH136832 MK629332
M. corynephora HMJAU 43576 Henan: Xinyang City MH136833 MK629333
M. diosma Krieglst.&Schwöbel 320f Italy: Venice Museum of Natural History, Venice JF908417
M. griseotincta T.Bau & Q.Na HMJAU 43800, Type Yunnan: Shangri-La Pudacuo National Park MK309783 MK629363 MK629346
M. griseotincta HMJAU 43805 Yunnan: Shangri-La Pudacuo National Park MK309782
HMJAU 43819 Tibet: Zhuqudeng Village, Nyingchi City MK309784
M. heteracantha (Singer) Desjardin HMJAU 43709, Hunan: Yuelu Mountain, Changsha City MK309785 MK629362 MK629345
M. heteracantha HMJAU 43711 Hunan: Xiaoxi National Nature Reserves MK309786
HMJAU 43716 Hunan: Gaowangjie National Nature Reserves MK309787
M. hyalinostipitata T.Bau&Q. Na HMJAU 43693, Type Yunnan: Yeyahu Scenic Spot, Kunming City MH136828 MK629361 MK629344
M. hyalinostipitata HMJAU 43701 Yunnan: Yeyahu Scenic Spot, Kunming City MH136829
M. hygrophoroides HMJAU 43417, Type Guangdong: Chebaling National Nature Reserve, Shaoguan City MK309780 MK629349 MK629327
HMJAU 43421 Guangdong: Shangxie Village, Shaoguan City MK309781
M. meliigena (Berk.&Cooke) Sacc. 39 Italy: Venice Museum of Natural History, Venice JF908423
M. meliigena 39d Italy: Venice Museum of Natural History, Venice JF908429
M. miscanthi T.Bau & Q.Na HMJAU 43573 Henan: Jinniu Mountain, Xinyang City MK309777 MK629352
M. miscanthi HMJAU 43582 Henan: Bolden National Forest Park, Xinyang City MK309778
HMJAU 43584, Type Henan: Jigong Mountain National Nature, Xinyang City MK309779 MK629353 MK629335
M. pearsoniana Dennis ex Singer FCME25817 USA: Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee JN182198
M. pearsoniana TENN61544 USA: Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee JN182199
TENN61384 USA: Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee JN182200
M. pelianthina (Fr.) Quél. 108b Italy: Venice Museum of Natural History, Venice JF908379
M. pelianthina 108f Italy: Venice Museum of Natural History, Venice JF908380
CBH164 Denmark: Jutland, Paderup Mose FN394548
M. pseudocorticola Kühner 124a Italy: Venice Museum of Natural History, Venice JF908386
M. pura (Pers.) P. Kumm. HMJAU 43121 Liaoning: Ant Ridge, Dandong City MK309793
M. pura HMJAU 43179 Heilongjiang: Shengshan National Nature Reserve MK309794
TENN65043 USA: Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee JN182202
M. rosea Gramberg CBH409 Germany: Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald FN394551
M. rosea TL12409 Denmark: Jutland, Skivum Nørrekrat FN394557
M. rosella (Fr.) P. Kumm. 938a Italy: Venice Museum of Natural History, Venice JF908488
M. rosella Champ-21 JGI MycoCosm database KX449424
M. seminau A.L.C.Chew&Desjardin ACL136 Malaysia: Ulu Gombak, Selangor KF537250
M. seminau ACL308 Malaysia: Ulu Gombak, Selangor KF537252
M. silvae-nigrae Maas Geest.&Schwöbel 515 Italy: Venice Museum of Natural History, Venice JF908452
M. silvae-nigrae CC 13-12 USA: Great Smoky Mountains National Park KF359604
M. substylobates T.Bau & Q.Na HMJAU 43418, Type Guangdong: Chebaling National Nature Reserve, Shaoguan City MH216189
M. substylobates HMJAU 43444 Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Chongzuo City MH216190
M. supina (Fr.) P. Kumm. 128a Italy: Venice Museum of Natural History, Venice JF908388
M. tenerrima Maas Geest. HMJAU 43646 Chongqing: Huangshui Town MK309795 MK629340
M. tenerrima HMJAU 43816 Tibet: Bomi County, Nyingchi City MK309796 MK629364
M. zephirus (Fr.) P. Kumm. CBS 270.48 Netherlands: Microbial Biological Resource Centres MH856339
M. zephirus CBS 273.48 Netherlands: Microbial Biological Resource Centres MH856341

Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis

A dataset, comprising sequences for the ITS + nLSU + SSU region from 96 accessions with taxonomic coverage of Europe, North America, Australia, Africa and Asia, was compiled and analysed. Sequences for 32 accessions were downloaded from GenBank and 64 newly generated sequences obtained in this study were aligned and adjusted manually using BioEdit 7.0.4.1 and Clustal X (Thompson et al. 1997; Hall 1999). The alignment was deposited with TreeBase (submission ID, 24326; study accession URL: http://purl.org/phylo/treebase/phylows/study/TB2:S24326). Infundibulicybe gibba were chosen as the outgroup. The aligned dataset consisted of 817 ITS, 1530 nLSU and 620 SSU nucleotide sites (including gaps). The best-fit evolutionary model was identified using Modeltest 2.3 for each of the ITS, nLSU and SSU data partitions for Bayesian Inference (BI), which was implemented with MrBayes 3.2.6 (Ronquist and Huelsenbeck 2003; Nylander 2004). Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) chains were run for one million generations, sampling every 100th generation until the critical value for the topological convergence diagnostic was less than 0.01 (Ronquist and Huelsenbeck 2003). Maximum Likelihood (ML) analysis was performed in raxmlGUI 1.5b1, with a rapid bootstrapping algorithm involving 1,000 replicates (Stamatakis et al. 2004). Topology support values greater than 75% bootstrap support (ML) 0.95 and Bayesian posterior probabilities (BPP) are shown at each branch node.

Results

Phylogeny

Sect. Amparoina (Clade 5) formed a distinct clade separated from sect. Sacchariferae (Clade 4), sect. Calodontes (Clade 3), sect. Supinaae (Clade 2) and sect. Fragilipedes (Clade 1), as a sister group to all other clades within the ingroup with high statistical support (ML ≥ 75%, BPP ≥ 1.00) and should be elevated to section level.

Phylogenetic reconstructions obtained using BI and ML showed similar topologies. The best-scoring Maximum Likelihood (ML) tree was selected as a representative phylogeny (Fig. 1). The optimal evolutionary model for the 5.8S and nLSU partition were lset nst = 6, rates = invgamma and prset statefreqpr = dirichlet (1,1,1,1) and SSU was lset nst = 6, rates = gamma and prset statefreqpr = dirichlet (1,1,1,1). The phylogenetic tree contained six clades, five including species of Mycena. The latter clade was nested within the clades of Mycena species. Each of the five clades of Mycena species corresponded with a taxonomic section, circumscribed from morphological characters, with high statistical support (ML ≥ 75%, BPP ≥ 0.95).

Samples of the four new species were placed in separate monophyletic lineages, each with high statistical support (M. bicystidiatum, ML = 99%, BPP = 1.00; M. griseotincta, ML = 99%, BPP = 1.00; M. hygrophoroides, ML = 98%, BPP = 0.99; M. miscanthi, ML = 100%, BPP = 1.00; Fig. 1). The phylogenetic tree resolved a strongly supported stirps Alphitophora comprising these species along with M. alphitophora (Berk.) Sacc., M. corynephora Maas Geest. in Clade 5 with ML = 100%, BPP = 1.00. Then stirps Amparoina, also located in Clade 5 as sister group with stirps Alphitophora, formed a monophyletic lineage with high statistical support in accordance with a basal disc in morphology. The distinction of the new taxa from the closely related species, M. alphitophora and M. corynephora, was also supported.

Figure 1. 

Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian tree concatenated ITS+nLSU+SSU dataset (ML ≥ 75%, BPP ≥ 0.95 are indicated). The tree is rooted with Infundibulicybe gibba. The new species are marked by ●.

Taxonomy

Key to species of sect. Amparoina and sect. Sacchariferae in China

1 Basal disc present, cherocytes absent, acanthocysts present, caulocystidia smooth or with few spines (sect. Sacchariferae) 2
Basal disc present or absent, cherocytes present or absent, acanthocysts present, caulocystidia spinulose (sect. Amparoina) 5
2 Pileus grey-black M. anoectochila
Pileus white 3
3 Caulocystidia irregularly shaped M. substylobates
Caulocystidia fusiform 4
4 Cheilocystidia fusiform with spines in the middle part M. tenerrima
Cheilocystidia sphaeropedunculate with spines overall M. hyalinostipitata
5 Basal disc and cherocytes present (stirps Amparoina) 6
Basal disc and cherocytes absent (stirps Alphitophora) 7
6 Habitat on fruits of Castanea, pileus slightly pubescent M. castaneicola
Habitat on dead wood or humus layer, pileus with bran-like covering M. heteracantha
7 Lamellae distant, L < 10, I < 3 M. hygrophoroides
Lamellae normal, L > 15, I > 6 8
8 Basidiomata typically grey M. griseotincta
Basidiomata white 9
9 Caulocystidia of two types, sphaeropedunculate or clavate M. bicystidiata
Caulocystidia clavate 10
10 Basidiospores globose M. corynephora
Basidiospores ellipsoid 11
11 Acanthocysts of one type, sphaeropedunculate M. miscanthi
Acanthocysts of two types, globose or long-clavate M. alphitophora

Amparoina T.Bau & Q.Na, sect. nov.

MycoBank No: 829096

Diagnosis

Pileus densely pubescent to furfuraceous. Stipe arising from a well-developed basal disc or base swollen without a basal disc. Cheilocystidia with spines. Cherocystes present or absent. Acanthocysts present and overlying universal veil. Caulocystidia densely spinulose overall, never smooth.

Type species

Mycena spinosissima (Singer) Desjardin

Etymology

Name refers to the name of stirps Amparoina.

Mycena bicystidiata T.Bau & Q.Na, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: 829097
Figs 2c–d, 3

Diagnosis

Pileus furfuraceous to pruinose. Stipe without basal disc. Basidiospores small, 6.1–7.9 × 3.7–4.6 μm. Cheilocystidia clustered, sphaero-pedunculate to utriform with numerous sharp excrescences. Cherocytes absent. Acanthocysts pyriform to vesicular. Caulocystidia of two types, sphaero-pedunculate or clavate covered with conic spines. Clamps present.

Holotype

CHINA. Chongqing City, Dafengbao Scenic Regions, 15 Aug 2017, Qin Na, HMJAU 43648.

Etymology

Name refers to its two types of caulocystidia.

Description

Pileus 2.8–5.2 mm in diam., conical when young, becoming nearly hemispherical with age, pure white all over, sulcate, translucent-striate, pruinose, furfur-like scattered, margin entire first, then nearly plane and finally fissile. Context very thin and fragile, pure white. Lamellae 0.5 mm thick, narrowly adnate, off-white, concolorous with the sides. Stipe slender, 15–28 × 0.5–1.0 mm, cylindrical, hollow, fragile, pure white, densely pruinose on the whole surface, base swollen and not forming a basal disc, hirsute. Odour and taste inconspicuous.

Basidiospores (5.6-)6.1–7.9(-8.3) × (3.5)3.7–4.6(4.9) μm, Q=1.6–2.0, ellipsoid to oblong-ellipsoid, hyaline, with drops, thin walled, amyloid. Basidia 20–26 × 6–9 μm, clavate, hyaline, 4- or 2-spored. Cheilocystidia 19–32 × 12–18 μm, clustered, sphaero-pedunculate to utriform with numerous sharp spines, thin-walled and hyaline, inamyloid. Pleurocystidia absent. Pileipellis hyphae 4–7 μm wide, weakly dextrinoid; cherocytes absent; a cutis overlaid by elements of universal veil, not in chains; acanthocysts of one type, numerous, pyriform to vesicular, 29–62 × 24–51 μm, inamyloid. Hyphae of the stipitipellis 3–14 μm wide, smooth, dextrinoid; caulocystidia abundant, of two types, utriform, sphaero-pedunculate, 21–85 × 14–66 μm or clavate, long-elliptic, 21–85 × 11–26 μm, densely and evenly spinulose overall, hyaline, thin-walled, inamyloid. Clamps present in all tissues.

Habit and habitat

Solitary to scattered on rotten wood in mixed forests, Bamboos, Cunninghamia, Ginkgo and Platycladus forests.

Other specimens examined

CHINA. Hubei Province, Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Lichuan County, Yandongwan, 19 Jul 2017, Qin Na, HMJAU 43589; Xingdou Mountain National Nature Reserves, 20 Jul 2017, Qin Na, HMJAU 43593; Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou City, Tianmu Mountain National Nature Reserves, 4 Jul 2018, Qin Na and Tolgor Bau, HMJAU 43774.

Remarks

Mycena bicystidiata is unique in sect. Amparoina stirps Alphitophora because of the two types of caulocystidia covered with conic spines. Mycena alphitophora, which is the most widely distributed species of sect. Amparoina, shows the most morphological similarities to M. bicystidiatum; however, the former differs in forming cylindric spores (7.5–10 × 4.5–5.5 μm), sphaero-pedunculate cheilocystidia and caulocystidia that are only clavate in shape (Desjardin 1995). Mycena depilata Singer is easily mistaken for M. bicystidiata by the stipe without a basal disc and the similar shape and size of spores and cheilocystidia, but M. depilata is distinguished from M. bicystidiata by its small basidiomata (pileus < 0.3 mm), larger spores (8.5–10 × 4.5–5.2 μm), and long-cylindrical and larger caulocystidia (30–120 × 5–20 μm) (Desjardin 1995). In contrast to M. bicystidiata, basidiospores of M. corynephora, M. distincta (Manim. & Leelav.) Aravind. & Manim., M. globispora (Manim. & Leelav.) Aravind. & Manim. and M. yalensis Singer are globose or broadly ellipsoid (Desjardin 1995; Aravindakshan and Manimohan 2015). The bright or dark colour on the pileus distinguishes M. brunneospinosa Desjardin, M. incarnativelum Desjardin and M. roseotincta Aravind. & Manim. from M. bicystidiata (Desjardin 1995; Aravindakshan and Manimohan 2015). In addition, M. hemitrichialis Singer produces caulocystidia that are only partially spinulose (Singer 1989).

Figure 2. 

Basidiomata of sect. Amparoina species. stirps Alphitophora: a–b Mycena alphitophora (Berk.) Sacc. c–d Mycena bicystidiata T.Bau & Q.Na e Mycena corynephora Maas Geest. f–g Mycena griseotincta T.Bau & Q.Na h Mycena hygroporoides T.Bau & Q.Na i Mycena miscanthi T.Bau & Q.Na; stirps Amparoina: j Mycena castaneicola T.Bau & Q.Na k–m Mycena heteracantha (Singer) Desjardin. Basidiomata of sect. Saccariferae species n–o Mycena hyalinostipitata T.Bau & Q.Na p–q Mycena substylobates T.Bau & Q.Na r Mycena tenerrima (Berk.) Quél. (=Mycena adscendens Maas Geest.) Scale bars: 10 mm (a–g, i–m, r), 5 mm (h, n–q). Photographs a–r by Qin Na.

Figure 3. 

Microscopic features of Mycena bicystidiata (HMJAU 43648, holotype) a Basidiomata b Basidiospores c Basidia d Universal veil acanthocysts e Cheilocystidia f Caulocystidia g Pileipellis. Scale bars: 5 mm (a); 10 μm (b–g). Drawing by Qin Na.

Mycena griseotincta T.Bau & Q.Na, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: 829098
Figs 2f–g, 4

Diagnosis

Pileus, lamellae and stipe with greyish tint, especially when old. Stipe base swollen. Basidiospores pip-shaped. Pileipellis with two types of acanthocysts. Caulocystidia up to 200 μm long with spines.

Holotype

CHINA. Yunnan Province, Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Shangri-La Pudacuo National Park, 14 August 2018, Qin Na, HMJAU 43800.

Etymology

Name refers to the grey-tinted basidiomata.

Description

Pileus 1.5–12.8 mm in diam., conical when young, campanulate with age, obtusely umbonate in the centre, translucent-striate, white, greyish-white when old (4B1), floccose, pubescent, pruinose, with crenate margin when young, then becoming nearly plane and finely torn. Context pure white, thin, fragile. Lamellae 0.2–0.5 mm thick, narrowly adnate or adnexed, pure white to slightly pale grey (4B1); edges finely torn, concolorous with the sides. Stipe 13–64 × 0.5–1.0 mm, central, terete, almost equal or slightly tapering to apex, hollow, greyish-white (5B1), pubescent or puberulous, with white, fine hairs, base swollen. Odourless, taste mild.

Basidiospores (5.6-)6.3–8.2(-8.5) × (3.5-)4.2–4.6(-5.2) μm, Q=1.5–1.9, Qav=1.7, pip-shaped, hyaline, guttulate, thin walled, amyloid. Basidia 19–23 × 7–9 μm, hyaline, clavate, 4-spored. Cheilocystidia 17–28 × 11–19 μm, oblong or clavate, with short and sharp spines, hyaline, inamyloid. Pleurocystidia absent. Pileipellis hyphae 6–10 μm wide, strongly dextrinoid; cherocytes absent; acanthocysts of two types, pyriform to vesicular, 8–22 × 7–18 μm or clavate to cylindric, 17–51 × 8–13 μm; universal veil composed of acanthocysts, globose, subglobose or sphaero-pedunculate, 28–67 × 26–58 μm, hyaline, covered with long, cylindrical excrescences or long and flexuous spinules, not in chains. Hyphae of the stipitipellis 2–7 μm wide, dextrinoid; caulocystidia abundant, clavate or long cylindrical, 77–216 × 9–11 μm, covered with densely conic spines, inamyloid. Clamps not seen.

Habit and habitat

Scattered to gregarious on litter layer in Quercus, Picea, Abies, Pinus mixed forests.

Other specimens examined

Yunnan Province, Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Shangri-La Pudacuo National Park, 15 August 2018, Qin Na, HMJAU 43805; Tibet Autonomous Region, Nyingchi City, Zhuqudeng Village, 20 August 2018, Qin Na, HMJAU 43819.

Remarks

Mycena griseotincta is considered a new species in sect. Amparoina stirps Alphitophora on account of the absence of both a basal disc and cherocytes on the pileal surface (Desjardin 1995). Five species have ellipsoid basidiospores, caulocystidia covered with excrescences and a universal veil composed of acanthocysts: M. alphitophora, M. brunneospinosa, M. depilata, M. hemitrichialis and M. incarnativelum. Mycena alphitophora most resembles M. griseotincta, but the former differs in having pure white lamellae, a white and shorter stipe (< 50 mm), sphaero-pedunculate or obovoid cheilocystidia and larger spores (8.1–9.7 × 4.5–5.5 μm), as reported in the original description (Maas Geesteranus 1980, 1992b). Mycena brunneospinosa, a taxon named by Desjardin (1995), is readily identified by its dull brown or purplish-brown pileus, globose acanthocysts forming chains and broadly ellipsoid spores. Mycena incarnativelum is a unique species in sect. Sacchariferae, distinguished by the absence of cheilocystidia and deep pink basidiomata when young (Desjardin 1995). Mycena depilata is closely allied to M. griseotincta, but differs in the convex pileus less than 1 mm in diameter and short and broadly clavate caulocystidia (Singer 1989). Mycena hemitrichialis can be mistaken for M. griseotincta on account of its grey or pallid pileus and ellipsoid spores, but is distinguished from M. griseotincta by its white stipe, free lamellae and pilose stipe forming a flattened ring of mycelium (Desjardin 1995). Mycena corynephora is widely distributed worldwide and is recognised by its tiny basidiomata (pileus < 2.4 mm), absence of a basal bulb or basal disc and large globose to subglobose basidiospores, typical of stirps Alphitophora (Desjardin 1995; Robich 2003; Aronsen and Læssøe 2016). The same spore shape occurs in M. yalensis of which the holotype was collected from Argentina (Singer 1973). Aravindakshan and Manimohan (2015) reported one new species and two others newly combined in Mycena, collected from India. The new taxon, M. roseotincta, differs from M. griseotincta in its pink pileus and universal veil, subcylindrical spores and smaller caulocystidia (Aravindakshan and Manimohan 2015). Mycena globispora and M. distincta are mainly distinguished in macromorphology from M. griseotincta by their white basidiomata and, in micromorphology, by the globose spores and subcylindrical spores, respectively (Aravindakshan and Manimohan 2015).

Figure 4. 

Microscopic features of Mycena griseotincta (HMJAU 43800, holotype). a Basidiomata b Basidia c Basidiospores d Cheilocystidia e Universal veil acanthocysts f Pileipellis g Caulocystidia. Scale bars: 10 mm (a); 10 μm (b–g). Drawing by Qin Na.

Mycena hygrophoroides T.Bau & Q.Na, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: 829099
Figs 2h, 5

Diagnosis

Pileus concave with slight pruinose. Lamellae distant. Stipe with dense white fibrils and swollen base. Acanthocysts forming two types. Caulocystidia long-elliptic with conical excrescences, up to 120 μm long.

Holotype

CHINA. Guangdong Province, Shaoguan City, Chebaling National Nature Reserve, 8 May 2017, Qin Na, HMJAU 43417.

Etymology

Name refers to its sparse lamellae.

Description

Pileus 1.5–2.5 mm in diam., campanulate to hemispherical, applanate or slightly concave at centre, white with greyish shade (6B1), shallowly sulcate, translucent-striate, slightly pruinose, pubescent. Context white, thin and very fragile. Lamellae distant, sparse, white, concolorous with the sides. Stipe 4.5–8.2 × 0.5–0.8 mm, cylindrical, hollow, fragile, pure white (5A1) with a greyish (5B1) base, covered with dense white fibrils, base swollen and not forming basal disc, hirsute. Odour and taste indistinctive.

Basidiospores (6.9-)7.2-8.9(-9.3) × (5.3-)6.4-6.7(-7.1) μm, Q=1.2–1.5, Qav=1.31, broadly-ellipsoid, hyaline in water and 5% KOH, amyloid, smooth. Basidia 15–21 × 7–9 μm, 4- or 2-spored, clavate, hyaline. Cheilocystidia 23–37 × 19–28 μm, subglobose, sphaero-pedunculate to utriform with numerous sharp spines, thin-walled and hyaline, inamyloid. Pleurocystidia absent. Pileipellis hyphae 3–9 μm wide, dextrinoid; cherocytes absent; a cutis overlaid by elements of universal veil, not in chains; acanthocysts forming two types, pyriform to vesicular, 13–29 × 11–24 μm, clavate to ovoid or obovoid, 29–42 × 14–20 μm, inamyloid. Hyphae of the stipitipellis 3–7 μm wide, smooth, dextrinoid; caulocystidia abundant, clavate, long-elliptic, 32–122 × 8–11 μm, with numbers of conical spines, inamyloid. Clamps present in all tissues.

Habit and habitat

Scattered on rotten wood of coniferous trees, ex. Cunninghamia.

Other specimens examined

Guangdong Province, Shaoguan City, Liangjiang Town, Shangxie Village, 7 May 2017, Qin Na, HMJAU 43421.

Remarks

Mycena hygrophoroides could be considered to be a member of Hemimycena Singer owing to the tiny basidiomata and sparse lamellae, but the absence of a basal disc, amyloid spores and spinulose cheilocystidia, acanthocysts and caulocystidia are diagnostic characters for M. hygrophoroides, which should be placed in Mycena sect. Amparoina stirps Alphitophora. Mycena acanthophila J.C.Zamora&Català, of which the holotype was collected from Spain growing on dead branches of Leguminosae, most resembles M. hygrophoroides, but differs in having a yellow pileus, smaller cheilocystidia (13.5–22 × 8.5–12 μm) and diverse caulocystidia (Zamora and Català 2012). Mycena depilata, a species of stirps Alphitophora, shows some morphological similarities to M. hygrophoroides in possessing white and tiny basidiomata, distant lamellae (L = 7–9) and globose-pedicellate acanthocysts with hyaline contents. However, M. depilata differs in producing ellipsoid spores (Q = 1.64 ± 0.11), broadly clavate cheilocystidia and shorter caulocystidia (16–50 × 5–16 μm; Singer 1989). Mycena hemitrichialis is difficult to distinguish from M. hygrophoroides, but M. hemitrichialis has free to subfree lamellae, longer caulocystidia (100–300 × 5–15 μm) and ellipsoid spores (Singer 1989). In comparison with M. hygrophoroides, M. alphitophora and M. distincta have larger basidiomata and longer caulocystidia of more than 400 μm and 300 μm, respectively (Desjardin 1995; Aravindakshan and Manimohan 2015). Their noticeably pigmented pileus enables discrimination of M. brunneospinosa, M. incarnativelum and M. roseotincta from M. hygrophoroides (Desjardin 1995; Aravindakshan and Manimohan 2015). The significantly larger basidiomata and globose spores can be used to distinguish M. corynephora, M. globispora and M. yalensis from M. hygrophoroides.

Figure 5. 

Microscopic features of Mycena hygrophoroides (HMJAU 43417, holotype) a Basidiomata b Basidia c Basidiospores d Cheilocystidia e Universal veil acanthocysts f Caulocystidia g Pileipellis. Scale bars: 2 mm (a); 10 μm (b–g). Drawing by Qin Na.

Mycena miscanthi T.Bau & Q.Na, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: 829100
Figs 2i, 6

Diagnosis

Growing on dead stem of Miscanthus. Pileus sparsely pruinose. Basidiospores cylindric. Cherocytes absent. Acanthocysts forming two types. Caulocystidia sphaero-pedunculate covered with spines. Clamps present.

Holotype

CHINA. Henan Province: Xinyang City, Jigong Mountain, 16 Jul 2017, Qin Na and Tolgor Bau, HMJAU 43584.

Etymology

Name refers to the substratum where the new species was found.

Description

Pileus 3.5–7.8 mm in diam., hemispherical, broadly conical to convex, occasionally ± centrally depressed when young, sulcate, translucent-striate, pure white, pubescent to inconspicuously puberulous, margin nearly plane, undulate. Context white, thin, very fragile, about 1.0 mm thick at centre. Lamellae narrowly adnate or adnexed, off-white, concolorous with the sides. Stipe 26–38 × 0.5–1.0 mm, pure white, central, terete, hollow, equal, surface covered with slight white pubescent, base swollen but not discoid, pruinose. Odour and taste not distinctive.

Basidiospores (6.2-)6.7–8.6(-9.1) × (3.1)3.3–4.2(4.5) μm, Q=1.8–2.3, Qav=2.07, cylindric to narrow-ellipsoid, hyaline, guttulate, thin walled, amyloid. Basidia 18–24 × 6–9 μm, clavate, hyaline, 4-spored. Cheilocystidia 13–26 × 9–14 μm, abundant, lageniform, utriform or sphaero-pedunculate, with short and conical spines. Pleurocystidia absent. Pileipellis hyphae 3–8 μm wide, strongly dextrinoid; cherocytes absent; universal veil composed of acanthocysts, forming two types, pyriform, vesicular or clavate, 12–32 × 10–17 μm, inamyloid. Hyphae of the stipitipellis 2–8 μm wide, with coarse excrescences, 0.9–2.8 × 0.5–0.9 μm, strongly dextrinoid; caulocystidia abundant, elliptic, utriform, sphaero-pedunculate, 15–37 × 7–15 μm, with conical or cylindrical spines inamyloid. Clamps present in all tissues.

Habit and habitat

Solitary to scattered on dead stem of Miscanthus.

Other specimens examined

Henan Province, Xinyang City, Jinniu Mountain, 14 Jul 2017, HMJAU 43573; Xinyang City, Bolden National Forest Park, 17 July 2017, Qin Na and Tolgor Bau, HMJAU 43582.

Remarks

The distinctive features of Mycena miscanthi include a white, granulose pileus, a pubescent stipe without forming a basal disc, narrow-ellipsoid spores, two types of acanthocysts and growth on dead stems of Miscanthus species. In combination, these features support the placement of M. miscanthi in sect. Amparoina stirps Alphitophora. Similar to M. miscanthi, M. alphitophora and M. depilata produce pure white basidiomata, cylindric spores and sphaero-pedunculate and spinulose cheilocystidia (Desjardin 1995; Aravindakshan and Manimohan 2015). However, the two types of acanthocysts and longer caulocystidia can be used to distinguish M. alphitophora and M. depilata from M. miscanthi (Desjardin 1995). Mycena hemitrichialis is closely allied to M. miscanthi, but differs in producing caulocystidia up to 400 μm in length that lack spinulae or with a few spinulae in the upper half (Singer 1989). Mycena distincta, which was originally described as M. alphitophora var. distincta, was elevated to species level by Manimohan and Leelavathy (1989). It differs from M. miscanthi in producing broadly ellipsoid spores and caulocystidia up to 300 μm in length (Aravindakshan and Manimohan 2015). The pigmented pileus present in M. brunneospinosa, M. incarnativelum and M. roseotincta readily distinguishes these species from M. miscanthi (Desjardin 1995; Aravindakshan and Manimohan 2015). Mycena corynephora, M. globispora and M. yalensis of stirps Alphitophora are characterised by globose to subglobose spores (Maas Geesteranus 1980; Robich 2003; Aravindakshan and Manimohan 2015; Aronsen and Læssøe 2016).

Figure 6. 

Microscopic features of Mycena miscanthi (HMJAU 43584, holotype) a Basidiomata b Basidiospores c Basidia d Universal veil acanthocysts e Cheilocystidia f Pileipellis g Caulocystidia. Scale bars: 10 mm (a); 10 μm (b–g). Drawing by Qin Na.

Discussion

The present phylogenetic analysis showed that sect. Amparoina formed a distinct clade independent from sect. Sacchariferae with high BPP and BS support. This finding suggests that the presence of caulocystidia with dense spines is the most important character to separate sect. Amparoina from sect. Sacchariferae. However, in the presence of a basal disc, the species of sect. Sacchariferae are similar to stirps Amparoina and, in the acanthocysts on the pileus sect. Amparoina stirps, resembles sect. Amparoina Sacchariferae. It can be concluded that the difference in caulocystidia can be used to distinguish sect. Amparoina and sect. Sacchariferae and the basal disc and cherocytes are the basis of an infrasectional classification of sect. Amparoina. Thus, the circumscription of sect. Sacchariferae should be revised, for which the diagnostic characters are a well-developed basal disc, cherocytes absent, pileipellis a cutis not overlaid by elements of a universal veil composed of acanthocysts and caulocystidia smooth overall.

In morphology, sect. Amparoina and sect. Sacchariferae are closely allied with sect. Polyadelphiae Singer ex Maas Geest. and sect. Basipedes (Fr.) Quél (Desjardin et al. 2003). Species of sect. Polyadelphiae lack both ornamented pileipellis elements and a stipe with a basal disc and thus differ from species classified in sect. Amparoina and sect. Sacchariferae. Section Basipedes shares the same habitat and a stipe forming a developed basal disc, but the cheilocystidia are covered with rounded and few excrescences. Morphological characters distinguish sect. Polyadelphiae and sect. Basipedes from sect. Amparoina and sect. Sacchariferae and only one ITS sequence for M. stylobates (Pers.) P. Kumm. (JF908439) is currently deposited in GenBank.

Morphological characters and molecular evidence support the classification of the four new Mycena species as members of sect. Amparoina stirps Alphitophora. The four species share the same furfuraceous or farinose pileus, swollen stipe base without a basal disc, universal veil composed of acanthocysts and absence of both cherocytes and spinose caulocystidia. Mycena bicystidiatum is distinguished from M. griseotincta, M. hygrophoroides and M. miscanthi by producing two types of caulocystidia covered with conic spines. Mycena griseotincta is readily discriminated from M. bicystidiatum, M. hygrophoroides and M. miscanthi based on the greyish basidiomata and acanthocysts forming a universal veil with long, cylindrical excrescences. Compared with M. bicystidiatum, M. griseotincta, and M. miscanthi, M. hygrophoroides is distinct on account of the sparse lamellae and broadly ellipsoid basidiospores. Mycena miscanthi differ from M. bicystidiatum, M. griseotincta and M. hygrophoroides in growing on stems of Miscanthus and, in addition, the basidiospores are narrow ellipsoid.

It is worth mentioning that the placement of M. echinocephala (G.F. Atk.) Desjardin and M. cylindrospora A.H. Sm. remains unclear. The species are tentatively placed in stirps Alphitophora because of the lack of a basal disc on the stipe, but their caulocystidia are extraordinary in being smooth, terminated by a spinulose apex or smooth with an amorphous apex (Atkinson 1902; Smith 1947; Desjardin 1993). Both species show obvious differences to the four newly described taxa. Furthermore, M. cryptomeriicola Imazeki & Toki is distinctive in producing inamyloid spores and a basal disc, which is unusual for specimens of sect. Sacchariferae from Japan (Imazeki and Toki 1995). An additional unusual species, M. minya Grgur., which lacks caulocystidia, was reported from Australia (Grgurinovic 2003). No species similar in morphology to M. cryptomeriicola and M. minya are classified in sect. Sacchariferae, so the two species are tentatively accepted in sect. Sacchariferae.

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31770010). We sincerely thank Prof Ping Zhang (Hunan Normal University, Changsha), Mrs Xiao-yan Wang (Hunan Normal University, Changsha), Mr Wen-fei Lin (Zhejiang University, Hangzhou), Mr Wei Zhou (Xinyang Agriculture and Forestry University, Xinyang), Mr Tsering Tamdrin (Nyingchi Municipal Science and Technology Bureau, Nyingchi), Drs Ming Zhang (Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou), Drs Feng-jian Wang (Hanjiang Normal University, Shiyan), Drs Zhu-xiang Liu (Jishou University, Jishou), Mr Zhong-yun Li (Shutterbug, Jishou), Mr Bing Xiao (Shutterbug, Jishou), Ya He (Hunan Normal University, Changsha), Jun Yan (Hunan Normal University, Changsha), Zong-ping Song (Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou), Xi-shen Liang (Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou), Li-qiang Wu (Jishou University, Jishou), Xue-qian Yi (Jishou University, Jishou) and Juan-juan Wang (Jishou University, Jishou) for their kind help during field work. We also thank Drs Yu-peng Ge (Ludong University, Yantai) and Drs Jun-qing Yan (Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang) for their suggestions in writing this article.

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