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Research Article
New and noteworthy boletes from subtropical and tropical China
expand article infoHui Chai, Zhi-Qun Liang§, Rou Xue, Shuai Jiang|, Shi-Hong Luo, Yong Wang, Lu-Ling Wu, Li-Ping Tang#, Yun Chen|, Deng Hong, Nian-Kai Zeng
‡ Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China
§ Hainan University, Haikou, China
| Hainan Yinggeling National Nature Reserve, Baisha, China
¶ Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, China
# Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China
Open Access

Abstract

The morphology, ecology, and phylogenetic relationships of specimens of the family Boletaceae from subtropical and tropical China were investigated. Four species, Butyriboletus huangnianlaii, Lanmaoa macrocarpa, Neoboletus multipunctatus, and Sutorius subrufus, are new to science. Chalciporus radiatus and Caloboletus xiangtoushanensis are redescribed. Caloboletus guanyui is proposed to replace Boletus quercinus Hongo, an illegitimate later homonym. The recently described Tylopilus callainus is synonymized with the Japanese Boletus virescens, and the new combination T. virescens (Har. Takah. & Taneyama) N.K. Zeng et al. is proposed. Moreover, Neoboletus is treated as an independent genus based on evidence from morphology and molecular phylogenetic data in the present study, and many previously described taxa of Sutorius are recombined into Neoboletus: N. ferrugineus (G. Wu et al.) N.K. Zeng et al., N. flavidus (G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang) N.K. Zeng et al., N. hainanensis (T.H. Li & M. Zang) N.K. Zeng et al., N. obscureumbrinus (Hongo) N.K. Zeng et al., N. rubriporus (G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang) N.K. Zeng et al., N. sanguineoides (G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang) N.K. Zeng et al. , N. sanguineus (G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang) N.K. Zeng et al., and N. tomentulosus (M. Zang et al.) N.K. Zeng et al.

Keywords

Molecular phylogeny, morphology, new taxa, taxonomy

Introduction

Boletaceae Chevall. (Boletales) is a large, cosmopolitan family with abundant species. Many of them are interesting and important for their mycorrhizal relationships with trees, edibility, medicinal value, and toxicity (Wang et al. 2004; Roman et al. 2005; Wu et al. 2013; Chen et al. 2016). In China, species of Boletaceae have received much attention by mycologists, and many taxa have been discovered across the country (Chiu 1948; Zang 2013; Zeng et al. 2013, 2016, 2017; Liang et al. 2016, 2017; Wu et al. 2016a). However, the diversity of species still remains poorly known in subtropical and tropical China, a biodiversity hotspot. During field trips in the past several years, many collections of boletes have been made in subtropical and tropical China. Evidence from morphology, molecular phylogenetic analyses, and ecological data indicate that these collections belong to Butyriboletus D. Arora & J.L.Frank, Caloboletus Vizzini, Chalciporus Bataille, Lanmaoa G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang, Neoboletus Gelardi et al., Sutorius Halling et al., and Tylopilus P. Karst. Thus, they are described/redescribed in an effort to (i) further demonstrate the species diversity in subtropical and tropical China, (ii) resolve some taxonomic quandaries in Boletaceae

Materials and methods

Abbreviations of generic names used in the study

The abbreviations of Boletus, Butyriboletus, Caloboletus, Chalciporus, Crocinoboletus, Lanmaoa, Neoboletus, Sutorius, Tylopilus mentioned in this work are B., But., C., Ch., Cr., L., N., S. and T., respectively.

Collection sites and sampling

Specimens were collected from subtropical and tropical China including Hainan and Fujian Provinces. Specimens examined are deposited in the Fungal Herbarium of Hainan Medical University (FHMU), Haikou City, Hainan Province, China, the Herbarium of Cryptogams, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (HKAS), and the Mycological Herbarium of Pharmacy College, Kunming Medical University (MHKMU).

Morphological studies

The macroscopic descriptions are based on detailed notes and photographs taken from fresh basidiomata. Color codes are from Kornerup and Wanscher (1981). Sections of the pileipellis were cut radial-perpendicularly and halfway between the center and margin of the pileus. Sections of the stipitipellis were taken from the middle part along the longitudinal axis of the stipe. Five percent KOH was used as a mounting medium for microscopic studies. All microscopic structures were drawn by freehand from rehydrated material. The number of measured basidiospores is given as n/m/p, where n represent the total number of basidiospores measured from m basidiomata of p collections. Dimensions of basidiospores are given as (a)bc (d), where the range bc represents a minimum of 90% of the measured values (5th to 95th percentile), and extreme values (a and d), whenever present (a < 5th percentile, d > 95th percentile), are in parentheses. Q refers to the length/width ratio of basidiospores; Qm refers to the average Q of basidiospores and is given with a sample standard deviation.

DNA extraction, primers, PCR and sequencing

Total genomic DNA was obtained with Plant Genomic DNA Kit (TIANGEN Company, China) from materials dried with silica gel according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The primers used for amplifying the nuclear ribosomal large subunit RNA (28S) were LROR/LR5 (Vilgalys and Hester 1990; James et al. 2006), ITS5/ITS4 (White et al. 1990) for the nuclear rDNA region encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, along with the 5.8S rDNA (ITS), the translation elongation factor 1-α gene (tef1) with 983F/1567R (Rehner and Buckley 2005) and the RNA polymerase II second largest subunit gene (rpb2) with RPB2-B-F1/RPB2-B-R (Wu et al. 2014). PCR products were checked in 1% (w/v) agarose gels, and positive reactions with a bright single band were purified and directly sequenced using an ABI 3730xl DNA Analyzer (Guangzhou Branch of BGI, China) with the same primers used for PCR amplifications. Assembled sequences were deposited in GenBank (Table 1).

Table 1.

Taxa, vouchers, locations, and GenBank accession numbers of DNA sequences used in this study.

Taxon Voucher Locality 28S ITS tef1 rpb2 References
Baorangia pseudocalopus HKAS63607 Yunnan, SW China KF112355 KF112167 Wu et al. 2014
Baorangia pseudocalopus HKAS75081 Yunnan, SW China KF112356 KF112168 Wu et al. 2014
Butyriboletus abieticola Arora11087 California, USA KC184413 KC184412 Arora and Frank 2014
Butyriboletus appendiculatus Bap1 Germany AF456837 KJ419923 JQ327025 Binder and Bresinsky 2002
Butyriboletus appendiculatus BR50200893390-25 Meise, Belgium KT002609 KT002598 KT002633 Zhao et al. 2015
Butyriboletus appendiculatus BR50200892955-50 Zoniënwoud, Belgium KJ605677 KJ605668 KJ619472 KP055030 Zhao et al. 2014a
Butyriboletus appendiculatus MB000286 Germany KT002610 KT002599 KT002634 Zhao et al. 2015
Butyriboletus autumniregius Arora11108 California, USA KC184424 KC184423 Arora and Frank 2014
Butyriboletus brunneus NY00013631 Connecticut, USA KT002611 KT002600 KT002635 Zhao et al. 2015
Butyriboletus fechtneri AT2003097 KF030270 KC584784 Nuhn et al. 2013
Butyriboletus frostii JLF2548 New Hampshire, USA KC812303 Arora and Frank 2014
Butyriboletus frostii NY815462 Costa Rica JQ924342 KF112164 KF112675 Wu et al. 2014
Butyriboletus hainanensis N.K. Zeng 1197 (FHMU 2410) Hainan, southern China KU961651 KU961653 KU961658 Liang et al. 2016
Butyriboletus hainanensis N.K. Zeng 2418 (FHMU 2437) Hainan, southern China KU961652 KU961654 KU961656 KX453856 Liang et al. 2016
Butyriboletus huangnianlaii N.K. Zeng 3245 (FHMU 2206) Fujian, SE China MH879688 MH885350 MH879717 MH879740 this study
Butyriboletus huangnianlaii N.K. Zeng 3246 (FHMU 2207) Fujian, SE China MH879689 MH885351 MH879718 MH879741 this study
Butyriboletus peckii 3959 Tennessee, USA JQ326999 JQ327026 Halling et al. 2012
Butyriboletus persolidus Arora11110 California, USA KC184444 Arora and Frank 2014
Butyriboletus primiregius DBB00606 Dunsmuir, California, USA KC184451 Arora and Frank 2014
Butyriboletus pseudoregius BR50201618465-02 Eprave, Belgium KT002613 KT002602 KT002637 Zhao et al. 2015
Butyriboletus pseudoregius BR50201533559-51 Meise, Belgium KT002614 KT002603 KT002638 Zhao et al. 2015
Butyriboletus pseudospeciosus HKAS59467 Yunnan, SW China KF112331 KF112176 KF112672 Wu et al. 2014
Butyriboletus pseudospeciosus HKAS63513 Yunnan, SW China KT990541 KT990743 KT990380 Wu et al. 2016a
Butyriboletus pseudospeciosus HKAS63596 Yunnan, SW China KT990542 KT990744 KT990381 Wu et al. 2016a
Butyriboletus pseudospeciosus N.K. Zeng 2127 (FHMU 1391) Yunnan, SW China MH879687 MH885349 MH879716 this study
Butyriboletus pseudoregius MG383a Lazio, Italy KC184458 Arora and Frank 2014
Butyriboletus pulchriceps DS4514 Arizona, USA KF030261 KF030409 Nuhn et al. 2013
Butyriboletus pulchriceps R. Chapman 0945 Arizona, USA KT002615 KT002604 KT002639 Zhao et al. 2015
Butyriboletus querciregius Arora11100 California, USA KC184461 Arora and Frank 2014
Butyriboletus regius MB000287 Germany KT002616 KT002605 KT002640 Zhao et al. 2015
Butyriboletus regius MG408a Lazio, Italy KC584790 KC584789 Arora and Frank 2014
Butyriboletus regius PRM:923465 Czech Rep. KJ419931 KJ419920 Šutara et al. 2014
Butyriboletus roseoflavus Arora11054 Yunnan, SW China KC184435 KC184434 Arora and Frank 2014
Butyriboletus roseoflavus HKAS63593 Yunnan, SW China KJ184559 KJ909517 KJ184571 Zhao et al. 2015
Butyriboletus roseoflavus HKAS54099 Yunnan, SW China KF739665 KJ909519 KF739779 Zhao et al. 2015
Butyriboletus roseoflavus N.K. Zeng 2123 (FHMU 1387) Yunnan, SW China MH879686 MH885348 MH879715 this study
Butyriboletus roseopurpureus E.E. Both3765 New York, USA KT002617 KT002606 KT002641 Zhao et al. 2015
Butyriboletus roseopurpureus JLF2566 West Virginia, USA KC184467 KC184466 Arora and Frank 2014
Butyriboletus roseopurpureus MB06-059 New York, USA KF030262 KC184464 KF030410 Nuhn et al. 2013
Butyriboletus sanicibus Arora99211 Yunnan, SW China KC184470 KC184469 Arora and Frank 2014
Butyriboletus sp. MHHNU7456 China KT990539 KT990741 KT990378 Wu et al. 2016a
Butyriboletus sp. HKAS52525 Yunnan, SW China KF112337 KF112163 KF112671 Wu et al. 2014
Butyriboletus sp. HKAS57774 Yunnan, SW China KF112330 KF112155 KF112670 Wu et al. 2014
Butyriboletus sp. HKAS59814 Hunan, central China KF112336 KF112199 KF112699 Wu et al. 2014
Butyriboletus sp. HKAS63528 Sichuan, SW China KF112332 KF112156 KF112673 Wu et al. 2014
Butyriboletus subappendiculatus MB000260 Germany KT002618 KT002607 KT002642 Zhao et al. 2015
Butyriboletus subsplendidus HKAS52661 Yunnan, SW China KF112339 KF112169 KF112676 Wu et al. 2014
Butyriboletus yicibus Arora9727 Yunnan, SW China KC184475 KC184474 Arora and Frank 2014
Butyriboletus yicibus HKAS57503 Yunnan, SW China KT002620 KT002608 KT002644 Zhao et al. 2015
Butyriboletus yicibus HKAS68010 Yunnan, SW China KT002619 KJ909521 KT002643 Zhao et al. 2015
Caloboletus calopus Bc1 Bavaria, Germany AF456833 DQ679806 JQ327019 Zhao et al. 2014a
Caloboletus calopus BR5020159063805 Montenau, Belgium KJ184554 KJ605655 KJ184566 Zhao et al. 2014a
Caloboletus calopus 112606 California, USA KF030279 Nuhn et al. 2013
Caloboletus firmus MB06-060 New York, USA KF030368 KF030408 Nuhn et al. 2013
Caloboletus firmus NY00796115 Cayo, Belize KJ605678 KJ605656 KJ619464 Zhao et al. 2014a
Caloboletus guanyui N.K. Zeng 3058 (FHMU 2019) Hainan, southern China MH879708 MH885365 MH879734 MH879751 this study
Caloboletus guanyui N.K. Zeng 3079 (FHMU 2040) Hainan, southern China MH879709 MH885366 MH879736 MH879752 this study
Caloboletus guanyui N.K. Zeng 3257 (FHMU 2218) Fujian, SE China MH879705 MH879732 MH879748 this study
Caloboletus guanyui N.K. Zeng 3261 (FHMU 2222) Fujian, SE China MH879706 MH879733 MH879749 this study
Caloboletus guanyui N.K. Zeng 3263 (FHMU 2224) Fujian, SE China MH879707 MH885364 MH879735 MH879750 this study
Caloboletus guanyui N.K. Zeng 3344 (FHMU 2809) Hainan, southern China MK061357 this study
Caloboletus inedulis MB06-044 New York, USA JQ327013 JQ327020 Halling et al. 2012
Caloboletus inedulis HKAS80478 Florida, USA KJ605671 KJ605657 KJ619465 Zhao et al. 2014a
Caloboletus panniformis HKAS56164 Yunnan, SW China KJ605674 KJ605667 KJ619466 Zhao et al. 2014a
Caloboletus panniformis HKAS57410 Yunnan, SW China KJ184555 KJ605659 KJ184567 Zhao et al. 2014a
Caloboletus panniformis HKAS77530 Yunnan, SW China KJ605670 KJ605661 KJ619470 Zhao et al. 2014a
Caloboletus polygonius K(M)60247 Greece KU317763 KU317753 GenBank
Caloboletus radicans HKAS80856 France KJ184557 KJ605662 KJ184569 Zhao et al. 2014a
Caloboletus sp. HKAS53353 China KF112410 KF112188 KF112668 Wu et al. 2014
Caloboletus taienus GDGM44081 Guangdong, southern China KY800414 KY800420 Zhang et al. 2017
Caloboletus xiangtoushanensis GDGM44725 Guangdong, southern China KY800416 KY800422 Zhang et al. 2017
Caloboletus xiangtoushanensis GDGM44833 Guangdong, southern China KY800415 KY800421 KY800418 Zhang et al. 2017
Caloboletus xiangtoushanensis GDGM45160 Guangdong, southern China KY800417 KY800423 KY800419 Zhang et al. 2017
Caloboletus xiangtoushanensis N.K. Zeng 1330 (FHMU 883) Fujian, SE China MH879702 this study
Caloboletus xiangtoushanensis N.K. Zeng 1331 (FHMU 884) Fujian, SE China MH879703 MH885362 this study
Caloboletus xiangtoushanensis N.K. Zeng 1354 (FHMU 906) Fujian, SE China MH879704 MH885363 this study
Caloboletus yunnanensis HKAS69214 Yunnan, SW China KJ184556 KJ605663 KJ184568 Zhao et al. 2014a
Caloboletus yunnanensis HKAS58694 Yunnan, SW China KJ605672 KJ605664 KJ619470 Zhao et al. 2014a
Chalciporus radiatus N.K. Zeng 1379 (FHMU 930) Fujian, SE China MH879710 MH885367 MH879738 this study
Chalciporus radiatus N.K. Zeng 1414 (FHMU 959) Fujian, SE China MH879711 MH879739 this study
Chalciporus radiatus N.K. Zeng 1808 (FHMU 2494) Hainan, southern China MH879737 this study
Costatisporus cyanescens Henkel9067 Guyana LC053662 LC054831 Smith et al. 2015
Crocinoboletus laetissimus HKAS50232 Yunnan, SW China KT990567 KT990762 Wu et al. 2016a
Crocinoboletus rufoaureus HKAS53424 Hunan, central China KF112435 KF112206 KF112710 Wu et al. 2014
Cyanoboletus brunneoruber HKAS63504 Yunnan, SW China KF112368 KF112194 Wu et al. 2014
Cyanoboletus brunneoruber HKAS80579-1 Yunnan, SW China KT990568 KT990763 Wu et al. 2016a
Cyanoboletus brunneoruber HKAS80579-2 Yunnan, SW China KT990569 KT990764 Wu et al. 2016a
Cyanoboletus hymenoglutinosus DC14-010 India KT860060 KT907355 Li et al. 2016
Cyanoboletus instabilis HKAS59554 Yunnan, SW China KF112412 KF112186 Wu et al. 2014
Cyanoboletus instabilis FHMU1839 Yunnan, SW China MG030466 MG030473 MG030478 Chai et al. 2018
Cyanoboletus pulverulentus 9606 USA KF030313 KF030418 Nuhn et al. 2013
Cyanoboletus pulverulentus RW109 Belgium KT824046 Raspe et al. 2016
Cyanoboletus pulverulentus MG126a Italy KT157062 KT157053 Gelardi et al. 2015
Cyanoboletus pulverulentus MG456a Azores Islands, Portugal KT157063 KT157054 Gelardi et al. 2015
Cyanoboletus pulverulentus MG628a Italy KT157064 KT157055 KT157073 Gelardi et al. 2015
Cyanoboletus sinopulverulentus HKAS59609 Yunnan, SW China KF112366 KF112193 Wu et al. 2014
Cyanoboletus sp. HKAS76850 Hainan, southern China KF112343 KF112187 Wu et al. 2014
Cyanoboletus sp. HKAS52639 Yunnan, SW China KF112367 KF112195 Wu et al. 2014
Cyanoboletus sp. HKAS52601 Yunnan, SW China KF112469 Wu et al. 2014
Cyanoboletus sp. HKAS50292 Yunnan, SW China KF112470 Wu et al. 2014
Cyanoboletus sp. HKAS59418 China KT990570 KT990765 Wu et al. 2016a
Cyanoboletus sp. HKAS90208-1 China KT990571 KT990766 Wu et al. 2016a
Cyanoboletus sp. HKAS90208-2 China KT990767 Wu et al. 2016a
Cyanoboletus sp. PRM944518 USA MF373585 Braeuer et al. 2018
Exsudoporus frostii SAT1221511 Tennessee, USA KP055021 KP055018 KP055027 Zhao et al. 2014b
Exsudoporus frostii TENN067311 Tennessee, USA KT002612 KT002601 KT002636 Zhao et al. 2015
Lanmaoa angustispora HKAS74765 Yunnan, SW China KF112322 KF112159 Wu et al. 2014
Lanmaoa angustispora HKAS74752 Yunnan, SW China KM605139 KM605154 Wu et al. 2016b
Lanmaoa angustispora HKAS74759 Yunnan, SW China KM605140 KM605155 Wu et al. 2016b
Lanmaoa asiatica HKAS54094 Yunnan, SW China KF112353 KF112161 Wu et al. 2014
Lanmaoa asiatica HKAS63516 Yunnan, SW China KT990584 KT990780 Wu et al. 2016a
Lanmaoa asiatica HKAS63603 Yunnan, SW China KM605142 KM605153 Wu et al. 2016b
Lanmaoa asiatica FHMU1389 Yunnan, SW China MG030470 MG030477 MG030481 Chai et al. 2018
Lanmaoa asiatica FHMU1775 Yunnan, SW China MG030469 MG030480 Chai et al. 2018
Lanmaoa flavorubra NY775777 Costa Rica JQ924339 KF112160 Wu et al. 2014
Lanmaoa macrocarpa N.K. Zeng 3021 (FHMU 1982) Hainan, southern China MH879684 MH879713 this study
Lanmaoa macrocarpa N.K. Zeng 3251 (FHMU 2212) Fujian, SE China MH879685 MH885347 MH879714 this study
Lanmaoa pseudosensibilis DS615-07 USA KF030257 KF030407 Nuhn et al. 2013
Lanmaoa rubriceps FHMU 1756 Hainan, southern China MG030465 MG030472 Chai et al. 2018
Lanmaoa rubriceps FHMU 1757 Hainan, southern China MG030467 MG030474 Chai et al. 2018
Lanmaoa rubriceps FHMU 1763 Hainan, southern China MG030468 MG030475 MG030479 Chai et al. 2018
Lanmaoa rubriceps FHMU 2801 Hainan, southern China MG030471 MG030476 Chai et al. 2018
Lanmaoa rubriceps N.K. Zeng 3006 (FHMU 1967) Hainan, southern China MH879683 MH885346 MH879712 this study
Lanmaoa sp. HKAS52518 Yunnan, SW China KF112354 KF112162 Wu et al. 2014
Neoboletus brunneissimus HKAS52660 Yunnan, SW China KF112314 KF112143 KF112650 Wu et al. 2014
Neoboletus ferrugineus HKAS77617 Guangdong, southern China KT990595 KT990788 KT990430 Wu et al. 2016a
Neoboletus ferrugineus HKAS77718 Guangdong, southern China KT990596 KT990789 KT990431 Wu et al. 2016a
Neoboletus flavidus HKAS58724 Yunnan, SW China KU974140 KU974137 KU974145 Wu et al. 2016a
Neoboletus flavidus HKAS59443 Yunnan, SW China KU974139 KU974136 KU974144 Wu et al. 2016a
Neoboletus hainanensis HKAS59469 Yunnan, SW China KF112359 KF112175 KF112669 Wu et al. 2016a
Neoboletus hainanensis HKAS90209 Hainan, southern China KT990615 KT990809 KT990450 Wu et al. 2016a
Neoboletus hainanensis HKAS63515 Yunnan, SW China KT990614 KT990808 KT990449 Wu et al. 2016a
Neoboletus hainanensis HKAS74880 Yunnan, SW China KT990597 KT990790 KT990432 Wu et al. 2016a
Neoboletus hainanensis N.K. Zeng 2128 (FHMU 1392) Yunnan, SW China MH879690 MH879719 this study
Neoboletus luridiformis AT2001087 Berkshire, England JQ326995 JQ327023 Halling et al. 2012
Neoboletus magnificus HKAS54096 Yunnan, SW China KF112324 KF112149 KF112654 Wu et al. 2014
Neoboletus magnificus HKAS74939 Yunnan, SW China KF112320 KF112148 KF112653 Wu et al. 2014
Neoboletus multipunctatus HKAS76851 Hainan, southern China KF112321 KF112144 KF112651 Wu et al. 2014
Neoboletus multipunctatus N.K. Zeng 2498 (FHMU 1620) Hainan, southern China MH879693 MH885354 MH879722 this study
Neoboletus multipunctatus N.K. Zeng3324 (FHMU 2808) Hainan, southern China MK061360 MK061359 MK061358 this study
Neoboletus obscureumbrinus HKAS63498 Yunnan, SW China KT990598 KT990791 KT990433 Wu et al. 2016a
Neoboletus obscureumbrinus HKAS89027 Yunnan, SW China KT990600 KT990794 KT990436 Wu et al. 2016a
Neoboletus obscureumbrinus N.K. Zeng 3091 (FHMU 2052) Hainan, southern China MH879694 MH885355 MH879723 MH879742 this study
Neoboletus obscureumbrinus N.K. Zeng 3094 (FHMU 2055) Hainan, southern China MH879695 MH885356 MH879724 MH879743 this study
Neoboletus obscureumbrinus N.K. Zeng 3098 (FHMU 2059) Hainan, southern China MH879696 MH885357 MH879725 MH879744 this study
Neoboletus rubriporus HKAS83026 Yunnan, SW China KT990601 KT990795 KT990437 Wu et al. 2016a
Neoboletus rubriporus HKAS89174 Yunnan, SW China KT990602 KT990796 KT990438 Wu et al. 2016a
Neoboletus rubriporus HKAS89181 Yunnan, SW China KT990603 KT990797 Wu et al. 2016a
Neoboletus rubriporus HKAS90210 Yunnan, SW China KT990604 KT990798 KT990439 Wu et al. 2016a
Neoboletus rubriporus MHKMU-L.P. Tang 1958 Yunnan, SW China MH885358 MH879726 this study
Neoboletus sanguineoides HKAS55440 Yunnan, SW China KF112315 KF112145 KF112652 Wu et al. 2014
Neoboletus sanguineoides HKAS57766 Yunnan, SW China KT990605 KT990799 KT990440 Wu et al. 2016a
Neoboletus sanguineoides HKAS63530 Sichuan, SW China KT990607 KT990801 Wu et al. 2016a
Neoboletus sanguineoides HKAS80823 Yunnan, SW China KT990605 KT990799 KT990440 Wu et al. 2016a
Neoboletus sanguineus HKAS80849 Yunnan, SW China KT990609 KT990803 KT990443 Wu et al. 2016a
Neoboletus sanguineus HKAS90211 Xizang, SW China KT990610 KT990804 KT990444 Wu et al. 2016a
Neoboletus sanguineus HKAS68587 Yunnan, SW China KF112329 KF112150 KF112657 Wu et al. 2014
Neoboletus sp. CMU58-ST-0237 KX017292 KX017301 GenBank
Neoboletus sp. HKAS76851 Hainan, southern China KF112321 KF112144 KF112651 Wu et al. 2014
Neoboletus sp. HKAS50351 Yunnan, SW China KF112318 KF112658 Wu et al. 2014
Neoboletus sp. HKAS76660 Henan, Central China KF112328 KF112180 KF112731 Wu et al. 2014
Neoboletus thibetanus HKAS57093 Xizang, China KF112326 KF112655 Wu et al. 2014
Neoboletus tomentulosus HKAS53369 Fujian, SE China KF112323 KF112154 KF112659 Wu et al. 2014
Neoboletus tomentulosus HKAS77656 Guangdong, southern China KT990611 KT990806 KT990446 Wu et al. 2016a
Neoboletus tomentulosus N.K. Zeng 1285 (FHMU 841) Fujian, SE China MH879691 MH885352 MH879720 this study
Neoboletus tomentulosus N.K. Zeng 1286 (FHMU 842) Fujian, SE China MH879692 MH885353 MH879721 this study
Neoboletus venenatus HKAS57489 Yunnan, SW China KF112325 KF112158 KF112665 Wu et al. 2014
Neoboletus venenatus HKAS63535 Sichuan, SW China KT990613 KT990807 KT990448 Wu et al. 2016a
Rugiboletus brunneiporus HKAS68586 Xizang, SW China KF112402 KF112197 Wu et al. 2014
Rugiboletus brunneiporus HKAS83009 Xizang, SW China KM605133 KM605146 Wu et al. 2016b
Rugiboletus extremiorientalis HKAS76663 Henan, Central China KM605135 KM605147 KM605170 Wu et al. 2016b
Rugiboletus extremiorientalis HKAS74754 China KT990639 KT990832 KT990469 Wu et al. 2016a
Rubroboletus latisporus HKAS63517 Yunnan, SW China KP055022 KP055019 KP055028 Zhao et al. 2014b
Rubroboletus latisporus HKAS80358 Chongqing, SW China KP055023 KP055020 KP055029 Zhao et al. 2014b
Rubroboletus sinicus HKAS68620 Yunnan, SW China KF112319 KF112146 KF112661 Zhao et al. 2014b
Sutorius aff. eximius HKAS56291 Yunnan, SW China KF112400 KF112208 KF112803 Wu et al. 2014
Sutorius aff. eximius MHKMU-S.D. Yang 010 Yunnan, SW China MH879697 MH885359 MH879727 this study
Sutorius australiensis REH9280 Australia JQ327031 JQ327031 Arora and Frank 2014
Sutorius australiensis REH9441 Australia JQ327006 JQ327032 MG212652 Halling et al. 2012
Sutorius eximius REH9400 USA JQ327004 JQ327029 Arora and Frank 2014
Sutorius eximius HKAS52672 Yunnan, SW China KF112399 KF112207 KF112802 Wu et al. 2014
Sutorius eximius HKAS50420 Yunnan, SW China KT990549 KT990750 KT990387 Wu et al. 2016a
Sutorius eximius HKAS59657 China KT990707 KT990887 KT990505 Wu et al. 2016a
Sutorius eximius 8594 Costa Rica JQ327008 JQ327027 Halling et al. 2012
Sutorius eximius 995 Costa Rica JQ327010 JQ327030 Halling et al. 2012
Sutorius eximius 986 Costa Rica JQ327009 JQ327028 Halling et al. 2012
Sutorius eximius 8069 Indonesia JQ327003 Halling et al. 2012
Sutorius sp. N.K. Zeng 3297 (FHMU 2258) Fujian, SE China MH879701 MH879731 this study
Sutorius sp. ECV3603 Thailand JQ327000 JQ327033 Halling et al. 2012
Sutorius sp. 01-528 Zambia JQ327002 Halling et al. 2012
Sutorius subrufus N.K. Zeng 3043 (FHMU 2004) Hainan, southern China MH879698 MH885360 MH879728 MH879745 this study
Sutorius subrufus N.K. Zeng 3045 (FHMU 2006) Hainan, southern China MH879699 MH885361 MH879729 MH879746 this study
Sutorius subrufus N.K. Zeng 3140 (FHMU 2101) Hainan, southern China MH879700 MH879730 MH879747 this study

Dataset assembly

For the concatenated multilocus dataset of Butyriboletus, 14 sequences (four of 28S, four of ITS, four of tef1, and two of rpb2) from four collections were newly generated (Table 1) and then combined with selected sequences from previous studies (Table 1). Rugiboletus extremiorientalis (Lj.N. Vassiljeva) G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang was chosen as outgroup on the basis of the phylogeny in Wu et al. (2016a). For the concatenated multilocus dataset of Caloboletus, Neoboletus, and Sutorius, 68 sequences (21 of 28S, 16 of ITS, 20 of tef1, 11 of rpb2) from 23 collections were newly generated and deposited in GenBank (Table 1) and then combined with selected sequences from previous studies (Table 1). Crocinoboletus laetissimus (Hongo) N.K. Zeng et al. and Cr. rufoaureus (Massee) N.K. Zeng et al. were chosen as outgroup based on the phylogeny in Wu et al. (2016a). For the concatenated multilocus dataset of Lanmaoa, eight sequences (three of 28S, two of ITS, and three of tef1) from three collections were newly generated and deposited in GenBank (Table 1), and then combined with selected sequences from previous studies (Table 1). Rugiboletus brunneiporus G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang was chosen as outgroup on the basis of the phylogeny in Wu et al. (2016a). To test for phylogenetic conflict among the different genes in three combined datasets (Butyriboletus, Caloboletus + Neoboletus + Sutorius, Lanmaoa), the partition homogeneity (PH) or incongruence length difference (ILD) test was performed with 1000 randomized replicates, using heuristic searches with simple addition of sequences in PAUP* 4.0b10 (Swofford 2002). The results of the partition homogeneity test showed that the phylogenetic signals present in the different gene fragments were not in conflict. Then the sequences of different genes in three combined datasets (Butyriboletus, Caloboletus + Neoboletus + Sutorius, Lanmaoa) were aligned with MAFFT v. 6.8 using algorithm E-INS-i (Katoh et al. 2005) and manually optimized on BioEdit v. 7.0.9 (Hall 1999). The sequences of the different genes were concatenated in three combined datasets (Butyriboletus, Caloboletus + Neoboletus + Sutorius, Lanmaoa) using Phyutility v. 2.2 for further analyses (Smith and Dunn 2008).

Phylogenetic analyses

The three combined datasets (Butyriboletus, Caloboletus + Neoboletus + Sutorius, Lanmaoa) were all analyzed by using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). Maximum likelihood tree generation and bootstrap analyses were performed with the program RAxML 7.2.6 (Stamatakis 2006) running 1000 replicates combined with an ML search. Bayesian analysis with MrBayes 3.1 (Huelsenbeck and Ronquist 2005) implementing the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique and parameters predetermined with MrModeltest 2.3 (Nylander 2004) was performed. The model of evolution used in the Bayesian analysis was determined with MrModeltest 2.3 (Nylander 2004). For the combined dataset of Butyriboletus, the best-fit likelihood models of 28S, ITS1+ITS2, 5.8S, tef1 and rpb2 were GTR+I+G, HKY+I+G, K80, SYM+I+G and K80+I+G, respectively; for the combined dataset of Caloboletus, Neoboletus, and Sutorius, the best-fit likelihood models of 28S, ITS1+ITS2, 5.8S, tef1 and rpb2 were GTR+I+G, HKY+I+G, K80, SYM+I+G and SYM+I+G, respectively; for the combined dataset of Lanmaoa, the best-fit likelihood models of 28S, ITS1+ITS2, 5.8S and tef1 were GTR+I+G, GTR+I, K80 and SYM+G, respectively. Bayesian analysis was run with one cold and three heated chains and sampled every 100 generations; trees sampled from the first 25% of the generations were discarded as burn-in; the average standard deviation of split frequencies was restricted to be below 0.01, and Bayesian posterior probabilities (PP) were then calculated for a majority consensus tree of the retained Bayesian trees.

Results

Molecular data

The four-locus dataset (28S + ITS + tef1 + rpb2) of Butyriboletus consisted of 52 taxa and 3116 nucleotide sites (Fig. 1). The aligned dataset was submitted to TreeBASE (http://purl.org/phylo/treebase/phylows/study/TB2:S23508). The molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that the collections numbered as FHMU 2206 and FHMU 2207 respectively grouped together with a high statistical support (BS = 100, PP = 1), forming an independent lineage within Butyriboletus (Fig. 1).

Figure 1. 

Phylogenetic placement of Butyriboletus huangnianlaii inferred from a multilocus (28S, ITS, tef1, rpb2) dataset using RAxML. BS ≥ 50% and PP ≥ 0.95 are indicated above or below the branches as RAxML BS/PP.

The four-locus dataset (28S + ITS + tef1 + rpb2) with Caloboletus, Neoboletus, and Sutorius consisted of 93 taxa and 3228 nucleotide sites (Fig. 2). The aligned dataset was submitted to TreeBASE (http://purl.org/phylo/treebase/phylows/study/TB2:S23509). The molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated each of the previously described genera, viz. Neoboletus, Sutorius, CostatisporusT.W. Henkel & M.E. Sm., and Caloboletus, forms an independent clade with a high statistical support respectively (Fig. 2). In the genus Neoboletus, one collection numbered as FHMU 1392 and one previously described S. hainanensis (T.H. Li & M. Zang) G. Wu and Zhu L. Yang grouped together with a strong statistical support (BS = 100, PP = 1), forming an independent lineage; two collections numbered as FHMU 841 and FHMU 842 respectively and one previously described S. tomentulosus (M. Zang et al.) G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang grouped together with a high statistical support (BS = 100, PP = 1), forming an independent lineage; one collection tentatively named Sutorius sp. (HKAS 76851) in a previous study (Wu et al. 2016a) and one specimen numbered as FHMU 1620 grouped together with a high statistical support (BS = 100, PP = 1), forming an independent lineage; three specimens numbered as FHMU 2052, FHMU 2055, FHMU 2059 respectively and one previously described S. obscureumbrinus (Hongo) G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang grouped together with a high statistical support (BS = 100, PP = 1), forming an independent lineage (Fig. 2). In the genus Sutorius, the specimens numbered as FHMU 2004, FHMU 2006 and FHMU 2101 respectively grouped together with a high statistical support (BS = 100, PP = 1), forming an independent lineage (Fig. 2). In the genus Caloboletus, the materials numbered as FHMU 883, FHMU 884, FHMU 906 respectively and the holotype of C. xiangtoushanensis Ming Zhang et al. grouped together with a high statistical support (BS = 100, PP = 1), forming an independent lineage; the collections numbered as FHMU 2019, FHMU 2040, FHMU 2218, FHMU 2222 and FHMU 2224 respectively grouped together with a strong statistical support (BS = 100, PP = 1), forming an independent lineage (Fig. 2).

Figure 2. 

Phylogenetic placement of Neoboletus multipunctatus, Sutorius subrufus and Caloboletus guanyui inferred from a multilocus (28S, ITS, tef1, rpb2) dataset using RAxML. BS ≥ 50% and PP ≥ 0.95 are indicated above or below the branches as RAxML BS/PP.

The three-locus dataset (28S + ITS + tef1) of Lanmaoa consisted of 40 taxa and 2007 nucleotide sites (Fig. 3). The aligned dataset was submitted to TreeBASE (http://purl.org/phylo/treebase/phylows/study/TB2:S23510). The molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that the collections numbered as FHMU 1982 and FHMU 2212 respectively grouped together with a high statistical support (BS = 100, PP = 1), forming an independent lineage within Lanmaoa (Fig. 3).

Figure 3. 

Phylogenetic placement of Lanmaoa macrocarpa inferred from a multilocus (28S, ITS, tef1) dataset using RAxML. BS ≥ 50% and PP ≥ 0.95 are indicated above or below the branches as RAxML BS/PP.

Taxonomy

Butyriboletus D. Arora & J.L.Frank

Butyriboletus, typified by But. appendiculatus (Schaeff.) D. Arora & J.L.Frank, was erected to accommodate the “butter boletes”, which are mainly characterized by yellow hymenophore and context staining blue when injured and stipe surface usually covered with reticulations (Arora and Frank 2014; Zhao et al. 2015). Until now, six species, including But. hainanensis N.K. Zeng et al., But. pseudospeciosus Kuan Zhao & Zhu L.Yang, But. roseoflavus (Hai B.Li & Hai L.Wei) D.Arora & J.L.Frank, But. sanicibus D. Arora & J.L.Frank, But. subsplendidus (W.F. Chiu) Kuan Zhao et al., and But. yicibus D. Arora & J.L.Frank have been described from China (Arora and Frank 2014; Liang et al. 2016; Wu et al. 2016a). Herein, we describe another novel species.

Butyriboletus huangnianlaii N.K. Zeng, H. Chai & Zhi Q. Liang, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: MB828521
Figures 4a, b, 7

Typification

CHINA. Fujian Province: Sanming City, Geshikao National Forest Park, elev. 420 m, 16 August 2017, N.K. Zeng 3246 (FHMU 2207, holotype). GenBank accession numbers: 28S = MH879689, ITS = MH885351, tef1 = MH879718, rpb2 = MH879741.

Etymology

Latin, “huangnianlaii” is named after Chinese mycologist Nian-Lai Huang, in honor of his contribution to mycology.

Description

Basidiomata medium-sized to large. Pileus 5–11 cm in diameter, convex to applanate; surface dry, finely tomentose, pale brown (5D1–4D2), brown to reddish brown (5C2–6C2); context 0.6–2.2 cm thick in the center of the pileus, yellowish to yellow, changing blue quickly when injured. Hymenophore poroid, adnate or slightly depressed around apex of stipe; pores angular, about 0.5 mm in diameter, yellowish white (30A2) to yellowish brown (4A4), changing blue quickly when injured; tubes 0.4–0.8 cm in length. Stipe 4.5–8 × 1.3–2.5 cm, central, subcylindric, solid; surface dry, yellowish (30A2) when young, then brownish red (8D5), reticulate nearly to base; reticulum yellowish (1A2) when young, then brownish red (8D5); context yellowish to yellow, changing blue quickly when injured; basal mycelium white (1A1). Odor indistinct.

Basidia 20–31 × 6–9 μm, clavate, thin-walled, colorless to yellowish in KOH; four-spored, sterigmata 3–4 μm in length. Basidiospores [40/2/2] (7–)7.5–10.5(–11) × 3–4 μm, Q=(2.00–)2.14–2.86(–3.14), Qm=2.51 ± 0.27, subfusoid and inequilateral in side view with a weak or distinct suprahilar depression, elliptic-fusiform to subfusiform in ventral view, slightly thick-walled (to 0.5 μm), olive-brown to yellowish brown in KOH, smooth. Hymenophoral trama boletoid; composed of colorless to yellowish in KOH, 3–10 μm wide, thin- to slightly thick-walled (to 0.5 μm) hyphae. Cheilocystidia 32–53 × 7–12 μm, fusiform or subfusiform, thin-walled, yellowish in KOH, no encrustations. Pleurocystidia 40–60 × 8–13 μm, fusiform or subfusiform, thin-walled, yellowish in KOH, no encrustations. Pileipellis a trichoderm about 110 μm thick, composed of slightly interwoven, nearly colorless in KOH, 4–6 μm wide, thin-walled hyphae; terminal cells 30–50× 4–8 μm, clavate or subclavate, with obtuse apex. Pileal trama made up of hyphae 8–12 μm in diameter, thin-walled, colorless in KOH. Stipitipellis hymeniform about 120–140 μm thick, composed of thin- to slightly thick-walled (to 0.5 μm) emergent hyphae, colorless to yellowish in KOH, with clavate, subclavate, fusiform or subfusiform terminal cells (15–45 × 4–9 μm) , and occasionally with scattered clavate, 4-spored basidia. Stipe trama composed of longitudinally arranged, parallel hyphae 3.5–7 μm wide, cylindrical, thin- to slightly thick-walled (up to 0.5 μm), colorless to yellowish in KOH, parallel hyphae. Clamp connections absent in all tissues.

Figure 4. 

Basidiomata of boletes. a, b Butyriboletus huangnianlaii (FHMU 2207, holotype) c–f Caloboletus guanyui (c–d from FHMU 399; e from FHMU 2224; f from FHMU 2222) g–j Caloboletus xiangtoushanensis (g from FHMU 883 h, j from FHMU 906 i from FHMU 884) k, l Chalciporus radiatus (FHMU 930). Photos by N.K. Zeng.

Habitat

Scattered on the ground in forests dominated by Castanopsis kawakamii Hay.

Distribution

Southeastern China.

Additional specimens examined

CHINA. Fujian Province: Sanming City, Geshikao National Forest Park, elev. 420 m, 16 August 2017, N.K. Zeng 3245 (FHMU 2206).

Note

Butyriboletus huangnianlaii is characterized by a medium-sized to large basidioma, pileal surface densely covered with pale brown to reddish brown squamules, smaller basidiospores, and its association with fagaceous trees. It is both morphologically similar and phylogenetically related to But. pseudospeciosus and But. roseoflavus (Fig. 1). However, But. pseudospeciosus, originally described from Yunnan Province of southwestern China, has a tomentose pileus without a reddish tinge, surface of pileus and stipe promptly staining blue when bruised, narrower cystidia and longer basidiospores measuring 9–11 × 3.5–4 μm (Wu et al. 2016a); But. roseoflavus, originally described from Zhejiang Province of southeastern China, has a pinkish to purplish red or rose-red pileus with tomentose surface, longer basidiospores measuring 9–12 × 3–4 μm, and its association with Pinus spp. (Arora and Frank 2014; Li et al. 2014; Wu et al. 2016a).

Caloboletus Vizzini

Caloboletus, typified by C. calopus (Pers.) Vizzini, is mainly characterized by yellow tubes, yellow or more rarely orange to red pores changing to blue when injured, bitter taste of the context due to the presence of calopin and cyclocalopin (Hellwig et al. 2002; Vizzini 2014; Zhao et al. 2014a; Wu et al. 2016a; Zhang et al. 2017). Until now, four species, including C. panniformis (Taneyama & Har. Takah.) Vizzini, C. taienus (W.F. Chiu) Ming Zhang and T.H. Li, C. xiangtoushanensis Ming Zhang et al., and C. yunnanensis Kuan Zhao & Zhu L. Yang, have been found in China (Zhao et al. 2014a; Wu et al. 2016a; Zhang et al. 2017). We describe two Caloboletus species here.

Caloboletus guanyui N.K. Zeng, H.Chai & S.Jiang, nom. nov.

MycoBank No: MB828522
Figures 4c–f, 8

Boletus quercinus Hongo, Memoirs of Shiga University 17: 92, 1967 (nom. illeg., later homonym)

non Boletus quercinus Schrad., Spicilegium Florae Germanicae 1: 157, 1794

non Boletus quercinus (Pilát) Hlaváček, Mykologický Sborník 67(3): 87, 1990 (nom. illeg., later homonym)

Etymology

Latin, “guanyui” is named for Guan Yu, a historic Chinese hero, said to have a reddish face, and thus sharing the same color of pores of the species when young.

Description

Basidiomata medium-sized to large. Pileus 5–10 cm in diameter, convex to applanate; surface dry, finely tomentose, dirty white to pale brown; context 0.5–1.8 cm thick in the center of the pileus, white, changing bluish quickly when injured, then back to white. Hymenophore poroid, depressed around apex of stipe; pores subround, 0.3–0.5 mm in diameter, reddish to reddish brown when young, then yellow or yellowish brown, changing bluish black when injured; tubes about 0.5–1 cm in length, yellowish, changing bluish quickly when injured. Stipe 5.5–9 × 0.7–1.5 cm, central, subcylindric, solid, usually flexuous; surface dry, densely covered with pale brown, brown to reddish brown, minute squamules; context white, sometimes tinged with pale red, unchanging in color when injured; basal mycelium white. Odor indistinct.

Basidia 21–30 × 6–8 μm, clavate, thin-walled, colorless to yellowish in KOH; four-spored, sterigmata 3–4 μm in length. Basidiospores [220/12/5] (8.5–)9–11(–12) × 3.5–4.5 μm, Q=(2.00–)2.22–2.67(–2.86), Qm=2.43 ± 0.17, subfusoid and inequilateral in side view with a weak or distinct suprahilar depression, elliptic-fusiform to subfusiform in ventral view, slightly thick-walled (to 0.5 μm), olive-brown to yellowish brown in KOH, smooth. Hymenophoral trama boletoid; composed of yellowish in KOH, 4–10 μm wide, thin-walled hyphae. Cheilocystidia 25–40 × 7–10 μm, fusiform or subfusiform, thin-walled, colorless to yellowish in KOH, no encrustations. Pleurocystidia 35–45 × 6–11 μm, fusiform or subfusiform, thin-walled, colorless to yellowish in KOH, no encrustations. Pileipellis a trichoderm about 100–200 μm thick, composed of slightly interwoven, nearly colorless in KOH, 5–8 μm wide, thin-walled hyphae; terminal cells 28–35 × 5–10 μm, clavate or subclavate, with obtuse apex. Pileal trama made up of hyphae 4–8 μm in diameter, slightly thick-walled (to 0.5 μm), colorless to yellowish in KOH. Stipitipellis hymeniform about 80–100 μm thick, composed of thin-walled emergent hyphae, yellowish in KOH, with clavate, subclavate, fusiform or subfusiform terminal cells (27–43 × 6–11 μm), and occasionally with scattered clavate, 4-spored basidia. Stipe trama composed of longitudinally arranged, parallel hyphae 3–6 μm wide, cylindrical, thin-walled, colorless to yellowish in KOH. Clamp connections absent in all tissues.

Habitat

Gregarious on the ground in forests dominated by Castanopsis kawakamii Hay. or Lithocarpus spp.

Distribution

Southeastern and southern China; Japan (Hongo 1967).

Specimens examined

CHINA. Hainan Province: Ledong County, Yinggeling National Nature Reserve, elev. 650 m, 4 June 2017, N.K. Zeng 3058 (FHMU 2019); same location, 5 June 2017, N.K. Zeng 3079 (FHMU 2040). Fujian Province: Zhangping County, Tiantai National Forest Park, elev. 350 m, 28 August 2009, N.K. Zeng 635 (FHMU 399); Sanming City, Geshikao National Forest Park, elev. 420 m, 16 August 2017, N.K. Zeng 3257 (FHMU 2218); same location and date, N.K. Zeng 3261 (FHMU 2222); Yongan City, Tianbaoyan National Nature Reserve, elev. 600 m, 17 August 2017, N.K. Zeng 3263 (FHMU 2224).

Note

Caloboletus guanyui was originally described as B. quercinus from Japan (Hongo 1967). Nomenclaturally, the epithet quercinus of this species is an illegitimate name, because Schrader (1794) described a species using the same epithet before Hongo (1967). Therefore, the new epithet guanyui is proposed here for this species. Moreover, morphological and molecular evidence indicates the taxon is a member of the genus Caloboletus (Fig. 2), and is characterized by a dirty-white to pale-brown pileus, pores reddish to reddish brown when young, then yellow or yellowish brown, changing bluish black when injured, and a stipe densely covered with pale-brown, brown to reddish-brown squamules. Morphologically, C. taienus and C. xiangtoushanensis also have reddish pores (Bessette et al. 2016; Zhang et al. 2017), however, a dirty-white to pale-brown pileus easily distinguishes C. guanyui from the two taxa. Phylogenetically C. guanyui is closely related to C. firmus (Frost) Vizzini (Fig. 2), however, C. firmus has a stipe covered with whitish or reddish reticula, and it is restricted to North and Central America (Bessette et al. 2016).

Caloboletus xiangtoushanensis Ming Zhang, T.H. Li & X.J. Zhong, Phytotaxa 309: 119, 2017

Figures 4g–j, 9

Description

Basidiomata medium-sized to large. Pileus 5.5–11 cm in diameter, convex to plane; surface dry, tomentose, yellowish brown, pale brown to brown; context 1–1.5 cm thick in the center of the pileus, yellowish, changing blue quickly when injured. Hymenophore poroid, adnate to depressed around apex of stipe; pores subround to angular, 0.5–1 mm in diameter, yellow, sometimes brownish red, changing blue quickly when injured; tubes 0.5–1.4 cm in length, yellowish, changing blue quickly when injured. Stipe 5–9 × 0.9–1.6 cm, central, subcylindric, solid, usually flexuous; surface dry, upper part covered with reddish brown, minute squamules, middle and lower part covered with brown minute squamules; context yellowish, changing blue quickly when injured; basal mycelium white. Odor indistinct.

Basidia 25–35 × 5–10 μm, clavate, thin-walled, colorless to yellowish in KOH; four-spored, sterigmata 3–4 μm in length. Basidiospores [140/8/3] (9.5–)10–11.5(–13) × 3.5–4.5 μm, Q=(2.11–)2.44–3.00(–3.29), Qm=2.76 ± 0.21, subfusoid and inequilateral in side view with a weak or distinct suprahilar depression, elliptic-fusiform to subfusiform in ventral view, slightly thick-walled (to 0.5 μm), olive-brown to yellowish brown in KOH, smooth. Hymenophoral trama boletoid; composed of colorless to yellowish in KOH, 4–10 μm wide, thin-walled hyphae. Cheilocystidia 25–45 × 7–10 μm, fusiform or subfusiform, thin-walled, colorless in KOH, no encrustations. Pleurocystidia 30–50 × 7–12 μm, fusiform or subfusiform, thin-walled, colorless in KOH, no encrustations. Pileipellis a trichoderm about 70–100 μm thick, composed of slightly interwoven, colorless or yellowish in KOH, 4–7 μm wide, thin-walled hyphae; terminal cells 35–55 × 4–7 μm, clavate or subclavate, with obtuse apex. Pileal trama made up of hyphae 3.5–7 μm in diameter, thin-walled, colorless to yellowish in KOH. Stipitipellis hymeniform about 60–80 μm thick, composed of thin- to slightly thick-walled (to 0.5 μm) emergent hyphae, colorless to yellowish in KOH, with clavate, subclavate, fusiform or subfusiform terminal cells (15–46 × 5–8 μm), and occasionally with scattered clavate, four-spored basidia. Stipe trama composed of longitudinally arranged, parallel hyphae 3.5–8 μm wide, cylindrical, thin- to slightly thick-walled (to 0.5 μm), yellowish in KOH. Clamp connections absent in all tissues.

Habitat

Solitary or gregarious on the ground in forests dominated by fagaceous trees.

Distribution

Southeastern and southern China.

Specimens examined

CHINA. Fujian Province: Zhangping County, Xinqiao Town, Chengkou Village, elev. 350 m, 30 July 2013, N.K. Zeng 1330 (FHMU 883); same location and date, N.K. Zeng 1331 (FHMU 884); same location, 1 August 2013, N.K. Zeng 1354 (FHMU 906).

Notes

Our recent collections and the holotype of C. xiangtoushanensis, a species originally described from Guangdong Province of southern China (Zhang et al. 2017), phylogenetically group together with a strong statistical support (Fig. 2), which indicates that these specimens should be recognized as C. xiangtoushanensis. It is new to Fujian Province. Morphologically, several features of our collections also match well with the protologue of C. xiangtoushanensis (Zhang et al. 2017), but reticulations on the stipe were not observed in our specimens. Moreover, pores of our specimens are sometimes brownish red. In appearance, C. xiangtoushanensis is highly similar to Japanese B. bannaensis Har. Takah., which needs further confirmation for generic placement (Takahashi 2007). However, B. bannaensis has rufescent and faintly cyanescent context, small basidiospores measuring 6.5–9 × 3.5–4 μm, and narrower cystidia (Takahashi 2007). The molecular analyses also indicates that C. xiangtoushanensis is closely related to C. taienus (W.F. Chiu) Ming Zhang and T.H. Li (Fig. 2), a species originally described from Yunnan Province (Chiu 1948); their morphological differences have been elucidated in a previous study (Zhang et al. 2017).

Chalciporus Bataille

Chalciporus, typified by Ch. piperatus (Bull.) Bataille, is an early branching lineage in the Boletaceae (Nuhn et al. 2013; Wu et al. 2014, 2016b) and is characterized by a pinkish-red to reddish-brown hymenophore. Several taxa, including Ch. citrinoaurantius Ming Zhang & T.H. Li, Ch. hainanensis Ming Zhang & T.H. Li, Ch. radiatus Ming Zhang & T.H. Li, and Ch. rubinelloides G.Wu & Zhu L. Yang, were recently described from China (Zhang et al. 2015, 2017; Wu et al. 2016b). Here, Ch. radiatus is redescribed based on new collections from subtropical and tropical China.

Chalciporus radiatus Ming Zhang & T.H. Li, Mycoscience 57: 21, 2016

Figures 4k, l, 10

Description

Basidiomata small. Pileus 2.5–5 cm in diameter, subhemispherical to convex when young, then applanate; surface dry, pale yellowish brown, densely covered with pale yellowish-brown, yellowish-brown, brown to reddish-brown squamules; margin decurved; context 0.6–1 cm thick in the center of the pileus, yellowish, unchanging in color when injured. Hymenophore poroid, slightly decurrent; pores radially strongly elongated, yellow to pale yellowish brown, reddish with age, unchanging in color when injured; tubes 0.2–0.4 cm in length, yellowish, unchanging in color when injured. Stipe 2.5–4.5 × 0.5–1 cm, central, subcylindric, solid; surface dry, yellow, covered with yellowish brown, brown to reddish-brown squamules; context yellowish, unchanging in color when injured; annulus absent; basal mycelium yellow. Odor indistinct.

Basidia 23–34 × 7–10 μm, clavate, thin-walled, four-spored; sterigmata 5–6 μm in length. Basidiospores [101/5/4] 6–7(–8) × 3–4 μm, Q = (1.63–)1.71–2.14(–2.33), Qm = 1.91 ± 0.15, subfusoid and inequilateral in side view with a weak or distinct suprahilar depression, elliptic-fusiform to subfusiform in ventral view, slightly thick-walled (to 0.5 μm), olive-brown to yellowish brown in KOH, smooth. Hymenophoral trama boletoid. Cheilocystidia 57–75 × 8–10 μm, abundant, subfusiform or fusiform, thin-walled, with pale yellowish-brown to yellowish-brown contents, without encrustations. Pleurocystidia 60–76 × 7–9 μm, abundant, fusiform or subfusiform, thin-walled, with pale yellowish-brown to yellowish-brown contents, without encrustations. Pileipellis a trichoderm 200–230 μm thick, composed of rather vertically arranged, sometimes slightly interwoven, pale yellowish-brown to yellowish-brown in KOH, thin-walled hyphae 4–10 μm in diameter; terminal cells 25–50 × 6–9 μm, narrowly clavate or subcylindrical, with obtuse apex. Pileal trama composed of thin- to slightly thick-walled (up to 0.5μm) hyphae 2–8 μm in diameter. Stipitipellis hymeniform composed of thin- walled hyphae with clavate, subclavate, subfusiform or fusiform terminal cells (13–80 × 5–9 μm). Stipe trama composed of cylindrical, thin- to slightly thick-walled (to 0.5 μm) parallel hyphae 5–11 μm in diameter. Clamp connections absent in all tissues.

Habitat

Solitary, scattered or gregarious on the ground in forests of Pinus massoniana Lamb. or P. latteri Mason.

Distribution

Central (Zhang et al. 2015), southeastern, and southern China.

Specimens examined

CHINA. Fujian Province: Zhangping County, Xinqiao Town, Chengkou Village, elev. 370 m, 4 August 2013, N.K. Zeng 1379 (FHMU 930); same location, 17 August 2013, N.K. Zeng 1414 (FHMU 959); same location, 16 August 2014, N.K. Zeng 1633 (FHMU 2493). Hainan Province: Dongfang County, Exian Mountain, elev. 633 m, 5 October 2014, N.K. Zeng 1808 (FHMU 2494).

Notes

Our molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate that the new collections and the holotype of Ch. radiatus, a species first described from Hunan Province of central China, group together with a strong statistical support based on a two-locus dataset (28S + tef1) (data not shown). This indicates that our specimens should be recognized as Ch. radiatus (Zhang et al. 2015). This species is new to Fujian and Hainan Province. Zhang et al. (2015) reported Ch. radiatus from under Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook, Cyclobalanopsis spp. and Castanopsis spp. We found the species associated with Pinus spp.

Lanmaoa G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang

Lanmaoa, typified by L. asiatica G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang, was erected recently. However, Lanmaoa and its closely related genus Cyanoboletus share overlapping morphological features and the most important diagnostic feature of Lanmaoa defined by Wu et al. (2016a) is not constant (Chai et al. 2018). Here, we treat Lanmaoa as an independent genus until the true taxonomic relationship between Lanmaoa and Cyanoboletus can be studied.

Lanmaoa macrocarpa N.K. Zeng, H. Chai & S. Jiang, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: MB828523
Figures 5a–c, 11

Typification

CHINA. Hainan Province: Qiongzhong County, Yinggeling National Nature Reserve, elev. 750 m, 28 May 2017, N.K. Zeng 3021 (FHMU 1982, holotype). GenBank accession numbers: 28S = MH879684, tef1 = MH879713.

Etymology

Latin, “macrocarpa”, meaning the new species has a large pileus.

Description

Basidiomata large. Pileus 10–13 cm in diameter, subhemispherical when young, then convex to applanate; surface dry, finely tomentose, brownish red (8B6–9B6); context about 2.5 cm thick in the center of the pileus, yellowish, changing blue quickly when injured. Hymenophore poroid, depressed around apex of stipe; pores subround to angular, 1–2 mm in diameter, yellow (3A5), changing blue quickly, then turning brown slowly when injured; tubes about 1.5 cm in length. Stipe 8–11 × 1.5–2 cm, central, subcylindric, solid; surface dry, brownish red (9C6), sometimes reticulate at apex; context yellow, changing blue quickly when injured; basal mycelium yellowish (2A4). Odor indistinct.

Basidia 18–28 × 6–10 μm, clavate, thin-walled, colorless to yellowish in KOH; four-spored, sterigmata 3–4 μm in length. Basidiospores [40/2/2] (9–)10–12(–13) × 4.5–5 μm, Q=(2.00–)2.10–2.60(–2.67), Qm=2.39 ± 0.16, subfusoid and inequilateral in side view with a weak or distinct suprahilar depression, elliptic-fusiform to subfusiform in ventral view, slightly thick-walled (to 0.5 μm), olive-brown to yellowish brown in KOH, smooth. Hymenophoral trama boletoid; composed of colorless to yellowish in KOH, 4.5–9 μm wide, thin- to slightly thick-walled (to 0.5 μm) hyphae. Cheilocystidia 25–42 × 7–10 μm, ventricose, fusiform or subfusiform, thin-walled, yellowish in KOH, no encrustations. Pleurocystidia 25–45 × 7–11 μm, fusiform or subfusiform, thin-walled, yellowish in KOH, no encrustations. Pileipellis a trichoderm 120–160 μm thick, composed of rather vertically arranged, nearly colorless in KOH, 4.5–6 μm wide, thin-walled hyphae; terminal cells 21–32 × 4–6 μm long, clavate or subclavate, with obtuse apex. Pileal trama made up of hyphae 3–10 μm in diameter, thin-walled, nearly colorless in KOH. Stipitipellis hymeniform about 100 μm thick, composed of thin- to slightly thick-walled (to 0.5 μm) emergent hyphae, colorless in KOH, with clavate, subclavate, fusiform, or subfusiform terminal cells (22–43 × 3–9 μm), and occasionally with scattered clavate, 4-spored basidia. Stipe trama composed of longitudinally arranged, parallel hyphae 3–8 μm wide, cylindrical, thin- to slightly thick-walled (to 0.5 μm), yellowish in KOH. Clamp connections absent in all tissues.

Figure 5. 

Basidiomata of boletes. a–c Lanmaoa macrocarpa (a from FHMU 2212; b–c from FHMU 1982, holotype) d–f Neoboletus hainanensis (HKAS 90209) g–l Neoboletus multipunctatus (g, i–j, l from FHMU 2808 h, k from FHMU 1620, holotype). Photos by N.K. Zeng.

Habitat

Solitary on the ground in forests dominated by Castanopsis kawakamii Hay. or C. fissa (Champ. ex Benth.) Rehd. et Wils.

Distribution

Southeastern and southern China.

Additional specimens examined

CHINA. Fujian Province: Sanming City, Geshikao National Forest Park, elev. 400 m, 16 August 2017, N.K. Zeng 3251 (FHMU 2212).

Note

Lanmaoa macrocarpa is characterized by its large basidioma, brownish red pileus and stipe, thickness of hymenophore 3/5 times that of pileal context, and its association with Castanopsis spp. It is both morphologically similar and phylogenetically related to Chinese L. rubriceps N.K. Zeng & Hui Chai (Chai et al. 2018) and one collection tentatively named “Lanmaoa sp. HKAS 52518” (Fig. 3). However, L. rubriceps has a red to crimson, orange-red pileus, pores stuffed when young, sometimes tinged with reddish when old, and smaller basidiospores measuring 8–11 × 4–5 μm (Chai et al. 2018); careful examinations showed that Lanmaoa sp. HKAS 52518 has a smaller basidioma, a reddish to red or blackish-red pileus, and surface of stipe turning blue when injured.

Neoboletus Gelardi, Simonini & Vizzini

Neoboletus, typified by N. luridiformis (Rostk.) Gelardi et al., is characterized by stipitate-pileate or sequestrate; when basidiomata stipitate-pileate, pores brown, dark brown to reddish brown when young, becoming yellow when old (Fig. 6c, d, f), tubes always yellow (Figs 5f, l, 6e, h), hymenophore and context staining blue, and stipe usually covered with punctuations (Vizzini 2014; Wu et al. 2016a). The monophyly of Neoboletus has been assessed, and many species of the genus were described (Wu et al. 2014, 2016b). Astonishingly, the same authors recombined Neoboletus species in the genus Sutorius after a short time (Wu et al. 2016a). As a matter of fact, the stipe ornamentation pattern, spore print color, and colors of pores and tubes are fully different between the two genera (Halling et al. 2012; Vizzini 2014; Gelardi 2017). Furthermore, with more sequences added, our molecular data infers that Neoboletus forms an independent clade with strong support, and the genus Sutorius is sister to CostatisporusT.W. Henkel & M.E. Sm. (Smith et al. 2015) (Fig. 2). Thus, we recognize Neoboletus as an independent genus.

Neoboletus hainanensis (T.H. Li & M. Zang) N.K. Zeng, H. Chai & Zhi Q. Liang, comb. nov.

MycoBank No: MB828527
Figure 5d–f

Boletus hainanensis T.H. Li & M. Zang, Mycotaxon 80: 482, 2001

Sutorius hainanensis (T.H. Li & M. Zang) G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang, Fungal Diversity 81: 135, 2016

Habitat

Solitary on the ground in forests dominated by fagaceous trees including Lithocarpus spp.

Distribution

Southern and southwestern China.

Note

Boletus hainanensis T.H. Li & M. Zang was first described from Hainan Province of southern China (Zang et al. 2001). It was later also reported from Yunnan Province of southwestern China (Wu et al. 2016a) and was transferred to the genus Sutorius. It is called the “Black bolete” in Yunnan Province, and largely traded in local mushroom markets (Wang et al. 2004).

Specimens examined

CHINA. Hainan Province: Changjiang County, Bawangling National Nature Reserve, elev. 650 m, 20 August 2009, N.K. Zeng 523 (HKAS 90209). Yunnan Province: Kunming City, bought from market, 11 July 2015, N.K. Zeng 2128 (FHMU 1392).

Neoboletus multipunctatus N.K. Zeng, H. Chai & S. Jiang, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: MB828528
Figures 5g–l, 12

Typification

CHINA. Hainan Province: Qiongzhong County, Yinggeling National Nature Reserve, elev. 800 m, 3 August 2015, N.K. Zeng 2498 (FHMU 1620, holotype). GenBank accession numbers: 28S = MH879693, ITS = MH885354, tef1 = MH879722.

Etymology

Latin, “multipunctatus”, referring to the many punctuations on the stipe.

Description

Basidiomata medium-sized. Pileus 5.7–7 cm in diameter, convex to applanate; surface dry, finely tomentose, brown (4D7), dark brown (5C7) to blackish brown (5D5); context 1–1.5 cm thick in the center of the pileus, yellowish (1A5), changing blue quickly when injured. Hymenophore poroid, depressed around apex of stipe; pores subround, 0.3–0.4 mm in diameter, brown (7B5) to reddish brown (6C8), changing bluish black quickly when injured; tubes 0.5–0.7 cm in length, yellowish (1A5), changing blue quickly when injured. Stipe 7–7.4 × 1–1.3 cm, central, subcylindric, solid, usually flexuous; surface dry, covered with reddish-brown (7B5) squamules; context yellow (1A3), changing blue (21B3) quickly when injured; basal mycelium yellow (1A3). Odor indistinct.

Basidia 27–37 × 6–10 μm, clavate, thin-walled, colorless to yellowish in KOH; four-spored, sterigmata 5–6 μm in length. Basidiospores [80/4/3] 8.5–11(–12) × 4–5 μm, Q=(1.80–)1.90–2.50(–2.75), Qm=2.22 ± 0.22, subfusoid and inequilateral in side view with a weak or distinct suprahilar depression, elliptic-fusiform to subfusiform in ventral view, slightly thick-walled (to 0.5 μm), olive-brown to yellowish brown in KOH, smooth. Hymenophoral trama boletoid; composed of colorless to yellowish in KOH, 4–8 μm wide, thin-walled hyphae. Cheilocystidia 27–34 × 5–7 μm, fusiform or subfusiform, thin-walled, fawn to tawny in KOH, no encrustations. Pleurocystidia 38–61 × 6–8 μm, fusiform or subfusiform, thin-walled, colorless to tawny in KOH, no encrustations. Pileipellis a trichoderm about 120 μm thick, composed of vertically arranged, nearly colorless to yellowish in KOH, 3–5 μm wide, thin-walled hyphae; terminal cells 21–70 × 3–5 μm, clavate or subclavate, with obtuse apex. Pileal trama made up of hyphae 3–8 μm in diameter, thin-walled, colorless to yellowish in KOH. Stipitipellis hymeniform about 100 μm thick, composed of thin-walled emergent hyphae, colorless to yellowish in KOH, with clavate, subclavate, fusiform or subfusiform terminal cells (25–44 × 3–9 μm), and occasionally with scattered clavate, 4-spored basidia. Stipe trama composed of longitudinally arranged, parallel hyphae 4–9 μm wide, cylindrical, thin to slightly thick-walled (to 0.5 μm), colorless in KOH. Clamp connections absent in all tissues.

Habitat

Solitary on the ground in forests dominated by fagaceous trees including Lithocarpus spp.

Distribution

Southern China.

Additional specimens examined

CHINA. Hainan Province: Changjiang County, Bawangling National Nature Reserve, elev. 600 m, 22 August 2009, N.K. Zeng 559 (HKAS 76851); Ledong County, Yinggeling National Nature Reserve, elev. 620 m, 6 May 2018, N.K. Zeng 3324 (FHMU 2808).

Note

Neoboletus multipunctatus is characterized by a brown, dark brown to blackish brown pileus, brown to reddish-brown pores changing bluish black when injured, stipe surface densely covered with brown to reddish-brown punctuations, smaller basidiospores, and its association with fagaceous trees. It is both morphologically similar and phylogenetically related to N. brunneissimus (W.F. Chiu) Gelardi et al. (Fig. 2), a species originally described from Yunnan Province of southwestern China. However, N. brunneissimus has larger basidiospores measuring 10–14 × 4.5–5 μm, and it occurs in temperature regions in addition to subtropical belts (Wu et al. 2016a). Neoboletus multipunctatus is also similar to N. hainanensis and N. sinensis (T.H. Li & M. Zang) Gelardi et al. morphologically. However, both pileal and stipe surface of N. hainanensis stain blue when injured, with white basal mycelium on the stipe, relatively larger basidiospores measuring 9.5–13.5 × 4–5 μm, and a trichodermium to ixotrichodermium pileipellis (Zang et al. 2001; Wu et al. 2016a). Neoboletus sinensis, a species also described from Hainan Province, has a cherry red stipe with reticulations, larger basidiospores measuring 13–19 × 5–6.5 μm, and wider cystidia (Zang et al. 2001; Vizzini 2014).

Neoboletus obscureumbrinus (Hongo) N.K. Zeng, H. Chai & Zhi Q. Liang, comb. nov.

MycoBank No: MB828529
Figure 6a–e

Boletus obscureumbrinus Hongo, Mem. Fac. Lib. Arts. Educ. Shiga Univ. Nat. Sci., 18: 4, 1968

Sutorius obscureumbrinus (Hongo) G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang, Fungal Diversity 81: 138, 2016

Habitat

Solitary or gregarious on the ground in forests dominated by fagaceous trees including Lithocarpus spp.

Distribution

Southern and southwestern China; Japan (Hongo 1968).

Note

Boletus obscureumbrinus Hongo was originally described from Japan (Hongo 1968) and later reported from Guangdong Province of southern China and Yunnan Province of southwestern China (Wu et al. 2016a). It was transferred to the genus Sutorius by Wu et al. (2016a); in the present study, we place the species in Neoboletus according to the evidence referred to above (Fig. 2). It is new to Hainan Province. The fruit body of this species is eaten by the Li people who live in the region (our own investigations).

Specimens examined

CHINA. Hainan Province: Ledong County, Yinggeling National Nature Reserve, elev. 620 m, 5 June 2017, N.K. Zeng 3091, 3094, 3098 (FHMU 2052, 2055, 2059); same location, 6 May 2018, N.K. Zeng 3310, 3353 (FHMU 2271, 2814).

Figure 6. 

Basidiomata of boletes. a–e Neoboletus obscureumbrinus (a, e from FHMU 2271 b, d from FHMU 2055 c from FHMU 2814) f–h Neoboletus tomentulosus (h–i from FHMU 842, j from FHMU 841) i–k Sutorius subrufus (FHMU 2004, holotype) l Tylopilus virescens (FHMU 1004). Photos by N.K. Zeng.

Neoboletus tomentulosus (M. Zang, W.P. Liu & M.R. Hu) N.K. Zeng, H. Chai & Zhi Q. Liang, comb. nov.

MycoBank No: MB828530
Figure 6f–h

Boletus tomentulosus M. Zang, W.P. Liu & M.R. Hu, Acta Botanica Yunnanica 13: 150, 1991

Sutorius tomentulosus (M. Zang, W.P. Liu & M.R. Hu) G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang, Fungal Diversity 81: 142, 2016

Habitat

Solitary or gregarious on the ground in forests dominated by Castanopsis kawakamii Hay.

Distribution

Southeastern China.

Note

Boletus tomentulosus M. Zang et al. was first described from Fujian Province of southeastern China (Zang et al. 1991) and later reported from Guangdong Province of southern China (Wu et al. 2016a). Although the description of the protologue was brief (Zang et al. 1991), it has been well studied by Wu et al. (2016a). Our new collections were encountered near the type locality and augments our understanding of the species and the genus Neoboletus.

Specimens examined

CHINA. Fujian Province: Zhangping County, Xinqiao Town, Chengkou Village, elev. 350 m, 27 July 2013, N.K. Zeng 1285, 1286 (FHMU 841, 842).

Sutorius Halling, Nuhn & N.A. Fechner

Sutorius, typified by S. eximius (Peck) Halling et al., is mainly characterized by pores and tissues that are tinged with reddish at all growth stages, tissues not stained blue, a reddish-brown spore print, and transversely scissurate scales on stipe surface (Smith and Thiers 1971; Halling et al. 2012). Until now, only two taxa, S. australiensis (Bougher & Thiers) Halling and N.A. Fechner, and S. eximius (Peck) Halling et al., were described, excluding those in Wu et al (2016a). Herein, we describe another species new to science.

Sutorius subrufus N.K. Zeng, H. Chai & S. Jiang, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: MB828531
Figures 6i–k, 13

Typification

CHINA. Hainan Province: Qiongzhong County, Yinggeling National Nature Reserve, elev. 850 m, 29 May 2017, N.K. Zeng 3043 (FHMU 2004, holotype).

GenBank accession numbers: 28S = MH879698, ITS = MH885360, tef1 = MH879728, rpb2 = MH879745.

Etymology

Latin, “subrufus” refers to the stipe surface and context of the species turning reddish when injured.

Description

Basidiomata medium to large. Pileus 5–10 cm in diameter, subhemispherical to convex when young, then applanate; surface dry, finely tomentose, brown to pale reddish brown (10C2–11C3); context about 1.6 cm thick in the center of the pileus, white (6A1), changing reddish (9C3) when injured. Hymenophore poroid, adnate or slightly depressed around apex of stipe; pores angular, about 0.3 mm in diameter, pale brown (8C3), brown (7E2) to pale reddish brown (10C2), mostly unchanging in color when injured, but sometimes changing reddish; tubes about 1 cm in length, pale brown (8D3), unchanging in color when injured, but sometimes changing reddish. Stipe 6–10 × 1–2.2 cm, central, subcylindric, solid; surface dry, gray-white, but brownish yellow at base, covered with pale reddish-brown (7B2) to blackish-brown squamules, usually changing reddish when injured; context white (1D1–2), changing reddish (9C3) when injured; annulus absent; basal mycelium white (1A1). Odor indistinct.

Basidia 18–30 × 6–9 μm, clavate, thin-walled, colorless to yellowish in KOH; four-spored, sterigmata 2–3 μm in length. Basidiospores [200/24/3] (8–)9–12(–13.5) × 3.5–4.5 μm, Q=(2.25–)2.50–3.00(–3.29), Qm=2.79 ± 0.21, subfusoid and inequilateral in side view with a weak or distinct suprahilar depression, elliptic-fusiform to subfusiform in ventral view, slightly thick-walled (to 0.5 μm), olive-brown to yellowish brown in KOH, smooth. Hymenophoral trama boletoid; composed of colorless to yellowish in KOH, 5–10 μm wide, thin- to slightly thick-walled (up to 0.5 μm) hyphae. Cheilocystidia 28–45 × 7–10 μm, ventricose, fusiform or subfusiform, thin-walled, colorless to yellowish in KOH, no encrustations. Pleurocystidia 35–50 × 7–10 μm, fusiform or subfusiform, thin-walled, colorless to yellowish in KOH, no encrustations. Pileipellis a trichoderm about 100–150 μm thick, composed of rather vertically arranged, yellowish in KOH, 3.5–6 μm wide, thin-walled hyphae; terminal cells 30–43 × 3.5–6 μm, clavate or subclavate, with obtuse apex. Pileal trama made up of hyphae 4.5–10 μm in diameter, thin-walled, nearly colorless in KOH. Stipitipellis hymeniform about 60–80 μm thick, composed of thin-walled emergent hyphae, colorless in KOH, with clavate, subclavate terminal cells (22–28 × 4–9 μm), and occasionally with scattered clavate, four-spored basidia. Stipe trama composed of longitudinally arranged, parallel hyphae 4–8 μm wide, cylindrical, thin- to slightly thick-walled (to 0.5 μm), fawn to tawny in KOH, parallel hyphae. Clamp connections absent in all tissues.

Habitat

Scattered, gregarious or caespitose on the ground in forests dominated by fagaceous trees, including Lithocarpus spp.

Distribution

Southern China.

Additional specimens examined

CHINA. Hainan Province: Qiongzhong County, Yinggeling National Nature Reserve, elev. 860 m, 29 May 2017, N.K. Zeng 3045 (FHMU 2006); Ledong County, Yinggeling National Nature Reserve, elev. 650 m, 27 July 2017, N.K. Zeng 3140 (FHMU 2101).

Note

Sutorius subrufus is characterized by a brown to pale reddish-brown pileus, stipe surface and context turning reddish when injured, relatively smaller basidiospores, and it is restricted in tropical China. It is both morphologically similar and phylogenetically related to S. eximius (Peck) Halling et al. and S. australiensis (Bougher & Thiers) Halling and N.A. Fechner. However, stipe surface and context of S. eximius does not change when injured. Moreover, S. eximius has larger basidiospores, and a distribution in North and Central America (Singer 1947; Smith and Thiers 1971; Halling et al. 2012); S. australiensis has relatively larger basidiospores, a distribution in Australia, and is associated with Myrtaceae and Casuarinaceae (Halling et al. 2012).

Tylopilus P. Karst

Tylopilus, typified by T. felleus (Bull.) P. Karst., is characterized by the pallid, pinkish, vinaceous and pinkish-brown hymenophore, white to pallid context without color change, but some species becoming rufescent or sea-green when injured, and the bitter taste of the context (Baroni and Both 1998; Henkel 1999; Fulgenzi et al. 2007; Osmundson and Halling 2010; Wu et al. 2016a; Magnago et al. 2017; Liang et al. 2018). In China, although lots of species of the genus have been previously discovered (Li et al. 2002; Fu et al. 2006; Gelardi et al. 2015; Wu et al. 2016a; Liang et al. 2018), still there are a large number of undescribed taxa in this region.

Tylopilus virescens (Har. Takah. & Taneyama) N.K. Zeng, H. Chai & Zhi Q. Liang, comb. nov.

MycoBank No: MB828532
Figure 6l

Boletus virescens Har. Takah. & Taneyama, The fungal flora in southwestern Japan, agarics and boletes 1: 45, 2016

Tylopilus callainus N.K. Zeng, Zhi Q. Liang & M.S. Su, Phytotaxa 343 (3): 271, 2018

Habitat

Solitary or gregarious on the ground in forests dominated by fagaceous trees including Lithocarpus spp. or Castanopsis kawakamii Hay.

Distribution

Southeastern and southern China; Japan (Terashima et al. 2016).

Note

Tylopilus callainus N.K. Zeng et al. was described from the south of China (Liang et al. 2018). This taxon was previously thought to be different from B. virescens Har. Takah. & Taneyama, a species described from Japan (Terashima et al. 2016). After a careful re-evaluation of specimens, we now know that the two taxa are conspecific, and T. callainus is synonymized with B. virescens. Clarifying the taxonomic relationship between the two taxa also indicated that the B. virescens is a member of Tylopilus, and thus the new combination is proposed. Illustrations and a full description have been provided by Liang et al. (2018).

Specimens examined

CHINA. Fujian Province: Zhangping County, Xinqiao Town, Chengkou Village, elev. 350 m, 22 August 2013, N.K. Zeng 1360, 1459 (FHMU2812, 1001); same location, 23 August 2013, N.K. Zeng 1460 (FHMU 2813); same location, 24 August 2013, N.K. Zeng 1464 (FHMU 1004). Hainan Province: Baisha County, Yinggeling National Nature Reserve, elev. 550 m, 1 August 2015, N.K. Zeng 2436 (FHMU 1562); same location, 26 May 2017, N.K. Zeng 2982 (FHMU 1943); same location, 27 May 2017, N.K. Zeng 3001 (FHMU 1962); Ledong County, Jianfengling National Nature Reserve, elev. 850 m, 27 June 2018, N.K. Zeng 3426, 3431 (FHMU 2810, 2811).

New combinations

According to the analytical results presented here, the following new combinations are proposed:

Neoboletus ferrugineus (G. Wu, F. Li & Zhu L. Yang) N.K. Zeng, H. Chai & Zhi Q. Liang, comb. nov.

MycoBank: MB828533

Sutorius ferrugineus G. Wu, Fang Li & Zhu L. Yang, Fungal Diversity 81: 134, 2016

Neoboletus flavidus (G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang) N.K. Zeng, H. Chai & Zhi Q. Liang, comb. nov.

MycoBank: MB828534

Sutorius flavidus G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang, Fungal Diversity 81: 135, 2016

Neoboletus rubriporus (G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang) N.K. Zeng, H. Chai & Zhi Q. Liang, comb. nov.

MycoBank: MB828535

Sutorius rubriporus G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang, Fungal Diversity 81: 139, 2016

Neoboletus sanguineoides (G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang) N.K. Zeng, H. Chai & Zhi Q. Liang, comb. nov.

MycoBank: MB828536

Sutorius sanguineoides G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang, Fungal Diversity 81: 140, 2016

Neoboletus sanguineus (G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang) N.K. Zeng, H. Chai & Zhi Q. Liang, comb. nov.

MycoBank: MB828537

Sutorius sanguineus G. Wu & Zhu L. Yang, Fungal Diversity 81: 141, 2016

Discussion

Molecular phylogenetic analyses have been used widely to define the genera of boletes, and as a result, many genera were erected or merged (Zeng et al. 2012, 2014b; Nuhn et al. 2013; Wu et al. 2014, 2016a, b). Recently, the genus Neoboletus was synonymized with Sutorius solely based on the evidence of molecular data (Wu et al. 2016a). Our molecular phylogenetic analyses based on a four-locus dataset (28S + ITS + tef1 + rpb2) with sequences from taxa of Neoboletus, Sutorius, Costatisporus, and Caloboletus (Fig. 2) indicate those species that morphologically match the concept of genus Neoboletus do not belong in Sutorius; instead, they form an independent clade with strong support (Fig. 2). At the same time, the morphological features including the stipe ornamentation pattern, spore print color, and color change of tissues are different between the two genera and has been noted in previous studies (Halling et al. 2012; Gelardi 2017). It is noteworthy that the color of tubes of Neoboletus is always yellow (Figs 5f, l, 6e, h), and in this genus the pores usually become yellow when old (Fig. 6d, f), whereas the color of tubes and pores of Sutorius are always tinged with reddish at different growth stages (Fig. 6i–k).

The present study further shows that the most important diagnostic feature of the genus Lanmaoa, viz. “short hymenophoral tubes (thickness of hymenophore 1/3–1/5 times that of pileal context at the position halfway to the pileus center) and a slow color change when injured” defined by Wu et al. (2016b) is not constant (Chai et al. 2018), for the thickness of hymenophore is about 3/5 times that of pileal context in our newly described L. macrocarpa. Additionally, context and hymenophore of our new species turn quickly and strongly when injured (Fig. 5c).

According to current molecular data, 10 lineages (lineages 1–10) of Sutorius were found (Fig. 2). Lineages 4 and 6 were identified as S. australiensis and S. eximius respectively in a previous study (Halling et al. 2012). Lineages 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9 may have not diverged enough (Fig. 2) and are treated here as a series of closely related taxa or disjunct populations of previously described entities; these will be assessed in the future with more DNA sequences and more collections. As to lineages 8 and 10, they should be treated as independent taxa due to their high degree divergence. Moreover, morphological and ecological features (described above) of specimens (FHMU 2004, FHMU 2006, FHMU 2101) in lineage 8 from Hainan Province are also different from the described taxa of Sutorius, and thus, the new taxon S. subrufus was proposed. Lineage 10 was not described due to the paucity of the materials (Halling et al. 2012).

Subtropical and tropical China is believed to be a biodiversity hotspot. Mycologists have paid much attention to boletes of the region in the past decade, and many taxa have been discovered (Bi et al. 1997; Zeng and Yang 2011; Zeng et al. 2012, 2013, 2014a, b, 2015a, b, 2016, 2017, 2018; Zang 2013; Liang et al.2016, 2017, 2018; Chai et al. 2018; Xue et al. 2018). Among of them, many have been found to be as North American or European species (Bi et al. 1997; Zang 2013), and recent studies have shown that species shared between subtropical/tropical China and North America/Europe are rare but that there are many common species between Japan and subtropical/tropical China (Zeng et al. 2013, 2016, 2017). Our study now reveals that the geographic distributions of the Japanese C. guanyui, N. obscureumbrinus, and T. virescens extend into subtropical or tropical China.

Figure 7. 

Microscopic features of Butyriboletus huangnianlaii (FHMU 2207, holotype). a Basidia and pleurocystidium b Basidiospores c Cheilocystidia d Pleurocystidia e Pileipellis f Stipitipellis. Scale bars: 10 μm.

Figure 8. 

Microscopic features of Caloboletus guanyui (FHMU 2040). a Basidia and pleurocystidia b Basidiospores c Cheilocystidia d Pleurocystidia e Pileipellis f Stipitipellis. Scale bars: 10 μm.

Figure 9. 

Microscopic features of Caloboletus xiangtoushanensis (FHMU 883). a Basidia and pleurocystidia b Basidiospores c Cheilocystidia d Pleurocystidia e Pileipellis f Stipitipellis. Scale bars: 10 μm.

Figure 10. 

Microscopic features of Chalciporus radiatus (FHMU 930). a Basidia and pleurocystidium b Basidiospores c Cheilocystidia d Pileipellis e Stipitipellis. Scale bars: 10 μm.

Figure 11. 

Microscopic features of Lanmaoa macrocarpa (a–e from FHMU 1982, holotype f from FHMU 2212). a Basidia and pleurocystidium b Basidiospores c Cheilocystidia d Pleurocystidia e Pileipellis f Stipitipellis. Scale bars: 10 μm.

Figure 12. 

Microscopic features of Neoboletus multipunctatus (FHMU 1620, holotype). a Basidia and pleurocystidium b Basidiospores c Cheilocystidia d Pileipellis e Stipitipellis. Scale bars: 10 μm.

Figure 13. 

Microscopic features of Sutorius subrufus (FHMU 2004, holotype). a Basidia and pleurocystidium b Basidiospores c Cheilocystidia d Pleurocystidia e Pileipellis f Stipitipellis. Scale bars: 10 μm.

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to the forest rangers (Hainan Yinggeling National Nature Reserve) for their kind help during the field investigations. Special thanks are due to three reviewers for their valuable suggestions and comments which improved our manuscript. The study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 31560005, 31760008, 31360008, 31400024).

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