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Looking for Lepiota psalion Huijser & Vellinga (Agaricales, Agaricaceae)
expand article infoAlfredo Vizzini§, Alessia Tatti|, Henk A. Huijser, Jun F. Liang#, Enrico Ercole
‡ University of Torino, Torino, Italy
§ Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection, Torino, Italy
| University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy
¶ Unaffiliated, Nuenen, Netherlands
# Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Guangzhou, China
Open Access

Abstract

Lepiota psalion is fully described based on a recent collection from Sardinia (Italy) and the holotype. NrITS- and nrLSU-based phylogeny demonstrates that sequences deposited in GenBank as “L. psalion” and generated from two Dutch and one Chinese collections are not conspecific with the holotype and represent two distinct, undescribed species. These species are here proposed as Lepiota recondita sp. nov. and Lepiota sinorecondita ad int.

Keywords

Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota, cryptic species, hymeniform pileus covering, taxonomy

Introduction

Recent molecular analyses have indicated that the genus Lepiota (Pers.) Gray is a paraphyletic assemblage that is monophyletic only if it is considered together with species of Cystolepiota Singer, Echinoderma (Locq. ex Bon) Bon, Melanophyllum Velen., and Pulverolepiota Bon (Johnson 1999; Vellinga 2003, 2004; Vellinga et al. 2011). Consequently, according to the modern concept of Vellinga (2003, 2004), the genus Lepiota s.l. includes the pale-spored members of the Agaricaceae Chevall., which are circumscribed by having non-metachromatic, dextrinoid, and usually binucleate spores, cheilocystidia usually present, pleurocystidia absent, a regular hymenophoral trama, and clamp-connections usually present. The structure of the pileus covering has been shown to be a key character to divide the genus into operative, morphology-based sections (Vellinga and Huijser 1999; Vellinga 2001, 2003, 2010).

Species of Lepiota with a hymeniform pileus covering were distributed by Bon (1993) over three different sections, Cristatae (Kühner ex Wasser) Bon, Integrellae (Kühner ex Bon) Bon and Lilaceae Bon, based mainly on different spore shapes (either ellipsoid or spurred) and spore nuclear number (mononucleate vs binucleate); all species were included by Vellinga and Huijser (1999) and Vellinga (2001) in an emended large section Lilaceae.

According to recent molecular analyses, the species with a hymeniform pileus covering do not form a monophyletic lineage (Vellinga 2003, 2004, 2010; Vizzini et al. 2014a, b; Justo et al. 2015; Qasim et al. 2015; Hosen et al. 2016), even though most of them (with different spore shapes and nuclear number) fall in a clade (named clade 3 by Vellinga 2003) which also includes taxa as L. albogranulosa T. Qasim & A.N. Khalid, L. cystophoroides Joss. & Riousset, L. luteophylla Sundb., and L. scaberula Vellinga with a hymeniderm giving rise to loose globose elements (a transition between hymeniderm and epithelium, Vellinga 1988).

During a 3-year survey of macrofungi in the Botanical Garden of Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy), a collection of a Lepiota with a hymeniform pileus covering was recorded. It showed striking morphological affinities with L. psalion Huijser & Vellinga. The present paper fully describes this collection using morphological features and molecular data, and infers, through sequencing of the holotype, the phylogenetic placement of L. psalion. Additionally, two morphologically allied taxa, Lepiota recondita sp. nov. and L. sinorecondita ad int. are described.

Materials and methods

Morphology

Macroscopic description was based on detailed field notes of fresh basidiomes. Colour terms in capital letters (e.g., Pale Cinnamon-Pink, Plate XXIX) are those of Ridgway (1912). HTML alphanumeric colour codes (https://html-color-codes.info/) were obtained using GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program, https://www.gimp.org/) with the “Color Picker” tool on photographs taken in natural light of fresh basidiomes. Micromorphological features were observed on dried material; sections were rehydrated in water or 5% KOH and mounted separately in ammoniacal Congo Red, Cotton Blue, Cresyl Blue, and Melzer’s reagent. Measurements of the microscopic features of Lepiota psalion and L. recondita were made by photographing all the elements occurring in the visual field of an Optika B-383 PLi light microscope. Measurements were performed using the Piximètre 5.9 R 1530 software (http://ach.log.free.fr/Piximetre/) at 1000× magnification. The microphotographs were taken by an Optikam B5, 5 MP× camera.

When possible, dimensions of the microscopic elements are given as: (minimum–) average minus standard deviation – average plus standard deviation (–maximum) of length × (minimum–) average minus standard deviation – average plus standard deviation (–maximum) of width. Spore dimensions do not include the hilar appendix. The width of each basidium was measured at the widest part, and the length was measured from the apex (sterigmata excluded) to the basal septum. The DNA fluorescent dye 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenyl-indoldihydrochloride (DAPI) was used to stain nuclei in spores following Horton (2006). The number of nuclei in spores were then determined using a Leica TCS-SP2 confocal microscope. Samples were excited with 405 nm light and fluorescence was recorded at 440–500 nm. The following abbreviations are used: l = number of lamellulae between each pair of lamellae reaching the stipe; the notation [X, Y, Z] indicates that measurements were made on X randomly selected spores (taken from spore-prints), in Y samples from Z collections; Q = the spore quotient (length/width ratio); Qav = the average spore quotient. Terminology for descriptive terms is according to Vellinga (1988, 2001). Herbarium abbreviations follow Thiers (2019, continuously updated). Author citations follow the Index Fungorum – Authors of Fungal Names (http://www.indexfungorum.org/authorsoffungalnames.htm).

DNA extraction, PCR amplification and DNA sequencing

Total DNA was extracted from seven dry basidiomes (Tab. 1): two basidiomes (labelled as “a” and “b”) from the same L. psalion CAG P.11_9/7.68 collection, one basidiome from the L. psalion holotype (WU 5152), two basidiomes from two collections of the new species L. recondita, and two basidiomes from two collections of L. sanguineofracta Vizzini (TO-HG2916, holotype and TO-HG2917). DNA extraction and PCR amplifications were performed as described by Alvarado et al. (2015). Primers ITS1F and ITS4 (White et al. 1990; Gardes and Bruns 1993) were used for the nrITS region; primers LR0R and LR5 (Vilgalys and Hester 1990) were used for the nrLSU (28S) rDNA, and finally EF1-983F and EF1-1567R (Rehner and Buckley 2005) for the translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1-α) gene. Chromatograms were checked searching for putative reading errors, and these were corrected. The PCR products were purified with the Wizard SV Gel and PCR Clean-UP System (Promega) following manufacturer’s instructions and sequenced forward and reverse by MACROGEN Inc. (Seoul, Republic of Korea). Sequences were checked and assembled using Geneious v. 5.3 (Drummond et al. 2010) and submitted to GenBank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/). Accession numbers are reported in Table 1.

Taxa, vouchers and GenBank accession numbers used in the molecular analyses. Newly sequenced collections are in bold.

Species Collection No. Origin GenBank accession No.
nrITS nrLSU
Chamaemyces fracidus Th.W. Kuyper 960 (L) Belgium AY176343 AY176344
Cystolepiota cystophora MCVE 56163 Italy GQ141550
Cystolepiota seminuda 4-X-1989, H.A. Huijser s.n. (herb. Huijser) The Netherlands AY176350
MCVE 9247 Italy JF907983
Lepiota aff. grangei TENN 064380, ECV4063 USA MF797685
Lepiota acutesquamosa DUKE-JJ177 USA U85293
Lepiota albogranulosa LAH. NO. 10152012, Holotype Pakistan LK932284
LAH. NO. 9992012 Pakistan LK932285
Lepiota apatelia 26-IX-1990, H.A. Huijser (herb. Huijser) The Netherlands AY176462
04-X-1991, H.A. Huijser (herb. Huijser) The Netherlands GQ203819
Lepiota aspera E.C. Vellinga 2233 (L) The Netherlands AY176354
GLM 45944 Germany AY207219
Lepiota bengalensis Iqbal 825 GDGM 45684 Holotype Bangladesh KU563148 KU563150
Iqbal 860 Paratype Bangladesh KU563149
Lepiota brunneoincarnata DB4157 Hungary MK278258
NL-5409 Hungary MK278260
Lepiota castanea TENN 064371, ECV4016 USA MF797675
NL-2980 Hungary MK278259
Lepiota castaneidisca E.C. Vellinga 2594 (UC) USA AF391055
E.C. Vellinga 2410 (UC) USA AF391064
E.C. Vellinga 2805 (UC) USA GQ203808
E.C. Vellinga 2756 (UC) USA GQ203816
Lepiota cf. aspera MFLU 09-0061 Thailand HM488788
Lepiota cf. cristata E.C. Vellinga 2515 (UC) USA AF391052
E.C. Vellinga 2677 (UCB) USA AY176466
E.C. Vellinga 2714 (UC) USA GQ203807
Lepiota clypeolaria E.C. Vellinga 1683 (L) Germany AY176361
TENN 064372, ECV4003 USA MF797684
VPI-OKM22029 South Korea U85291
CBS 146.42 Sweden MH867601
Lepiota coloratipes 9-X-1991, H.A. Huijser (herb. Huijser) The Netherlands AF391066
MCVE 16888 Italy FJ998406
Zhu L. Yang 4790 China KC819621
Zhu L. Yang 4951 China KC819622
SAV F-3212 Spain KC900376
SAV F-3213, Holotype Spain KC900377
NL-5353 Hungary MK278270
Lepiota cortinarius NL-1602 Hungary MK278262
Lepiota cristata 22-IX-1993, H.A. Huijser (herb. Huijser) The Netherlands AF391042
20-IX-1989, H.A. Huijser (L) The Netherlands AF391043
9-VII-1998, Z.L. Yang 2238 (HKAS) China AF391044
8-XII-2000, E.C. Vellinga 2611 (UC) USA AF391045
30-I-1993, D.E. Desjardin 5658 (SFSU) USA AF391050
24-IX-2000, S. Clark (coll. P.B. Matheny 1958) (WTU) USA AF391051
AFTOL-ID 1625, ECV 2449 (UC) USA DQ457685
E.C. Vellinga 2780 (UC) USA GQ203806
E.C. Vellinga 2750 (UC) USA GQ203815
DUKE1582 USA U85292
420526MF0542 China MH141343
420526MF0550 China MG712361
Lepiota cristatoides 5-IX-1996, H.A. Huijser s.n. (herb. Huijser) The Netherlands AY176363
Lepiota cystophoroides E.C. Vellinga 2142 (L) France AF391031
Lepiota erminea NL-3095 Hungary MK278263
Lepiota felina VPI-OKM20596 USA U85330 U85295
NL-4207 Slovakia MK278264
Lepiota geogenia MEL 2358504 Australia JX179270
MEL:2358503 Australia JX179271
Lepiota griseovirens MCVE 13747 Italy FJ998403
Lepiota hymenoderma E.C. Vellinga 2017 (L) The Netherlands AF391083
Lepiota laevigata FP2012-11-02 Hungary MK278266
Lepiota lilacea E.C. Vellinga 2451 (UCB) USA AY176379
E. Brown (coll. E.C. Vellinga 1873) (L) United Kingdom GQ203820
Lepiota luteophylla H.V. Smith 284 (MICH) USA AY176475
Lepiota maculans TENN 064381 USA HQ832458
Lepiota mandarina HKAS 50028 China KM214816
Lepiota neophana E.C. Vellinga 2602 (UCB) USA AY176492
E.C. Vellinga 3947 (UC) USA GQ203812
rh24 08/27/07 (ISC) USA GQ375546
rh39 08/11/07 (ISC) USA GQ375547
E.C. Vellinga ecv3955 (UC) USA HM488785
Lepiota ochraceofulva E.C. Vellinga 2267) (L) The Netherlands AF391032
E.C. Vellinga 2273 (L) The Netherlands AY176386
Lepiota ochraceofulva NL-2973 Hungary MK278267
Lepiota ochraceoumbonata Murhula Cizungu 39 Gabon MK278268
Lepiota oreadiformis FO 46679 Germany AF291344
Lepiota phaeoderma E.C. Vellinga 3000 (UC) USA GQ203810
Lepiota psalion WU 5152 Holotype AUSTRIA MG581687 MG581699
Lepiota psalion basidiome a CAG P.11_9/7.68 Italy MG581688
Lepiota psalion basidiome b CAG P.11_9/7.68 Italy MG581689 MG581700
Lepiota psalion (L. recondita) 15-IX-1999, H.A. Huijser (herb. Huijser) hah6153 The Netherlands AY176390
3-VIII-1999, H.A. Huijser s.n. (herb. Huijser) The Netherlands AY176391
H.A. Huijser (herb. Huijser) hah6177 The Netherlands GQ203823
Lepiota psalion (L. sinorecondita ad interim) HMJAU3799 China GU199362 GU199355
Lepiota pseudohelveola GLM 45945 Germany AY207220
Lepiota pyrochroa E.C. Vellinga 2006 (L) The Netherlands AY176477
Lepiota recondita TR gmb 01481, paratype The Netherlands MK508899 MK508901
TR gmb 01482, holotype The Netherlands MK508900 MK508902
Lepiota rhodophylla E.C. Vellinga 2610 (UCB) USA AY176480
Lepiota sanguineofracta TO-HG2916, Holotype Italy KF879620 MG581701
TO-HG2917 Italy KF879621 MG581702
Lepiota scaberula E.C. Vellinga 2307 (UC) USA AF391029
E.C. Vellinga 2595 (holotype) (UC) USA AF391030
UC1999143 USA MK278271
Lepiota subcastanea HKAS 45633 China KM214817
Lepiota subgranulosa ANGE253 (JBSD, duplicate in MEXU) The Dominican Republic KR022007
Lepiota subalba E.C. Vellinga 2242 (L) The Netherlands AY176489
Lepiota subincarnata E.C. Vellinga 2234 (L) The Netherlands AY176491
VPI-OKM22153 South Korea U85294
NL-2022 Hungary MK278273
Lepiota thiersii E.C. Vellinga 2590 (UCB) USA AY176485
E.C. Vellinga 2589 (UC) USA GQ203817
Lepiota xanthophylla TUB 011553 Germany DQ071712
Uncultured Basidiomycota Environmental sample, man22_soil_G02 USA GU328508

Sequence alignment, dataset assembly and phylogenetic analysis

Sequences obtained in this study were compared to those available in the GenBank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) and UNITE (http://unite.ut.ee/) databases by using the Blastn algorithm (Altschul et al. 1990).

Based on the BLASTn results (sequences were selected based on the greatest similarity) and outcomes of recent phylogenetic studies incorporating Lepiota sequences (Vellinga 2003, 2004, 2010; Vizzini et al. 2014a, b; Justo et al. 2015; Qasim et al. 2015; Hosen et al. 2016) sequences were retrieved from GenBank for the comparative phylogenetic analysis. The nrITS and nrLSU datasets were analysed separately. The combined nrITS/nrLSU phylogeny was not inferred as most Lepiota collections in GenBank are not provided with both molecular markers (Table 1). Although tef1-α sequences were generated for L. psalion, they were not included in phylogenetic analyses because comparable sequences for most Lepiota taxa are currently unavailable in public databases, and, in this case, only the Blastn results were provided in the Results. In the nrITS dataset, besides Lepiota species with a hymeniform pileus covering, eight species (indicated by an asterisk in Fig. 1) representative of the major clades in Lepiota as delimited by Vellinga (2003) were chosen for comparison. The nrLSU dataset consists of all the Lepiota s.l. collections determined at species level present in GenBank. Alignments were generated for each nrITS and nrLSU dataset using MAFFT (Katoh et al. 2002) with default conditions for gap openings and gap extension penalties. The two alignments were imported into MEGA v. 6.0 (Tamura et al. 2013) for manual adjustment. The best-fit substitution model for each single alignment was estimated by the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) with jModelTest 2 (Darriba et al. 2012). The GTR + G model was chosen for the nrITS alignment and the TrN+I+G for the nrLSU alignment. The nrITS dataset was partitioned into ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 subsets. Chamaemyces fracidus (AY176343 and AY176344) was used as an outgroup taxon in both the nrITS and nrLSU analyses because it is basal in the Agaricaceae (Vellinga 2004, 2010).

Phylogenetic hypotheses were constructed with Bayesian inference (BI) and Maximum likelihood (ML) criteria. The BI was performed with MrBayes v. 3.2.6 (Ronquist et al. 2012) with one cold and three incrementally heated simultaneous Monte Carlo Markov chains (MCMC) run for 10 million generations, under the selected evolutionary model. Two simultaneous runs were performed independently. Trees were sampled every 1,000 generations, resulting in overall sampling of 10,001 trees per single run; the first 2,500 trees (25%) were discarded as burn-in. For the remaining trees of the two independent runs, a majority rule consensus tree showing all compatible partitions was computed to obtain estimates for Bayesian posterior probabilities (BPP).

ML estimation was performed with RAxML v. 7.3.2 (Stamatakis 2006), with 1,000 bootstrap replicates (Felsenstein 1985) using the GTRGAMMA algorithm to perform a tree inference and search for a good topology. Support values from bootstrapping runs (MLB) were mapped on the globally best tree using the “-f a” option of RAxML and “-x 12345” as a random seed to invoke the novel rapid bootstrapping algorithm. BI and ML analyses were run on the CIPRES Science Gateway web server (Miller et al. 2010). Only BPP and MLB values over 0.70 and 50%, respectively, are reported in the resulting trees (Figs 1, 2). Pairwise % identity values (P%IV) of the sequences were calculated using MEGA v. 6.0 (Tamura et al. 2013). Alignments and phylogenetic trees are available at TreeBASE (www.treebase.org) under ID S22021.

Figure 1. 

Bayesian phylogram obtained from the general nrITS sequence alignment of Lepiota spp. Here there are included Lepiota species with a hymeniform pileus covering, eight species representative of the major clades in Lepiota (indicated by *), and Chamaemyces fracidus as an outgroup taxon. Support values in either the Bayesian (Posterior Probabilities values [BPP]) or Maximum likelihood (ML Bootstrap percentage [MLB]) analyses are indicated. Only BPP values over 0.70 (in bold) and MLB values over 50% are given above clade branches. Newly sequenced collections are in bold.

Results

Molecular analysis

The PCR product was 476–729 bp (nrITS) and 894–1128 bp (nrLSU). The nrITS data matrix comprised 68 sequences (including 63 from GenBank). This dataset was 814 bp long and contained 545 (66.9 %) variable sites. The nrLSU data matrix comprised 45 sequences (including 39 from GenBank). This dataset was 953 bp long and contained 335 (35.2%) variable sites.

As both Bayesian and Maximum likelihood analyses produced a consistent topology, only the Bayesian trees with both BPP and MLB values are shown (Figs 1, 2).

In both the nrITS and nrLSU analyses (Figs 1, 2), the sequences of the holotype of L. psalion and of the Sardinian collection clustered together in a strongly supported clade (BPP = 1.00, MLB = 100% and BPP = 1.00, MLB = 99%, respectively). The sequences of this clade show a P%IV of 98.9% for the nrITS and of 99.6% for the nrLSU. According to the nrITS analysis, which is based on a larger taxon sampling (Fig. 1), L. psalion is sister (BPP = 1.00; MLB = 85%) to L. coloratipes Vizzini, J.F. Liang, Jančovičová & Zhu L. Yang. The Blastn results of the tef1-α sequences obtained from the two Sardinian specimens of CAG P.11_9/7.68 (MG597229 and MG597230) show an identity value of 83% with Lepiota phaeoderma Vellinga (GQ375549), 81% with Coniolepiota spongodes (Berk. & Broome) Vellinga (HM488881, HM488883 and HM488884) and with Lepiota neophana Morgan (GQ375550 and GQ375551).

Figure 2. 

Bayesian phylogram obtained from the general nrLSU sequence alignment of Lepiota spp. Chamaemyces fracidus was used as an outgroup taxon. Support values in either the Bayesian (Posterior Probabilities values [BPP]) or Maximum likelihood (ML Bootstrap percentage [MLB]) analyses are indicated. Only BPP values over 0.70 (in bold) and MLB values over 50% are given above clade branches. Newly sequenced collections are in bold.

Both the nrITS and nrLSU analyses (Figs 1, 2) highlight the presence of sequences in GenBank from Dutch [GQ203823, AY176390 (nrITS), the Netherlands, Limburg province, Valkenburg, Schaelsberg, H.A. Huijser (herb. Huijser), 15-IX-1999, and AY176391 (nrLSU), ibidem, H.A. Huijser (herb. Huijser), 23-VIII-1999] and Chinese collections [GU199362 (nrITS) and GU199355 (nrLSU), China: Jilin province, Changchun, Jinyuetan Park, herb. HMJAU3799] which are named as “Lepiota psalion”, but are clearly distinct from the holotype and the Sardinian collection of L. psalion. The Dutch “Lepiota psalion” sequences form a strongly supported clade (BPP = 1.00 and MLB = 100% in the nrITS analysis; BPP = 1.00 and MLB = 99% in the nrLSU analysis) with sequences from the two collections of L. recondita (recondita clade). The sequences of this clade show a P%IV of 99.3% for both the nrITS and the nrLSU. The Chinese “Lepiota psalion” is sister (BPP = 1.00 and MLB = 98% in the nrITS analysis; BPP = 1.00 and MLB = 94% in the nrLSU analysis) to the recondita clade.

Taxonomy

Lepiota psalion Huijser & Vellinga, in Vellinga & Huijser, Belg. J. Bot. 131(2): 203 (1999) [1998]

Figs 3, 4, 5, 6

Description

Macrocharacters (Fig. 3). Pileus 8–36 mm wide, at first slightly obtusely campanulate, hemispherical-trapezoid or broadly conical, later plano-convex to applanate-expanded, subumbonate, with a shallow umbo; not hygrophanous; margin not striated, slightly exceeding the lamellae when young, sinuous-undulate, entire or slightly fringed with age, with minute adhering remnants of partial veil when young; surface dry, at first smooth, later irregularly cracking around centre into concentric non-uplifted squamules; cream to pinkish-light brown at centre [*Vinaceous-buff (Plate XL 17’’’.c-y./d) HTML d3b094 to Orange-Cinnamon (Plate XXIX 13’’.ou-o.) or Ochraceous-Tawny (Plate XV 15’.y-o./i) HTML bc7e4d], paler towards the margin [Pale Cinnamon-Pink (Plate XXIX - 13’’.oy-o./f) HTML e5d6c3 to Pale Smoke-Gray (Plate XLVI 21’’’’.o-y./d) HTML cdc9c6]. Stipe 22–33 × 1.5–2 mm, central, cylindrical, usually regular, but sometimes also slightly flexuous, hollow; shiny, at first white, soon becoming pink-brown [Tilleul-Buff (Plate XL - 17’’’.c-y./f), HTML c3b092 to *Drab Gray (Plate XLVI 17’’’.o-y./d) HTML bda599] starting from the base and progressing upward; minutely silky fibrillose along all length; with whitish [Pale pinkish buff (Plate XXIX 17’’.o-y./f) HTML ede2d4], ascending and often incomplete annulus on the upper part of the stipe, sometimes disappearing in age; often with minute white rhizomorphs. Lamellae 2–3(4) mm wide, l = 1–3(4), free, crowded, at first white, soon with evident pinkish tints [Cream-Buff (Plate XXX 19’’ .yo-y /d) HTML dfc38c to Clay-Color Plate (XXIX 17’’ .o-y.) HTML ce9b44]; edge finely granulose. Context elastic, whitish, pink-brown towards the stipe base; without specific smell and taste. Spore-print pale cream.

Figure 3. 

Lepiota psalion. Fresh basidiomes (CAG P.11_9/7.68) a Basidiomes in situ b–d Details of pileus surface, stipe and annulus. Scale bars: 10 mm (a); 5 mm (b–d). Photographs by A. Tatti.

Microcharacters (Figs 5, 6). Spores [700, 6, 2] (2.7–)3.5–4.3(–4.9) × (2.0–)2.6–3.2(–3.9) μm, on average 3.9 × 2.9 μm, Q = (1.03–)1.23–1.49(–1.78), Qav = 1.36, from broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid, hyaline, thin-walled, smooth, not verruculose in Melzer’s reagent, binucleate, not metachromatic in Cresyl Blue, nonamyloid, non-dextrinoid, cyanophilic in Cotton Blue (Figs 5e, f, 6c). Basidia mainly 4-spored, (15.5–)17.1–21(–22.0) × (4.2–)4.7–5.8 (–6.0) μm (n = 54), rarely 1- or 2-spored, clavate, hyaline, thin-walled; sterigmata (2.6–) 3.0–4.2 (–4.9) × (0.5–)0.6–1.1(–1.2) μm (n = 67) (Fig. 6d). Lamella edge sterile. Cheilocystidia (10.0–)13.7–21.1 (–26.3) × (4.6–)6.2–8.7(–10.0) μm (n = 84), numerous and crowded, hyaline, thin-walled, various in shape, mostly clavate to subutriform, occasionally subfusiform, subcapitulate (Figs 5c, 6b). Pleurocystidia absent. Pileus covering a (140.7–)153.7–179.1(–201.1) μm (n = 16) thick hymeniderm with transition to an epithelium (Figs 5a,b, 6a), with up to 2(or 3) colourless elements on top of each other; terminal elements not tightly packed, (10.4–)18.0–53.6(–62.3) × (3.9–)7.7–19.3(–24.0) μm (n = 62), vesiculose, sphaeropedunculate to clavate-pyriform, utriform; slightly thick-walled (walls ca 0.5 μm), with walls embedded in a thin gelatinous matrix; subpellis composed of densely arranged and branching cylindrical hyphae, (21.3–)49.0–108.5(–136.8) × (3.8–)4.5–8.8(–9.7) µm (n = 38). Pileitrama of cylindrical hyphae, (33.1–)42.1–93.2(–111.8) × (2.7–)4.3–9.8(–14.4) µm (n = 45). Hymenophoral trama subregular, consisting of cylindrical hyphae (33.8–)36.5–64.4(–83.1) × (6.0–)7.6–15.8(–17.3) µm (n = 61). Stipe covering consisting of cylindrical hyphae, (23.8–)80.1–214.4(–370.8) × (2.6–)5.4–12.1(–15.4) µm (n = 58). Stipe trama consisting of cylindrical hyphae, (21.8–)58.5–178.9(–302.7) × (2.5–) 3.3–11.6(–12.5) µm (n = 32). Caulocystidia absent. Partial veil (annulus) composed of cylindrical elements, (21.1–)27.5–52.7(–94.7) × (2.2–)2.9–4.8(–8.5) µm (n = 36) with terminal clavate elements, (12.4–)17.9–34.0(–40.3) × (8.4–)10.6–17.7(–19.8) µm (n = 60) (Figs 5d, 6e). Clamp-connections present and abundant everywhere.

Ecology and distribution

Gregarious on bare soil, in gardens and parks; so far known only from the type locality (Austria) and Sardinia (Italy).

Collections examined

Italy, Sardinia, Cagliari, Botanical Garden, 6 basidiomes growing among the Searsia/Rhus sp. litter, calcareous soil, 17 January 2017, Alessia Tatti and Giacomo Calvia (CAG P.11_9/7.68). Austria, Wien-Lobau, N. Uferhaus, 23 August 1985, Anton Hausknecht (WU 5152, holotype) (Fig. 4).

Figure 4. 

Lepiota psalion. Holotype (WU 5152) a Labels and collection b Four basidiomes from the collection. Scale bar: 10 mm. Photographs: a by W. Till; b by A. Vizzini.

Figure 5. 

Lepiota psalion. Microscopic features (CAG P.11_9/7.68) a–b Elements of the pileus covering c Cheilocystidia d Elements of the annulus e–f Spores. a–d in ammoniacal Congo red e in 5% KOH f in Melzer’s reagent. Scale bars: 10 μm (a–d); 5 μm (e–f). Photographs by A. Tatti.

Figure 6. 

Lepiota psalion. Microscopic features (CAG P.11_9/7.68) a Elements of the pileus covering b Cheilocystidia c Spores d Basidia e Elements of the annulus. Scale bars: 20 μm (a, e); 10 μm (b, d); 5 μm (c). Drawings by A. Tatti.

Lepiota recondita Tatti, Huijser & Vizzini, sp. nov.

Figs 7, 8, 9

Holotype

The Netherlands, prov. Limburg, Valkenburg, Schaelsberg, 02 September 2004, Henk A. Huijser (TR gmb 01482).

Etymology

From the Latin “reconditus”, meaning hidden, forgotten, which refers to its resemblance with L. psalion with which it was confused.

Diagnosis

It is distinguished from Lepiota psalion by larger spores (3.7–)4.4–5.4(–5.9) × (2.4–)2.9–3.6(–4.3) μm, versiform cheilocystidia and different nrITS and nrLSU sequences.

Description

Macrocharacters (Fig. 7). Pileus 9–26 mm wide, at first slightly obtusely campanulate, hemispherical-trapezoid or broadly conical, later plano-convex to applanate-expanded, subumbonate, with a shallow umbo; not hygrophanous; margin not striated, slightly exceeding the lamellae when young, sinuous-undulate, entire or slightly fringed with age, with minute adhering remnants of partial veil when young; surface dry, at first smooth, later irregularly cracking around centre into concentric non-uplifted squamules; pinkish-light brown at centre from [Light Pinkish Cinnamon (Plate XXIX, 15’’.Y-O./d) HTML f19b5f] to [Mikado brown (Plate XXIX 13’’.OY-O./i), HTML 9f5425] or [Sayal Brown (Plate XXIX, 15’’.Y-O./i) HTML bc662d], paler towards the margin: [Capucine Bluff (Plate III, 13.OY-O./f) HTML fee6cc] or [Orange Pink (Plate II, 11.ORANGE/f) HTML ecc8a3]. Stipe 26–47 × 1.5–3 mm, central, cylindrical, at first white, becoming pink-brown with manipulation [Pinkish Cinnamon (Plate XXIX, 15’’.Y-O./b) HTML e1934f]; minutely silky fibrillose along all length; with whitish, ascending and often incomplete annulus on the upper part of the stipe, sometimes disappearing in age; often with minute white rhizomorphs. Lamellae free, crowded, l = 1–3, at first white, soon with evident yellowish tints [Catrige Buff (Plate XXX 19’’ .yo-y /f) HTML cdaf68] becoming [Honey Yellow (Plate XXX 19’’.YO-Y) HTML de9e42] when dry. Context elastic, whitish, smell weak, Lepiota cristata-like, taste not recorded. Spore-print whitish.

Microcharacters (Figs 8, 9). Spores [350, 6, 2] (3.7–)4.4–5.4(–5.9) × (2.4–)2.9–3.6(–4.3) μm, on average 4.8 × 3.3 μm, Q = (1.1–)1.3–1.7(–2.0), Qav = 1.5, from subglobose to oblong, mainly ellipsoid, hyaline, thin-walled, smooth, not verruculose in Melzer’s reagent, binucleate, not metachromatic in Cresyl Blue, nonamyloid, non-dextrinoid, cyanophilic in Cotton Blue (Figs 8f, 9c). Basidia mainly 4-spored, (15.8–)17.4–25.4(–28.6) × (5.7–)6–7.3(–8.8) μm (n = 60), sometimes 1–2-spored, clavate, hyaline, thin-walled (Fig. 9d); sterigmata (1.9–)2.4–4.2(–4.8) × (0.4–)0.6–1.2(–1.5) µm (n = 70). Lamella edge sterile. Cheilocystidia (20.1–)25.4–44(–50.0) × (3.2–)7.2–10.4(–12.0) µm (n = 66), numerous and crowded, hyaline, thin-walled, various in shape, mostly clavate, cylindrical-clavate, sphaeropedunculate to submoniliform, occasionally pyriform, cylindrical (Figs 8b–d, 9b). Pleurocystidia absent. Pileus covering hymenidermic: terminal elements not tightly packed, (17–)24.7–51.1(–59.6) × (8.1–)10–14(–27.3) μm (n = 70), vesiculose, sphaeropedunculate to clavate-pyriform (Figs 8a, 9a); slightly thick-walled (walls ca 0.5 μm), with walls embedded in a thin gelatinous matrix; subpellis composed of densely arranged and branching cylindrical hyphae, (40.6–)47.0–118.3(–156.2) × (5.8–)7.6–16.2(–17.1) µm (n = 20) and containing scattered ramified oleiferous hyphae, (1.5–)1.8–5.3(–8.0) µm wide (n = 30). Hymenophoral trama subregular, consisting of ovate hyphae (20.9–)21.1–40.3(–42) × (7–)9.6–13(–14.5) µm (n = 12). Stipe covering and trama indistinguishable, consisting of cylindrical hyphae, (55.3–) 67.0–165.7 (–213.0) × (5.5–)7.6–15.0(–21.0) µm. Caulocystidia absent. Partial veil (annulus) composed of cylindrical elements, (7.2–)22.3–59(–70.0) × (2.0–)2.5–4.2(–4.7) µm (n = 20) with terminal clavate elements, (10.1–)12.4–26.7(–38.1) × (7.0–)9.5–16.7(–28.4) µm (n = 40) (Figs 8e, 9e). Clamp-connections present and abundant everywhere.

Ecology and distribution

Gregarious on rich in nutrients and lime (marl) bare soil, in a mixed deciduous forest; so far known only from the type locality.

Collections examined

The Netherlands, Limburg province, Valkenburg, Schaelsberg, man-made (anthropized) hilly grove with mainly deciduous trees (Quercus, Fagus, Corylus, Fraxinus, Robinia, Prunus, Sambucus), together with Lepiota tomentella, L. poliochloodes, Melanophyllum eyrei, and Limacella ochraceolutea, 22 September 2001, Henk A. Huijser (TR gmb 01481, paratype); ibidem, 02 September 2004, Henk A. Huijser (TR gmb 01482, holotype).

Figure 7. 

Lepiota recondita. Fresh basidiomes a–b (TR gmb 01482, holotype) c (TR gmb 01481, paratype). Scale bars= 10 mm. Photographs by H.A. Huijser.

Figure 8. 

Lepiota recondita. Microscopic features (in ammoniacal Congo red, TR gmb 01482, holotype) a Elements of the pileus covering b–d Cheilocystidia e Elements of the annulus f Spores. Scale bars: 10 μm (a–e); 5 μm (f). Photographs by A. Tatti.

Figure 9. 

Lepiota recondita. Microscopic features (TR gmb 01482, holotype) a Elements of the pileus covering b Cheilocystidia c Spores d Basidia e Elements of the annulus. Scale bars: 20 μm (a, e); 10 μm (b, d); 5 μm (c). Drawings by A. Tatti.

Lepiota sinorecondita ad interim

Fig. 10

Description

The specific epithet is a combination of Medieval Latin “sino” (which means Chinese) and “recondita”, referring to the strong affinity of the Chinese taxon to the European L. recondita.

Basidiomata small (Fig. 10a). Pileus 9–17 mm wide, expanding to convex with obtuse umbo; at centre on umbo smooth, dark yellowish brown to dark brown, around umbo split up into pale brown concentrically arranged patches on dirty white to cream background, paler and smaller towards margin. Stipe 35–37 × 1–4 mm, subcylindrical or attenuate, slightly inflated at base; hollow, dirty white and glabrous at the apical part, surface whitish, covered white, tomentose at lower part, with white mycelial cords at base; annulus membranous, superior, whitish on upper surface, with small yellowish brown to brownish squamules on lower whitish surface. Lamellae free, cream, yellow to brown when dry, crowded with lamellulae, edge wavy.

Spores [60,3,1] (4.0–)4.5–5.5 × 2.5–3.0(–3.5) µm, Q = 1.50–1.80(–1.83), Qav = 1.64 (Fig. 10b), ellipsoid to oblong in side and front view, without suprahilar depression, sometimes with straight adaxial side; hyaline, smooth, non-dextrinoid, congophilous but very weakly, slightly reddish purple in Cresyl Blue. Basidia 17–22 × 5–6 μm, narrowly clavate or subcylindrical, 4-spored. Lamella edge sterile. Cheilocystidia 21–40 × 6–13 μm, clavate to narrowly clavate, rarely broadly clavate, colourless, hyaline, thin-walled (Fig. 10c). Pleurocystidia absent. Pileus covering a hymeniderm made up of broadly clavate, clavate to obpyriform terminal elements, 18–50 × 10–20 μm, with pale yellowish brown intracellular pigment (Fig. 10d). Clamp-connections present in all tissues.

Collection examined

China, Jilin Province, Changchun City, Jinyuetan Park, 7 July 2005, Wang Jianrui (HMJAU 3799).

Ecology and distribution

Solitary, terrestrial, on the ground in a larch forest in summer and autumn. So far known only from China.

Figure 10. 

Lepiota sinorecondita (HMJAU 3799) a Basidiome b Spores c Cheilocystidia d Elements of the pileus covering. Scale bars: 10 mm (a); 5 μm (b); 20 μm (c–d). Drawings by J.F. Liang.

Discussion

Distinguishing characters of L. psalion and allied species

The morphological differences among the Lepiota species with hymeniform pileus covering are often subtle (Vellinga and Huijser 1999; Vellinga 2010), but nrlTS sequence data support the morphologically recognized species (Vellinga 2010; Vizzini et al. 2014a, b; Justo et al. 2015; Qasim et al. 2015; Hosen et al. 2016).

Lepiota psalion is distinguished by having a non-smooth pileus with concentric non-uplifted squamules, a distinct annulus, and mostly clavate cheilocystidia (Vellinga and Huijser 1999; Vellinga 2001; our observations). The annulus is quite evanescent (Fig. 3) mainly because it is predominantly composed of inflated elements (Figs 5d, 6e).

Lepiota “cf. rufipes f. phaeophylla” sensu Winterhoff and Bon (1994) and L. rufipes sensu Babos (1974), Wasser (1980), and Krieglsteiner (1991), all with a distinct annulus, are probably referable to L. psalion (Vellinga and Huijser 1999; Vellinga 2001), but see below.

The phylogenetically closest species are L. coloratipes (= L. rufipes ss. Auct. europ. non ss. orig.) and L. sanguineofracta (Fig. 1). Lepiota coloratipes differs from L. psalion in having a usually smooth pileus surface, a very evanescent partial veil not forming an annulus but leaving fibrillose remnants on stipe surface, a stipe with reddish tinges at base, the presence of oil droplets in all tissues (including spore surface), the hymeniform pileus covering consisting of very tightly arranged clavate to sphaeropedunculate elements, the presence of uninucleate spores which are often verruculose in Melzer’s reagent, versiform cheilocystidia (mostly lageniform or lecythiform), and the presence of caulocystidia (Bon 1981, 1993; Candusso and Lanzoni 1990; Vellinga and Huijser 1999; Vellinga 2001; Vizzini et al. 2014b). Lepiota sanguineofracta, recently described from Italy, is characterized by a micaceous but not squamulose pileus surface with distinct green tinges when mature, a fugacious partial veil not forming an annulus, a stipe with reddish tinges towards the base, the context smelling of dried rose petals, basidiome surfaces and context strongly reddening on handling, binucleate spores, and versiform cheilocystidia (clavate to subutriform, subfusiform) (Vizzini et al. 2014a).

The other morphologically allied species of Lepiota with a hymeniform pileus covering, ellipsoid spores, and a well-formed annulus, phylogenetically far from L. psalion (Figs 1, 2), show distinctive morphological traits: L. apatelia Vellinga & Huijser, L. cristatoides Einhell. (both from Europe), and L. thiersii Sundb. (from western North America) have no cheilocystidia (Einhellinger 1973; Sundberg 1989; Vellinga and Huijser 1999; Vellinga 2001, 2010; Hausknecht and Pidlich-Aigener 2005; Kosakyan et al. 2008; Mertens 2010; Gierczyk et al. 2011). Lepiota neophana (including var. europaea Bizio & Migl. and f. papillata Migl. & L. Perrone) shows a smooth pileus surface with a buff to dark-brown and umbonate centre, very rare clamp-connections in the pileus trama and no cheilocystidia (Anonymous 1992; Bizio et al. 1993; Vellinga and Huijser 1999; Vellinga 2010). Finally, pale collections of L. lilacea Bres. are distinguished by whitish lamellae, an annulus with lilac-brown tinges on the lower part and margin, and metachromatic (in Cresyl Blue) up to 6 µm long spores (Bon 1981, 1993; Migliozzi and Clericuzio 1989; Candusso and Lanzoni 1990; Vellinga 2001).

The Lepiota psalion complex

Lepiota psalion was established by Vellinga and Huijser (1999) based on an Austrian collection made by A. Hausknecht on 23 August 1985 (WU 5152) and determined by M. Bon as L. rufipes fo. annulata ined. (Fig. 4a). The extended description they provided is heterogeneous: the macromorphology was taken from Krieglsteiner (1991) who described a German collection as L. rufipes, collection considered by Vellinga and Huijser as L. psalion, while the micromorphology was based on the analysis of the holotype made by the same Dutch mycologists. NrITS and nrLSU sequences later deposited in GenBank as L. psalion were generated by Vellinga (2004, 2010) not from the holotype, but from three Dutch collections (vouchers 23-VIII-1999, 15-IX-1999, and hah6177, H.A. Huijser, herb. Huijser).

When the Sardinian specimens were collected, they were morphologically attributed to L. psalion, but when they were sequenced to obtain molecular evidence, they did not cluster either with the Dutch collections or with a collection named L. psalion from China (herb. HMJAU3799; Liang et al. 2011) (tree not shown). Consequently, we decided to request the holotype collection from WU and sequenced it. Phylogenetic analyses highlighted that Sardinian collection and the holotype are conspecific (Figs 1, 2) and sister to L. coloratipes (Fig. 1). Molecular data so confirm L. psalion as independent species in the genus Lepiota; Dutch and Chinese collections are two distinct and yet undescribed new species, phylogenetically close (BPP = 0.97; MLB = 91%) to L. thiersii (Fig. 1). Unfortunately, the collections of the Dutch taxon whose sequences are deposited in GenBank were subsequently lost (Vellinga, pers. comm.) but, based on two newly sequenced additional collections from the same original area of the Dutch taxon, the new species L. recondita is here described. As only one collection (consisting of three basidiomes) is available for the Chinese taxon, it was decided to propose it only as an ad interim species. Further collections will be necessary to describe it as a new species.

Lepiota psalion, L. recondita, L.sinorecondita”, L. apatelia, and L. thiersii constitute a homogeneous morphology-based but not monophyletic group, here named the “L. psalion complex”, which is circumscribed by a set of shared characters: a pileus surface breaking into small squamules, well-formed white partial veil (usually forming an annulus, but see L. apatelia), hymeniform pileus covering, and ellipsoid spores.

An identification key for the taxa belonging to this complex is proposed below.

Key to the species of the Lepiota psalion complex

1 Cheilocystidia absent 2
Cheilocystidia present 3
2 Smell farinaceous, annulus often adhering to pileus margin (as velar remnants), spores weakly dextrinoid L. apatelia (Europe)
Smell L. cristata-like, annulus usually ascending on stipe, spores non-dextrinoid L. thiersii (North America)
3 Spores ellipsoid, on average = 3.9 μm long, Qav = 1.36 L. psalion (Europe)
Spores ellipsoid to oblong, on average > 4.0 μm long, Qav > 1.4 4
4 Cheilocystidia versiform, spores ellipsoid, Qav = 1.5, annulus entirely smooth L. recondita (Europe)
Cheilocystidia mainly clavate, spores oblong, Qav = 1.64, annulus covered by minute yellowish brown squamules on lower surface L. sinorecondita ad int. (China)

Acknowledgements

We thank Irmgard Greilhuber and Walter Till (University of Vienna) for sending us photographs and part of the holotype collection of Lepiota psalion, Giacomo Calvia (University of Cagliari) for his assistance in collecting specimens in the Botanical Garden of Cagliari, Marco Floriani (Pergine Valsugana, Trento) for depositing the collections of the new species in TR, and Else Vellinga (University of California - Berkeley) for her suggestions. AT also thanks the University of Cagliari and, in particular, Gianluigi Bacchetta, director of the Hortus Botanicus Kalaritanum, for allowing sampling of the studied material and Annalena Cogoni, the person in charge of the Herbarium CAG, for allowing us access to fungarium material.

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