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Two new endophytic Colletotrichum species from Nothapodytes pittosporoides in China
expand article infoSixuan Zhou§, Lijun Qiao, Ruvishika S. Jayawardena|, Kevin D. Hyde|, Xiaoya Ma|, Tingchi Wen, Jichuan Kang
‡ Guizhou University, Guiyang, China
§ Guizhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guiyang, China
| Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, Thailand
Open Access

Abstract

Two new endophytic species, Colletotrichum jishouense sp. nov. and. C. tongrenense sp. nov. were isolated from Nothapodytes pittosporoides in Guizhou and Hunan provinces, China. Detailed descriptions and illustrations of these new taxa are provided and morphological comparisons with similar taxa are explored. Phylogenetic analysis with combined sequence data (ITS, GAPDH, ACT and TUB2) demonstrated that both species formed distinct clades in this genus. This is the first record of Colletotrichum species from N. pittosporoides in China.

Keywords

Ascomycota, Multi-loci, Phylogeny, Morphology, Taxonomy

Introduction

Nothapodytes pittosporoides (Oliv.) Sleum (Icacinacceae) has been used as Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and is mainly distributed in southern China (Fang 1981). It is quickly gaining attention as the characteristic compounds of camptothecin and its derivatives (CIDs) in N. pittosporoides (Dong et al. 2015) are used as anti-cancer drugs in the world market (Demain and Vaishnav 2011). It is recognised that endophytes reside in the internal tissues of living plants and potentially have the capability to produce the same functional compounds as their hosts (Stierle et al. 1993, 1995; Kusari et al. 2008; Bhalkar et al. 2016; Uzma et al. 2018). The endophytic fungi in N. pittosporoides were therefore studied for their secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical potential.

Endophytic fungi were isolated from different parts of Nothapodytes pittosporoides (Zhou et al. 2017; Qiao et al. 2018) collected from different sites. A high diversity of fungi were found, of which several species of Colletotrichum were isolated and identified.

Colletotrichum species are globally distributed and occur in various plants as endophytes (Tibpromma et al. 2018). Colletotrichum is the sole genus in the family Glomerellaceae (Glomerellales, Sordariomycetes, Wijayawardene et al. 2018) and was introduced by Corda (1831) with the type species C. lineola (Jayawardena et al. 2016, 2017, Wijayawardene et al. 2017). Recently, several studies have analysed this genus and these are summarised in Hyde et al. (2014), who accepted 163 names. Since this review, about 30 more species have been introduced (Baroncelli et al. 2017; Douanla-meli et al. 2017; Jayawardena et al. 2017; Silva et al. 2018).

In this study, we introduce two novel species, C. jishouense sp. nov. and C. tongrenense sp. nov. isolated as endophytes from N. pittosporoides. These species are based on both morphological features and molecular sequence data evidence.

Material and methods

Sample collection

Fresh healthy plant samples (leaves, stems and roots) of Nothapodytes pittosporoides were collected in Tongren City, Guizhou Province and Jishou City, Hunan Province, China. Materials were kept in zip-lock bags on ice. Fungal isolation was carried out within 24 hours of collection.

Isolation and cultivation of fungal endophytes

Each part of the plant was surface sterilised to eliminate epiphytic microorganisms. The samples were washed thoroughly in running tap water, followed by immersion in 70% (v/v) ethanol for 3 min to sterilise the surfaces, then rinsed with sterilised distilled water for 1 min. Samples were dried on sterilised filter paper and then placed in 3% hydrogen peroxide for 7 min, washed in sterilised distilled water and dried on a sterilised filter paper again. Each plant tissue was then cut into small cubes (0.5 × 0.5 cm) using a sterilised blade. The cubes were placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium in Petri dishes containing with antibiotic (100 mg/l chloramphenicol) and incubated at 25 °C until fungal growth emerged from the plant segments. The endophytic fungi were isolated and sub-cultured on fresh PDA plates at 25 °C in darkness. Fungal isolates were stored on PDA and covered with sterilised water at 4 °C.

The type specimens are deposited in Guizhou Agricultural College (GACP), Guiyang, China. Ex-type living cultures are deposited at Guizhou Medical University Culture Collection (GMBC). Mycobank numbers are provided.

DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and sequencing

Genomic DNA was extracted from fresh fungal mycelia using the BIOMIGA Fungus Genomic DNA Extraction Kit (GD2416, Biomiga, USA), following the manufacturer’s instructions. DNA samples were stored at -20 °C until used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Four loci, rDNA regions of internal transcribed spacers (ITS), partial β-tubulin (TUB2), actin (ACT) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) genes were amplified by PCR with primers ITS1 (Gardes and Bruns 1993) + ITS4 (White et al. 1990), Bt-2a + Bt-2b (Glass and Donaldson 1995), ACT-512F + ACT-783R (Carbone and Kohn 1999) and GDF1 + GDR1 (Guerber et al. 2003), respectively. The components of a 50 µl volume PCR mixture were used as follows: 2.0 µl of DNA template, 1 µl of each forward and reverse primer, 25 µl of 2 × Easy Taq PCR Super Mix (mixture of Easy Taq TM DNA Polymerase, dNTPs and optimised buffer, Beijing Trans Gen Biotech Co., Chaoyang District, Beijing, China) and 19 µl sterilised water. PCR thermal cycle programmes for ITS and ACT gene amplification were provided as: initial denaturation at 95 °C for 3 min, followed by 35 cycles of denaturation at 95 °C for 30 s, annealing at 52 °C for 50 s, elongation at 72 °C for 45 s and final extension at 72 °C for 10 min. The PCR thermal cycle programme for GAPDH gene amplification was provided as: initial denaturation at 95 °C for 3 min, followed by 35 cycles of denaturation at 94 °C for 30 s, annealing at 60 °C for 30 s, elongation at 72 °C for 45 s and final extension at 72 °C for 10 min. The PCR thermal cycle programme for TUB2 gene amplification was provided as: initial denaturation 95 °C for 3 min, followed by 35 cycles of denaturation at 94 °C for 30 s, annealing at 55 °C for 45 s, elongation at 72 °C for 45 s and final extension at 72 °C for 10 min. The quality of PCR products were checked with 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis stained with ethidium bromide. PCR products were sent for sequencing to Sangon Co., Shanghai, China.

Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses

Sequence data of the four loci were blasted in the GenBank database and all top hits, including the corresponding type sequences, were retrieved (Table 1). Multiple sequence alignments for ITS, TUB2, ACT and GAPDH were constructed and carried out using the MAFFT v.7.110 online programme (http://mafft.cbrc.jp/alignment/server/, Katoh and Standley 2013) with the default settings. Four datasets of ITS, TUB2, ACT and GAPDH of Colletotrichum spp. were combined and manually adjusted using BioEdit v.7.0.5.3 (Hall 1999), then assembled using SequenceMatrix1.7.8 (Vaidya et al. 2011). The final alignments contained 1593 characters with gaps, ITS with 522 sites, TUB2 with 510 sites, ACT with 269 sites and GAPDH with 292 sites. Fifty-four taxa and 1593 sites were used for phylogenetic analyses. Gaps were treated as missing data in maximum likelihood (ML), Bayesian Inference (BI) and parsimony trees. The phylogeny website tools “ALTER” (Glez-Peña et al. 2010) were used to convert the alignment file from Fasta to PhyLip file for RAxML analysis and Nexus for MrBayes. All loci were tested based on single maximum likelihood (ML) trees and Bayesian Inference (BI) methods.

Taxa used for phylogenetic analyses in the study.

Species name Isolate No.b GenBank Accession No.
ITS GAPDH ACT TUB
Colletotrichum agaves AR3920 DQ286221 a
C. anthrisci CBS 125334* GU227845 GU228237 GU227943 GU228139
C. aracearum LC1041 KX853167 KX893586 KX893578 KX893582
C. arxii CBS 132511 KF687716 KF687843 KF687802 KF687881
C. brevisporum BCC 38876* JN050238 JN050227 JN050216 JN050244
C. chlorophyte IMI 103806* GU227894 GU228286 GU227992 GU228188
C. citricola SXC151* KC293576 KC293736 KC293616 KC293656
C. citri-maximae AGMy0254* KX943582 KX943578 KX943567 KX943586
C. cliviae CBS 125375* JX519223 JX546611 JX519240 JX519249
C. coccodes CBS 369.75 HM171679 HM171673 HM171667 JX546873
C. colombiense CBS 129818* JQ005174 JQ005261 JQ005522 JQ005608
C. conoides CAUG17* KP890168 KP890162 KP890144 KP890174
C. constrictum CBS 128504* JQ005238 JQ005325 JQ005586 JQ005672
C. cordylinicola ICMP18579* JX010226 JX009975 HM470235 JX010440
C. dematium CBS 125.25* GU227819 GU228211 GU227917 GU228113
C. dracaenophilum CBS 118199 JX519222 JX546707 JX519238 JX519247
C. euphorbiae CPC 21823 KF777146 KF777131 KF777125 KF777247
C. excelsum-altitudum CGMCC 3.15130* HM751815 KC843502 KC843548 JX625211
C. fructi CBS 346.37* GU227844 GU228236 GU227942 GU228138
C. fuscum CBS 133701* KM105174 KM105524 KM105384 KM105454
C. fusiforme MFLU 13-0291* KT290266 KT290255 KT290251 KT290256
C. gigasporum CBS 133266 KF687715 KF687822 KF687866
C. godetiae CBS 133.44* JQ948402 JQ948733 JQ949723 JQ950053
C. grevilleae CBS 132879* KC297078 KC297010 KC296941 KC297102
C. hymenocallidicola MFLUCC 12–0531* KT290264 KT290263
C. jishouense GZU_HJ2_G2 MH482931 MH681657 MH708134 MH727472
C. jishouense GZU_HJ2_G3 MH482929 MH681658 MH708135 MH727473
C. jishouense GZU_HJ2_G4 MH482932 MH681659 MH708136 MH727474
C. jishouense GZU_HJ3_J5 MH482930 MH492706 MH708137
C. kahawae C1266.1 JX010231 JX010012 JX009452 JX010444
C. ledebouriae CPC 25671* KX228254 KX228357
C. liaoningense CAUOS2* KP890104 KP890135 KP890097 KP890111
C. lindemuthianum CBS 144.31* JQ005779 JX546712 JQ005842 JQ005863
C. magnisporum CBS 398.84 KF687718 KF687842 KF687803 KF687882
C. malvarum CBS 521.97* KF178480 KF178504 KF178577 KF178601
C. neosansevieriae CPC 25127* KR476747 KR476791 KR476790 KR476797
C. nymphaeae CBS 515.78 JQ948197 JQ948527 JQ949518 JQ949848
C. orchidophilum CBS 632.80* JQ948151 JQ948481 JQ949472 JQ949802
C. pisicola CBS 724.97* KM105172 KM105522 KM105382 KM105452
C. pseudoacutatum CBS 436.77* JQ948480 JQ948811 JQ949801 JQ950131
C. pseudomajus CBS 571.88 KF687722 KF687826 KF687801 KF687883
C. radices CBS 529.93 KF687719 KF687825 KF687785 KF687869
C. rhombiforme CBS 129953* JQ948457 JQ948788 JQ949778 JQ950108
C. sansevieriae MAFF 239721* NR_152313
C. spinosum CBS 515.97* KF178474 KF178498 KF178571 KF178595
C. tanaceti CBS 132693* JX218228 JX218243 JX218238 JX218233
C. trichellum CBS 217.64* GU227812 GU228204 GU227910 GU228106
C. tongrenense GZU_TRJ1-37 MH482933 MH705332 MH717074 MH729805
C. tropicicola L58 JN050240 JN050229 JN050218 JN050246
C. truncatum CBS 151.35 GU227862 GU228254 GU227960 GU228156
C. vietnamense CBS 125478 KF687721 KF687832 KF687792 KF687877
C. yunnanense CBS 132135* JX546804 JX546706 JX519248
Monilochaetes infuscans CBS 869.96 JQ005780 JX546612 JQ005843 JQ005864

Maximum Likelihood (ML) analysis was performed on the website of CIPRES Science Gateway v.3.3 (http://www.phylo.org/portal2/, Miller et al. 2010) using RAxML-HPC Blackbox version 8.2.10. All free model parameters were estimated by RAxML and ML estimate of 25 per site rate categories. Final ML searches were conducted using the GTRGAMMA model. Bootstrap Support values (BS) equal to or greater than 60% are given above each node (Fig. 1).

For Bayesian Inference (BI), a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm was used to generate phylogenetic trees with Bayesian probabilities using MrBayes 3.2.6 (Ronquist et al. 2012) for the combined sequence datasets. MrModeltest v.2.3 (Nylander 2004) was used to carry out the statistical selection of the best-fit model of nucleotide substitution. GTR+G model was selected for ITS, a GTR+I+G model for TUB2, a HKY+I+G model for ACT and GAPDH were incorporated into the analysis. Models of nucleotide substitution for each gene determined by MrModeltest v. 2.3 were included for each set of gene sequence data. Two runs were executed simultaneously for 1,000,000 generations and sampled every 100 generations. Of the trees, 25% were discarded as burn-in and the remaining trees were used to calculate the posterior probabilities. Convergence was assumed when the standard deviation of split sequences was less than 0.01. Phylogenetic trees were visualised using FigTree v1.4.0 (http://tree.bio.ed.ac.uk/software/figtree/, Rambaut 2012). The final alignment was deposited in Treebase (http://www.treebase.org, submission number 23622).

Morphological analysis

Isolates were grown on PDA, water agar (WA) with bamboo and corn malt agar medium (CMA) for examination of morphological characters. Colonies were examined after 7, 14 and 21 d at 25 °C in darkness. The morphological characters of mycelia, conidiophores, conidiogenous cells and conidia were observed and photographed using a Nikon NI-SS microscope and processed with Adobe Photoshop CS3 Extended version 10.0 software (Adobe Systems, USA).

Results

Sample collection and isolation

Four hundred and forty endophytic fungi were isolated from different parts of Nothapodytes pittosporoides in Jishou, Hunan Province and Tongren, Guizhou Province, belonging to twenty-four genera based on ITS sequences analysis. Colletotrichum was a common genus amongst the isolates. Herein, five endophytic taxa were isolated and identified as Colletotrichum of which GZU_HJ2_G2, GZU_HJ2_G3 and GZU_HJ2_G4 were isolated from roots and GZU_HJ3_J5 from stems of N. pittosporoides in Jishou, Hunan Province. GZU_TRJ1-37 was isolated from stems of N. pittosporoides in Tongren, Guizhou Province.

Phylogenetic analyses

Phylogenetic analysis of four loci (ITS, GAPDH, ACT and TUB2) sequence datasets included 54 taxa, 1,593 positions including gaps (ITS: 1–522, TUB2: 523–1032, ACT: 1033–1301, GAPDH: 1302–1593) and Monilochaetes infuscans (CBS 869.96) was selected as the outgroup taxon. The 50% majority rule consensus Bayesian phylogram presented in Fig. 1 and the topology is recovered with the RAxML tree. Values of the Bayesian PP ≥ 0.70 from MCMC analyses and bootstrap support values of RAxML ≥ 90% are given on the branches.

Figure 1. 

Phylogram generated from Maximum Likelihood (RAxML) analysis based on combined ITS, ACT, TUB2 and GAPDH DNA sequence data of Colletotrichum. Bayesian Posterior Probabilities (BSPP) greater than 0.90 and Maximum Likelihood Bootstrap Support values (MLBS) greater than 70% are shown above branches. New isolates are in red. The tree is rooted with Monilochaetes infuscans CBS 869.96.

Representatives of complexes and species in Colletotrichum (Noireung et al. 2012; Tao et al. 2013; Liu et al. 2014; Jayawardena et al. 2016; Douanla-meli et al. 2017) are included in the phylogenetic analyses (Fig. 1). Four isolates, GZU_HJ2_G2, GZU_HJ2_G3, GZU_HJ2_G4 and GZU_HJ3_J5, were identified as distinct new species and are described as Colletotrichum jishouense sp. nov., and as C. tongrenense sp. nov., based on their morphology and molecular phylogeny.

Taxonomy

Colletotrichum jishouense SX. Zhou, JC. Kang & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: 828723
Fig. 2

Etymology

Jishouense’ referring to Jishou City, site of collection of type species.

Description

Endophytic fungus in root of Nothapodytes pittosporoides. Sexual morph: Undetermined. Asexual morph: Vegetative hyphae 0.5–1.2 µm diam. (n=10), hyaline, smooth-walled, septate, branched. Chlamydospores not observed. Conidiophores formed on a basal cushion, hyaline to pale brown, clavate or cylindrical, septate and irregularly branched. Conidiogenous cells 4–11 × 2–3 μm (x‒= 6.7 ± 3.0 × 2.6 ± 0.4 μm, n=20), L/W ratio= 2.5, hyaline, smooth-walled, clavate to mostly ampulliform or cylindrical. Conidia hyaline, smooth-walled, aseptate, straight, cylindrical, some clavate, the apex and base rounded, 5–14 × 3–5 μm (x‒ = 10.8 ± 1.8 × 3.7 ± 0.5 μm, n = 40), L/W ratio= 2.9. Appressoria not observed.

Culture characteristics

Colonies on PDA, reaching 55–60 mm diam. in 14 days at 25 °C in darkness, circular, mycelium superficial and partially immersed, more or less planar, brown in the medium but covered with abundant, pale and lanose to cottony aerial mycelium, reverse greenish pale brown, margin entire and irregular.

Material examined

CHINA, Hunan Province, Jishou City (28°55'24"N, 109°10'24"E), isolated from healthy roots of Nothapodytes pittosporoides, 27 May 2016, S.X. Zhou (Holotype GACP GZU_HJ2_G3 dried culture), ex-type living culture, GMBC0209, living culture, GZU_HJ2_G2, living culture, GZU_HJ2_G4.

China, Hunan Province, Jishou City (28°55'24"N, 109°10'24"E), isolated from healthy stem of Nothapodytes pittosporoides, 27 May 2016, S.X. Zhou, living culture, GZU_HJ3_J5.

Notes

Colletotrichum jishouense belongs in the gigasporum species complex. C. jishouense has shorter and narrower conidiogenous cells and conidia than all the related species in the C. gigasporum complex (Liu et al. 2014). Phylogenetically, our four new isolates clustered together with C. magnisporum (CBS 398.84). The pairwise dissimilarities of DNA sequences between C. jishouense and C. magnisporum were 2 bp, 20 bp, 5 bp and 9 bp in ITS, TUB2, ACT and GAPDH, respectively. They are phylogenetically distinct species and, therefore, C. jishouense sp. nov. is introduced.

Figure 2. 

Colletotrichum jishouense (GACP GZU_HJ2_G3, holotype) a stems and roots of Nothapodytes pittosporoides b,c colonies on PDA d conidiophores in cotton blue e conidiophores with conidia in cotton blue f conidia in cotton blue. Scale bars: 10 µm (d), 5 µm (e, f).

Colletotrichum tongrenense S.X. Zhou, J.C. Kang & K.D. Hyde, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: 828725
Fig. 3

Etymology

tongrenense’ referring Tongren City, site of collection of type species.

Description

Endophytic in leaves and stems of Nothapodytes pittosporoides. Sexual morph: Undetermined. Asexual morph: On WA, vegetative hyphae 1.4–6 µm diam. (n=10), smooth-walled, septate, branched, hyaline. Chlamydospores not observed. Setae unbranched, septate, tapering to rounded at apical end, pale brown to dark brown, smooth-walled, 45–90 µm long, 5.9–6.2 μm wide at widest part, 2.6–5.8 µm wide at bottom, 1.5–1.6 µm wide at apex. Conidiophores pale brown, septate, branched. Conidiogenous cells pale, hyaline, smooth-walled, erect, clavate or cylindrical, 2–11 × 1–2 μm (x‒ = 6.3 ± 4.4 × 1.7 ± 0.4 μm, n = 20), L/W ratio= 3.7. Conidia hyaline, aseptate, smooth-walled, variable in size and shape, thick-walled, ellipsoidal to subglobose, the apex and base rounded, slightly constricted in the middle, 11–14 × 5–7 μm (x‒ = 13.1 ± 1.0 × 5.5 ± 0.6 μm, n = 40), L/W ratio= 2.4.

Culture characteristics

Cultures on WA at 25 °C in darkness, reaching 15–18 mm diam. in 21 days, white to grey, asymmetrical surface, reverse dark grey to black.

Colonies on PDA at 25 °C reaching 45–55 mm diam. in 12 days in darkness, circular, more or less planar, surface dark brown, covered with abundant, pale grey, lanose to cottony aerial mycelium, margin smooth, entire and pale white. Reverse dark grey, margin pale white.

Cultures on CMA, 10–15 mm diam. in 21 days, covered with dark brown aerial mycelium, sparse, reverse light brown, margin irregular.

Material examined

CHINA, Guizhou province, Tongren (27°35'37"N, 109°10'58"E, elevation 332.8 m), isolated from healthy stems of Nothapodytes pittosporoides, 27 May 2016, S.X. Zhou and L.J. Qiao (Holotype GACP GZU-TRJ1-37 dried culture), ex-type living culture, GMBC0209.

Notes

Colletotrichum tongrenense belongs to the C. dracaenophilum species complex (Damm et al. 2019). Morphologically, C. tongrenense resembles C. tropicicola and C. excelsum-altitudum in conidia characters, but it can be distinguished from C. tropicicola in having setae and longer conidia (15–19 µm vs 11–14 µm) (Noireung et al. 2012). C. tongrenense is distinguished from C. excelsum-altitudum (Tao et al. 2013) in having smaller conidiophores (2–11 × 1–2 μm vs 8.5–25 × 4–5 μm). Phylogenetically, the new isolate GZU_TRJ1-37 clusters together with C. tropicicola with good bootstrap support (94% MLBS, 1.00 PP) (Fig. 1) and the phylogenetic analysis supports it as a distinct species. There are 6, 4, 2 and 5 base pairs differences in ITS, TUB2, ACT and GAPDH gene regions, respectively, between the new isolate and the type strain of C. tropicicola, which confirms that they are separate species. Therefore, it is introduced as a novel species.

Figure 3. 

Colletotrichum tongrenense (GACP GZU_TRJ1-37, holotype) a, b colonies on WA c–g Conidiophores h–l Conidia. Scale bars: 40 µm (c), 20 µm (d, g), 10 µm (e, f), 10 µm (h–l).

Discussion

Colletotrichum appears to have a wide host range and a geographic distribution (Yang et al. 2009, Hyde et al. 2014, Jayawardena et al. 2016). This study reports on five endophytic Colletotrichum isolates which were isolated from Nothapodytes pittosporoides. Two new species were introduced, named C. jishouense and C. tongrenense, respectively, based on morphological characters and multilocus (ITS, TUB2, ACT and GAPDH) phylogenetic analyses. The C. gigasporum species complex is associated with various host plants as pathogens and endophytes and also isolated from air and stored grain, indicating that the members are not host-specific and apparently have different life styles (Than et al. 2008, Yang et al. 2009, Liu et al. 2014, Jayawardena et al. 2016). The C. dracaenophilum species complex contains a few apparently host-specific species and these species seem to be uncommon (Damm et al. 2019). The complex includes C. coelogynes, C. dracaenophilum, C. excelsum-altitudinum, C. tropicicola and C. yunnanense. A further strain, C. tongrenense was identified to the C. dracaenophilum species complex in the study, based on the multilocus phylogeny and morphological features. Amongst them, C. excelsum-altitudinum was described from healthy leaves of Bletilla ochracea (Orchidaceae) in Guizhou, China (Tao et al. 2013.), C. tropicicola were described from leaves of Citrus maxima and Paphiopedilum sp. in Thailand and a further strain from C. sp. in Mexico (Noireung et al. 2012, Damm et al. 2019). The C. coelogynes strain CBS 132504 is an endophytic Colletotrichum isolate from both Dendrobium spp. in China (Yuan et al. 2009, Gao and Guo, unpublished data). C. yunnanense was described from healthy leaves of Buxus sp. in Yunnan, China (Liu et al. 2007).

Morphological features and genes sequence data are recognised as a basis for describing new species, but sometimes morphological features of Colletotrichum are not stable and may change under different growth conditions (Liu et al. 2014). DNA sequence comparison and multi-gene phylogenetic analyses can provide sufficient evidence to show distinct taxa (Jeewon and Hyde 2016). However, single gene data, including ITS, are usually insufficient for species identification in most of the Colletotrichum species complexes (Hyde et al. 2009). Multi-locus phylogenies are therefore necessary to describe Colletotrichum species (Jayawardena et al. 2016).

The composition of endophytic microorganisms may depend on the plant age, tissue, host type and time of isolation (Rosenblueth and Martinez-Romero 2006). The new species, Colletotrichum tongrenense lives in stems and C. jishouense lives in roots and stems of Nothapodytes pittosporoides. Nothing is known about their infection strategies on the host. It is also the first report of Colletotrichum species from N. pittosporoides. This study enriches the host diversity of Colletotrichum.

Acknowledgements

This work was funded by grants of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC Grants nos. 31670027 &31460011 & 30870009). Sixuan Zhou thanks Dr. Shaun Pennycook, Prof. Jiangming Lv, Yongzhong Lu and Jianfei Gao for their help.

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