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Amanita tullossiana, a new species, and two new records of Amanita section Lepidella from north-western Himalaya, India
expand article infoMd. Iqbal Hosen, Tahir Mehmood§, Kanad Das|, Linas V. Kudzma, R. P. Bhatt§
‡ Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou, China
§ H.N.B. Garhwal University, Garhwal, India
| Cryptogamic Unit, Botanical Survey of India, Howrah, India
¶ Unaffiliated, Annandale, United States of America
Open Access

Abstract

Amanita tullossiana, a new species of Amanita [subgenus Lepidella] section Lepidella from India is described. The species is characterised by its ash grey to brownish-grey pileus covered with dark grey to greyish-black universal veil remnants, the upper part of its rooting stipe base covered by several rows of recurved scales, broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid basidiospores, absence of basidial clamp connections and pileal remnants of universal veil comprising abundant, disordered inflated cells intermixed with scattered filamentous hyphae. Molecular phylogenetic analysis and morphology both support the association of A. tullossiana with species of Bas’ stirps CinereoconiaA. cinereoconia and A. griseoverrucosa. Two species, A. griseoverrucosa and A. virgineoides are reported here as new records for India.

Keywords

Amanitaceae, Basidiomycota, nrLSU, South Asian taxa, taxonomy

This article is dedicated to Dr. Rodham E. Tulloss for his contribution to mycology especially in the family Amanitaceae.

Introduction

The Amanitaceae is one of the most dominant and species-rich families of Basidiomycota. Traditionally, this family is divided into three genera, namely Amanita Pers., Limacella Earle and Catatrama Franco-Mol. However, a recent study by Redhead et al. (2016) divided Amanita into two genera, Amanita and Saproamanita Redhead, Vizzini, Drehmel & Contu, the former genus including species which are mycorrhizal in nature and the latter genus including only amycorrhizal/free-living species within Amanita. Subsequent to their establishment of the new genus, Tulloss et al. (2016) argued against the separation of Saproamanita from Amanita because the amycorrhizal species do not form a well-supported clade and are arguably the “mother” of the genus Amanita rather than a sister group within it. In this study, we follow the interpretation of Tulloss et al. (2016).

The Amanitaceae is characterised by longitudinally acrophysalidic stipe tissue. The agaricoid species in the genus Amanita are characterised by their schizohymenial development, which is evidence in mature basidiomata by their sterile lamella margin (Bas 1969, Thongbai et al. 2016, Tulloss et al. 2016, Bhatt et al. 2017).

The genus Amanita is divided into two subgenera: a) Amanita Pers. and b) Lepidella (E.-J. Gilbert) Veselý based on the reaction of basidiospore walls to Melzer’s reagent, the former having a negative reaction (inamyloid) and the latter having a positive reaction (amyloid) to that reagent (Corner and Bas 1962, Bas 1969, Yang 1997). The subg. Lepidella is further divided into four sections: i) sect. Amidella (J.-E Gilbert) Veselý, ii) sect. Lepidella sensu Bas (1969), iii) sect. Phalloideae (Fr.) Quél. and iv) sect. Validae (Fr.) Quél.

Species within Amanita sect. Lepidella are recognised by the combination of the following features: non-striate and appendiculate pileus margin and a volva that is friable, not forming an entire membranous sac (with the rare exception of a thin submembranous or membranous exterior layer). Approximately 200 taxa are listed for this section in the Amanitaceae website (http://www.amanitaceae.org/), of which 185 have been validly published (Corner and Bas 1962, Bas 1969, Tulloss and Jenkins 1985, Tulloss et al. 1992, Yang 1997, Wolfe et al. 2012, Deng et al. 2014, Cai et al. 2014, Li and Cai 2014, Hosen et al. 2015, Tulloss and Yang 2018). However, only four species, namely A. albofloccosa A.V. Sathe & S.D. Deshp., A. berkeleyi (Hooker f.) Bas, A. eriophora (Berk.) E.-J. Gilbert and A. konkanensis P.G. Sathe & S.M. Kulk. of Amanita sect. Lepidella have been reported from India so far (Bas 1969, Sathe and Daniel 1981, Kulkarni 1992).

During the course of macrofungal forays into different parts of the state of Uttarakhand, India, the second author (TM) collected several specimens of Amanita in broad-leaved forests. Morphological examination and molecular data indicated that the new collections herein reported represent one species new to science and two new records for India.

Materials and methods

Morphological study

Macromorphological characteristics were documented in the forest or base camp from fresh and dissected young to mature basidiomata. Photography was accomplished using a digital camera (Sony cyber-shot W730 and Cannon Power Shot SX 50). Colour codes follow Kornerup and Wanscher (1978). Samples were dried using an electric drier. Herbarium codes follow Index Herbariorum (Thiers 2018).

Micromorphological characteristics were observed with a compound microscope (Olympus CH20i) with dried material mounted in 5% KOH, 1% Phloxin, Melzer’s reagent and 1% Congo red. To present basidiospore measurements, the following notation was used: “[n/m/p]” indicating n basidiospores were measured from m basidiomata of p collections with a minimum of 20 basidiospores from each collection. Biometric variables followed those in Tulloss and Lindgren (2005): L = the range of the average spore length computed per specimen examined. L' = the average spore length computed for all spores measured. W = the range of the average spore width computed per specimen examined. W' = the average spore width computed for all spores measured. Q = the ratio of length/breadth for a single spore and the range of the ratio of length/breadth for all spores measured. Q = the average value of Q computed for one specimen examined and the range of such averages. Q' = average value of Q computed for all spores measured. wcs = the width of the central stratum of a lamella. wst-near = the distance from an outer margin of the central stratum to the nearest base of a basidium. wst-far = the distance from an outer margin of the central stratum to the furthest base of a basidium on the same side of the central stratum. Drawings of microscopic features were made free hand.

Molecular study

DNA extraction, PCR amplification and sequencing

Genomic DNA was extracted from dry basidiomata following the modified CTAB method of Doyle and Doyle (1987). PCR was performed to amplify the partial sequence of the nuclear ribosomal large subunit (nrLSU) using universal primer pairs LR0R (GTACCCGCTGAACTTAAGC) and LR5 (ATCCTGAGGGAAACTTC) LR7 (TACTACCACCAAGATCT) (Vilgalys and Hester 1990) and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2) using primer pair fRPB2-5F (GAYGAYMGWGATCAYTTYGG) (Liu et al. 1999) and bRPB2-7.1R (GCHATGGGKAARCARGCYATGGG) (Matheny 2005). Sequencing was performed on ABI 3730 XL DNA Analyzer (Applied Biosystems). PCR amplification (both nrLSU and rpb2) was conducted on a thermal cycler (Eppendorf, Germany) programmed for 3 min at 94 °C, followed by 35 cycles of 30 sec at 94 °C, 1 min at 55 °C, 1 min at 72 °C and a final stage of 8 min at 72 °C. The PCR products were purified using the QIAquick PCR Purification Kit (QIAGEN, Germany). Both strands of the PCR fragment were sequenced on the 3730xl DNA Analyzer (Applied Biosystems, USA) using the same primer pair.

Phylogenetic analyses

In this study, a dataset of 49 nrLSU sequences of Amanita subg. Lepidella and one nrLSU sequence of Limacella bangladeshana Iqbal Hosen were used for phylogenetic analysis. The nrLSU sequences of Amanitaceae were selected based on BLASTn search results (Altschul et al. 1997) and availability of sequences of Amanitaceae in GenBank (Clark et al. 2016). The nrLSU dataset was then aligned with Mafft v.6.8 (Katoh et al. 2005) and manually adjusted with BioEdit v.7.0.9 (Hall 1999) using default settings. Maximum Likelihood (ML) phylogenetic analysis inferred from nrLSU sequences was performed using RAxML v.7.2.6 (Stamatakis 2006). Default settings were used for all parameters in the ML analysis and statistical support values were obtained using nonparametric bootstrapping with 1,000 replicates. Gaps in the alignment were treated as missing data in the phylogenetic analysis. Limacella bangladeshana was selected as the outgroup for the molecular phylogenetic analysis.

Results

Molecular phylogenetic results

In this study, five sequences (three for nrLSU and two for rpb2) were generated from three separate collections (RET 717-4, RET 717-9 and TM 16-1228) of Amanita and deposited in GenBank (Table 1). Only nrLSU sequences were used in this study to delimit the Indian Amanita species. The rpb2 sequences were not used for reconstruction of molecular phylogeny because rpb2 sequences for most of the Amanita species (included in the nrLSU phylogeny) are currently unavailable in GenBank for inclusion in this study. The aligned nrLSU dataset consisted of 50 sample sequences of Amanitaceae (Table 1) with 934 nucleotide sites for each sample (gaps included), of which 238 were parsimony informative characters. The resulting dataset was deposited in TreeBASE (S21668). Initial BLASTn search result of the nrLSU sequence of the Indian collection (RET 717-4) against the NCBI database exhibited 98% identity with A. cinereopannosa Bas (GenBank HQ539678) and 97% with A. cinereoconia G.F. Atk. (GenBank HQ593118). Phylogenetically, the collection RET 717-4 is grouped together with A. cinereopannosa, A. cinereoconia and A. griseoverrucosa Zhu L. Yang with strong bootstrap (BS) support (Fig. 1). Morphological characterisation [using the keys of Bas (1969)] and phylogenetic inference indicate the new collection (RET 717-4) is an independent species in Amanita [sect. Lepidella subsect. Solitariae Bas] stirps Cinereoconia of Bas (1969). Another two collections TM 16-1228 and RET 717-9 are reported here as A. griseoverrucosa and A. virgineoides Bas, respectively—new records to India. Phylogenetically, the former species is clustered with A. cinereoconia, A. cinereopannosa and A. tullossiana with strong support (100% ML BS); and the latter species is clustered with A. polypyramis (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Sacc. (GenBank HQ593122, HQ539723) with strong support (99% ML BS) (Fig. 1).

Taxa of Amanitaceae included in molecular phylogenetic analysis.

Name of the species Herbarium voucher/collection/collector number Geographic location GenBank accession number
nrLSU rpb2
Amanita afrospinosa RET 347-1 Zimbabwe HQ539666
Amanita afrospinosa RET 347-1 Zimbabwe HQ539666
Amanita amanitoides RET 344-9 Zambia HQ539668
Amanita amerivirosa RET 628-2 USA KY924826
Amanita sp. TM 16-1247 India MF375478
Amanita armillariiformis DAOM216919 USA AF261436
Amanita atkinsoniana RET 301-1 USA HQ539670
Amanita brunnescens BW_HP12 USA HQ539674
Amanita cinereoconia BW_PSF USA HQ593118
Amanita cinereopannosa RET 319-8 USA HQ539678
Amanita cinereovelata HKAS 81647* Bangladesh KP259291
Amanita cokeri BW-STF 090506-19 USA HQ539682
Amanita conicoverrucosa AY194983
Amanita costaricensis RET 330-4 Costa Rica KP258990
Amanita daucipes RET 386-8 USA HQ539688
Amanita eriophora RET 350-4 Cambodia HQ539672
Amanita excelsa Ge 816 China HQ539691
Amanita fritillaria HKAS 29511 China AF024452
Amanita fuliginea HKAS 32521 China AF024454
Amanita grallipes RET 379-5 Brazil HQ539700
Amanita griseoverrucosa HKAS 38459 China AY436495
Amanita griseoverrucosa TM 16-1228 India MF359828
Amanita heishidingensis HKAS 76122* China KC429045
Amanita japonica HMAS 59778 China AF024460
Amanita kotohiraensis MHHNU 6998 China FJ011681
Amanita lavendula RET 339-7 Canada KR865979
Amanita longipes RET 360-1 USA HQ539704
Amanita magniverrucata RET 594-10 USA KR919774
Amanita macrocarpa 31939L China KC408378
Amanita nauseosa DPL 6117 USA HQ539715
Amanita ochrophylla PSC1127 Australia HQ539715
Amanita onusta RET 297-3 USA HQ539718
Amanita peckiana RET 320-3 USA HQ539720
Amanita phalloides Ben Woo (WTU) USA AY380359
Amanita proxima RET 290-10 France HQ539728
Amanita polypyramis BW_CC USA HQ593122
Amanita rufobrunnescens GDGM 42374* China KT865210
Amanita sepiacea HKAS 38716 China AY436501
Amanita smithiana RET 382-6 USA HQ539740
Amanita solitaria RET 298-1 France HQ539741
Amanita subjunquillea HKAS 24169 China AF024479
Amanita tephrea RET 378-9 USA HQ539751
Amanita tullossiana RET 717-4* India MF945577 MH638335#
Amanita vestita HKAS 77277 China KC429044
Amanita virgineoides RET 717-9 India MF945578 MH638336#
Amanita virgineoides HKAS 79691 China KJ466495
Amanita virgineoides HKAS 77278 China KC429043
Amanita virgineoides HKAS 18394 China AF024484
Amanita virosa RET 291-3 USA KY924846
Limacella bangladeshana Iqbal-276* Bangladesh KR816668
Figure 1. 

Phylogenetic relationships of Amanita tullossiana, A. griseoverrucosa and A. virgineoides inferred from nrLSU sequences using the Maximum Likelihood (ML) method. Bootstrap support values (≥50%) obtained from maximum likelihood (ML) analysis are shown above or beneath the branches at nodes. Amanita tullossiana, A. virgineoides and A. griseoverrucosa from India are highlighted in bold on the tree. GenBank accession numbers are provided after each species name and followed by country of origin.

Taxonomy

Amanita tullossiana Mehmood, Iqbal Hosen, K. Das & R.P. Bhatt, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: 822821
Figs 2, 3

Typification

INDIA, Uttarakhand, Rudhraparyag district, Baniyakund, at 2655 m a.s.l., 30°28.998N, 79°10.658E, 26 August 2014, T. Mehmood, TM 14-475 (RET 717-4, holotype; CAL 1611, isotype).

Etymology

The epithet “tullossiana” (Lat., “of Tulloss”) is proposed in honour of Dr. Rodham E. Tulloss for his contribution to the study of the genus Amanita all over the world.

Diagnosis

Distinct from all the known species of Amanita stirps Cinereoconia by the combination of the following characters: medium-sized to large basidiomata (pileus 90–170 mm wide, stipe 150–185 × 20–25 mm); brownish-grey to dark grey pileus covered with floccose to subfelted, pulverulent patches of universal veil remnants; broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid basidiospores measuring (8.5–)9–13(–13.5) × (5.8–)6–8(–8.5) µm.

Description

Basidiomata medium-sized to large. Pileus 90–170 mm wide, initially hemispherical then convex to plano-convex and finally planar, shiny, slightly viscid when moist, ash grey (1B2), pastel grey (1C1), grey (4B1-4C1), brownish-grey, brownish-beige (6F2-3) to dark grey (1F1), slightly darker at centre; context 11–14 mm thick above stipe, white (1A1), thinning evenly toward margin, unchanging when cut or bruised. Universal veil on pileus as floccose to subfelted pulverulent patches, dark grey (1F1) to brownish-grey (6F2), greyish-black to dark grey (1F1), soft, up to 4 mm thick, 7–12 mm wide, irregularly distributed. Lamellae 6–10 mm broad, free to narrowly adnate, crowded, white (1A1), unchanging when injured; lamellulae, plentiful of several lengths, attenuate, truncate, with 8–9 lamellae per cm at margin. Stipe 150–185 × 20–25 mm (excluding bulb), attenuate upwards, upper part covered by dark grey (1F1) fibrils, lower part covered with recurved scales, with fibrils turn blackish when handled; context solid, white, unchanging on cutting or bruising. Partial veil superior, soft, cottony, white, easily collapsed or detachable. Bulb 70–88 × 25–41 mm, napiform to rooting, covered with brownish-grey (6F2) to dark grey (1F1) universal veil remnants, often upper part covered with grey (4B1) to dark grey (1F1) recurving scales. Odour indistinct, taste not observed. Spore deposit white.

Basidiospores [300/15/10] (8.5–)9–13(–13.5) × (5.8–)6–8(–8.5) µm, [L = 9.5–11 µm, L' = 10.54 µm; W = 6–7.5 µm, W' = 6.83 µm; Q = (1.29–)1.40–1.66(–1.83), Q = 1.38–1.59, Q' = 1.54], broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid, hyaline, thin-walled, smooth, amyloid; contents monoguttulate; apiculus lateral to sublateral, up to 1 µm long. Basidia 45–55(–65) × 9–14 µm, 2 to 4-spored, thin-walled; sterigmata up to 4 µm long; basal clamp connections absent. Lamellar edge tissue sterile, mainly composed of inflated globose to subglobose cells 20–35 × 15–25 µm and clavate to subclavate cells 40–50 × 15–18 µm. Subhymenium 40–50 μm thick, with 3–4 layers of inflated cells, wst-near = 35–50 μm, wst-far= 50–70 μm, basidia arising from small inflated cells 8–15 × 6–10 μm wide. Hymenophoral trama bilateral, divergent; wcs= 60–80 μm; well rehydrated, filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 3–8 μm wide; with lateral stratum composed of intercalary inflated cells 66–110 × 12–19 μm wide; vascular hyphae 9–14 μm. Pileipellis 140–195 μm thick, in two layers, with gelatinised colourless suprapellis (45–55 μm) thick, filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae subradially arranged; subpellis (95–140 μm) thick; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2–6 μm wide, densely arranged in subpellis, with yellowish-brown intracellular pigment; vascular hyphae 7–10 μm wide, infrequent. Pileus context filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2–6 μm wide, thin-walled, hyaline, interwoven; broadly clavate to ellipsoid cells 86–130 × 26–45 μm, thin-walled, hyaline. Universal veil on pileus disordered; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2–6 μm wide, branched, thin-walled, infrequent to scattered, with pale yellow vacuolar pigments; inflated cells dominantly globose to subglobose 25–88 × 22–70 µm, infrequent broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid or pyriform 40–60 × 10–13 μm, often in chains of 2–3, with brownish to pale yellow vacuolar pigments; vascular hyphae 6–12 μm wide, frequent. Universal veil on stipe base disordered; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2–5 μm wide, branched, thin-walled, scattered, with pale yellow vacuolar pigments; inflated cells dominantly globose to subglobose 30–70 × 25–65 µm, infrequent broadly ellipsoid to elongated cells 30–90 × 12–18 μm, with brownish to pale yellow vacuolar pigments; vascular hyphae 10–14 μm wide, often present. Partial veil abundant inflated cells broadly clavate to clavate 50–120 × 16– 29 µm, thin-walled, colourless, hyaline, sometimes with yellowish-brown vacuolar pigments; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 3–7 µm wide, dominant, thin walled, hyaline, colourless or sometimes with yellowish-brown pigments; vascular hyphae 4–8 μm wide. Stipe context longitudinally acrophysalidic; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 5–7 µm wide; acrophysalides 150–230 × 35–56 µm, thin-walled, colourless, hyaline, vascular hyphae not found. Clamp connections not observed in any tissues.

Figure 2. 

Basidiomata of Amanita tullossiana in natural habitat (RET 717-4, holotype; CAL 1611, isotype). a–d showing distinctive features of A. tullossiana (universal veil remnants, appendiculate pileus margin and recurved scales on the stipe surface).

Figure 3. 

Microscopic features of Amanita tullossiana (RET 717-4, holotype; CAL 1611, isotype). a Basidiospores b Basidia at different stages of development c Elements of universal veil from pileus surface (vascular hyphae are dark shaded).

Macrochemical tests on fresh basidiomata

5% KOH - negative on pileus, 2% phenol - negative and FeSO4 crystals - negative on pileus and in stipe context.

Habitat and distribution

Solitary to subgregarious in temperate mixed forest dominated by Quercus semicarpifolia and Abies pindrow, at 2350–2655 m a.s.l. Currently only known from India.

Additional specimens examined

INDIA, Uttarakhand, Rudraparyag district, Baniyakund, 26 August 2014, T. Mehmood, TM 14-486 (GUH-M-27001); same location, 14 July 2015, T. Mehmood, TM 15-624 (GUH-M-27002); same location, 1 August 2015, T. Mehmood, TM 15-786 (GUH-M-27003); same location, 2 August 2015, T. Mehmood, TM 15-815 (GUH-M-27004); same location, 8 August 2015, T. Mehmood, TM 15-891 (GUH-M-27005); same location, 30 August 2015, T. Mehmood, TM 15-1017 (GUH-M-27006); same location, 22 July 2016, T. Mehmood, TM 16-1123 (GUH-M-27007); same location, 26 August 2016, T. Mehmood, TM 16-1369 (GUH-M-27008); Nainital district, Mukteshwar 24 August 2016, T. Mehmood, TM 16-1338 (GUH-M-27009).

Commentary

The grey to brownish-grey universal veil, the absence of clamp connections, disordered inflated cells intermixed with scattered filamentous hyphae, together with broadly ellipsoid to cylindrical basidiospores are the key features of sect. Lepidella stirps Cinereoconia (Bas 1969). Based on the Bas’ key, the new taxon could be placed in Amanita [sect. Lepidella subsect. Solitariae] stirps Cinereoconia.

In stirps Cinereoconia, A. griseofarinosa Hongo, A. lutescens Hongo, A. pelioma Bas, A. odorata Beeli, A. vestita Corner & Bas, A. griseovelata D.A. Reid, A. pallidoflavescens Dav. T. Jenkins and A. viridissima Wartchow are all species that should be compared to the morphology of the present taxon. Amanita griseofarinosa, originally described from Japan, has a pale yellowish-grey pileus covered with dark coloured, farinose to tomentose universal veil remnants; and subglobose to broadly ellipsoid basidiospores 8.5–10 × 7–9 μm, with a lower Q' value = 1.2 (Bas 1969) than the basidiospores of the present taxon. Amanita lutescens, originally described from Japan, differs from A. tullossiana by its small to medium-sized basidiomata 35–60 mm broad, context turning yellowish when cut or bruised and relatively smaller basidiospores 8–10(–10.5) × 5.5–6.5 μm (Bas 1969). Amanita pelioma, originally described from the USA, has a greyish-olive to pale brownish pileus, distinctive brown gills, a volva that bruises a distinctive blue-green and ellipsoid to elongate basidiospores 10–12.5 × 6.5–8 µm, with a higher Q' value = 1.65 (Bas 1969) than in the new species. Amanita odorata, originally described from the Democratic Republic of Congo, has a greyish olivaceous brown pileus, pinkish-white lamellae and elongate to cylindric basidiospores 9.5–13 × 4.5–5.5 µm, with a Q value ranges = 1.55–2.05 (Bas 1969). Amanita vestita, originally described from Singapore, has a pale greyish-white pileus covered with small micaceous umber particles, broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid basidiospores 7.5–9 × 5.5–6.5 µm, with a Q value ranges = 1.3–1.35 (Bas 1969) lower than in the new taxon. Amanita griseovelata, originally described from Victoria, Australia, has a slate-grey pileus covered pale grey, felty-pruinose universal veil remnants and subglobose to broadly ellipsoid basidiospores 7–10(–11.5) × 6.8–8.5 μm (Reid 1980). Amanita pallidoflavescens, originally described from the USA, has a white to silvery white pileus and bears elongate to cylindric basidiospores 8.6–10.2 × 4.7–5.5 µm (Jenkins 1980). Amanita viridissima, originally described from Brazil, has a green pileus and stipe, pale lamellae and elongate to cylindric basidiospores 9.8–13 × 5.7–8.3 µm, with a higher Q' value =1.82 (Wartchow 2016).

Amanita cinereopannosa, A. cinereoconia and A. griseoverrucosa are the phylogenetically closely related species to the new species (Fig. 1). However, all of them are distinguished morphologically. Amanita cinereopannosa, originally described from USA, has a white to silvery sheen pileus covered with subfelted to subpyramidal warts, abundant filamentous hyphae and ellipsoid to elongated basidiospores (8–)8.8–10(–14.1) × (4.9–)5–6.7(–8.3) µm (Tulloss and Yang 2018). Furthermore, this species is considered endemic to eastern North America and has not been recorded in other parts of the world (Davison et al. 2013). Bas (1969) clearly held A. cinereopannosa to be distinct from the species of stirps Cinereoconia because he placed it in his stirps Strobiliformis. Amanita cinereoconia, originally described from the USA, has a white to greyish pileus covered with grey, pulverulent to small warted universal veil remnants and bears elongate to cylindric basidiospores 7.8–10.9 × 4.7–6.2 µm, with a Q value = 1.72 (Jenkins 1986). In addition, A. cinereoconia has a peculiar smell like “chloride of lime” [meaning the smell of an outdoor pit toilet into which CaCl2 has been added; hence, an odour of decaying protein] or faintly of “chlorine” (Bas 1969; Jenkins 1986). Bas proposed a variety croceescens of A. cinereoconia; however, Tulloss had the opportunity to observe the transition of a single specimen from the “type variety” to “var. croceescens” and attributed the yellow colouration to the Amanita “yellowing syndrome” (Tulloss, pers. comm.). Amanita griseoverrucosa, originally described from China and reported here from India (see below), has a dirty white to greyish pileus, verrucose to conical universal remnants, a white to greyish-white stipe, a ventricose to clavate bulb and relatively smaller spores measuring 8–11 × 5.5–7 μm (Yang 2004) in comparison to A. tullossiana 9–13 × 6–8 μm.

Amanita griseoverrucosa Zhu L. Yang, Bibliotheca Mycologica 170: 155 (1997)

Figs 4a, b, 5a, b

Description

Basidiomata medium-sized to large. Pileus 60–125 mm wide, initially hemispherical then convex to plano-convex, dry, slightly viscid when moist, whitish to greyish-white (1B1) to ash grey (1B2) to grey (1D1); context 6–11 mm thick, white (1A1), thinning evenly towards margin, unchanging when cut or bruised. Universal veil on pileus as felted to subconical to verrucose, brownish-grey (1D3), greyish-brown (5F3) to dark grey (1F1), soft, up to 4 mm thick, 5–8 mm wide, irregularly distributed; margin non-striate, appendiculate; Lamellae free to narrowly adnate, crowded, white (1A1), unchanging, 6–10 mm broad; lamellulae attenuate, plentiful, of several lengths, with 7–8 lamellae per cm at margin. Stipe 45–90 × 12–21 mm (excluding bulb), narrowing upwards, solid, lower part covered by light grey (1D1) fibrillose squamules, upper part covered by white farinose squamules; context white, unchanging on cutting or bruising. Bulb 32–62 × 19–32 mm, ventricose to clavate, white, covered with grey (1D1) to dark grey (1F1), universal veil remnants. Partial veil superior, soft, cottony, white, easily collapsed. Odour indistinct, taste not observed. Spore deposit white.

Basidiospores [80/4/2] (8–) 8.5–10(–11) × (5.5–)6 –6.5 (–7) µm, [L =9.05–9.17 µm, L' = 9.11 µm; W = 5.9–6.5 µm, W' = 6.2 µm; Q = (1.32–)1.42–1.5(–1.69), Q = 1.51–1.54, Q' = 1.53], ellipsoid, hyaline, thin walled, smooth, amyloid, apiculus sublateral, up to 1 µm. Basidia (34–)45–50(–53) × (9.5–)10–12(–14) µm, 2 to 4-spored, thin-walled, colourless, hyaline; sterigmata up to 4 µm long; basal clamp connections not observed in any tissue after extensive search. Lamellae edge sterile; composed of clavate or pyriform inflated cells 35–50 × 22–31 μm, thin walled, colourless, hyaline. Subhymenium 35–40 μm thick, wst-near = 30–40 μm, wst-far = 40–55 μm, basidia arising from subglobose to broadly ellipsoid cells (11–18 × 8–15 μm). Hymenophoral trama bilateral, divergent; wcs = 40–60 μm; well rehydrated, filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 3–8 μm wide; inflated cells ellipsoid to elongated 55–90 × 12–19 μm, diverging at an angle of approximately 40°; vascular hyphae 11–14 μm wide, infrequent. Pileipellis 130–150 μm thick, subradially to densely arranged, filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2–7 μm wide; vascular hyphae 7–10 μm wide, infrequent. Universal veil on pileus disordered; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2–7 μm wide, scattered, branched, thin walled; inflated cells dominantly globose to subglobose 40–70 × 30–65 µm, broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid 40–60 × 10–13 μm, often in chain of 2–3 cells, thin walled, hyaline, often with yellowish-brown vascular pigment. Universal veil on base of stipe disordered; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 3–8 μm wide, scattered, thin walled, branched, with brownish vacuolar pigments; inflated cells dominantly globose to subglobose 30–65 × 26–58 µm, broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid or pyriform 26–55 × 8–13 μm, thin-walled, hyaline, with brownish vacuolar pigment. Partial veil abundant inflated cells clavate to broadly clavate 76–130 × 13–25 µm, thin walled, colourless, hyaline or brownish vacuolar pigments; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 3–5 µm wide. Stipe context longitudinally acrophysalidic, filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 5–7 µm wide; acrophysalides 220–270 × 33–45 µm, filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 4–8 µm wide, hyaline, vascular hyphae not found. Clamp connections not observed in any tissue.

Figure 4. 

Basidiomata of Amanita species. a, b Basidiomata of A. griseoverrucosa in natural habitat (TM 16-1228) c, b Basidiomata of A. virgineoides in natural habitat (TM 14-413).

Figure 5. 

Microscopic features of Amanita species. a, b Amanita griseoverrucosa (TM 16-1247) a Basidiospores b Elements of universal veil from pileus surface c, d Amanita virgineoides (TM 14-413) c Basidiospores d Elements of universal veil from pileus surface.

Habitat and distribution

Solitary to gregarious, with plants of Fagaceae, Pinaceae and Ericaceae (Rhododendron arboretum).

Known distribution

Currently known from China (Yang 2004, 2015) and now India.

Specimens examined

INDIA, Uttarakhand, Pauri district, Phedkhal, at 1900 m a.s.l., 30°09.728'N, 078°51.206'E, 29 July 2016, T. Mehmood, TM 16-1228 (GUH-M-27010); same location, 26 August 2015, T. Mehmood, TM-15-971 (GUH-M-27011), 1910 m a.s.l., 30°09.732'N, 078°51.214'E.

Commentary

Morphologically, the Indian collections of A. griseoverrucosa are characterised by a whitish to greyish-white pileus covered with easily detachable greyish-brown to dark grey, felted to verrucose universal veil remnants, a ventricose to clavate stipe base, broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid basidiospores, universal veil on the pileus with abundant inflated cells and scattered filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae and the absence of clamp connections at bases of basidia. The characteristic features and molecular data from the Indian collections match rather well with the original description of A. griseoverrucosa, reported from China (Yang 2004).

The absence of clamp connections at the bases of basidia, ellipsoid to broadly ellipsoid basidiospores and abundant inflated cells with scattered hyphae in the universal veil placed this species in Amanita [sect. Lepidella subsect. Solitariae] stirps Cinereoconia (Yang 2004). Phylogenetically, both Indian (TM 16-1228) and Chinese (HKAS 38459) collections of A. griseoverrucosa are closely related to A. cinereoconia and A. tullossiana (Fig. 1). Amanita cinereoconia has a white to greyish pileus covered with pulverulent to small warted universal veil remnants and elongate to cylindric basidiospores 8.5–11.5 × 5–6.5 µm (Bas 1969, Jenkins 1986). Amanita griseoverrucosa is also distinguished from Amanita tullossiana (see above).

Amanita virgineoides Bas, Persoonia 5: 435 (1969)

Figs 4c, d, 5c, d

Description

Basidiomata medium-sized to large. Pileus 50–140 mm wide, white to slightly yellowish-white (1A2) with age, ovoid at first, hemispherical when expanding, later convex to plano-convex to flat; slightly depressed, dry, shiny, densely covered with conical to subconcal warts; margin appendiculate, incurved; context 8–13 mm thick, thinning evenly towards margin, white, turning yellowish-white (1A2) when cut or bruised. Universal veil on pileus as conical, subconic to pyramidal warts, 5–10 mm thick, white, easily detachable when touched, sometimes washed away by rains, turning slightly yellowish-white (1A2) with age. Lamellae 12–15 mm thick, free, white (17A1) crowded, with 8–9 lamellae per cm at margin; lamellulae attenuate, of 4–5 lengths, plentiful, white to cream. Stipe 75–140 × 26–22 mm (excluding bulb), white (16A1), slightly tapering upwards, the upper part covered by flocculent squamules, the lower part covered by irregularly arranged, conical to sub-conical warts; context white, solid, turning light yellowish (1A3) when cut or bruised. Bulb 23–29 × 23–30 mm, subglobose, ovoid to napiform, white, slightly yellowish-white with age. Universal veil on stipe base as white conical to subconical warts. Partial veil superior, white, submembranous, thick, covered with white conical warts, fragile, easily detachable when touched. Odour unpleasant. Taste not recorded. Spore print white.

Basidiospores [180/9/4] (7.5–)8–10.5(–11) × (5.5–)5.8–7.5 µm, [L = 8–10 µm, L' = 9.05 µm; W = 6.0–6.7 µm, W' = 6.45 µm; Q = (1.22–)1.33–1.55(–1.66), Q = 1.33–1.46, Q' = 1.41], colourless, hyaline, thin walled, smooth, amyloid, broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid; apiculus lateral to sublateral, up to 1 µm long; contents monoguttulate. Basidia (42–)48–51(–58) × (10–)11–12(–12.5) µm, 2 to 4-spored, thin-walled, colourless, hyaline; sterigmata up to 4 µm long; basal septa often clamped. Lamellar edge tissue sterile, with inflated cells; subglobose to pyriform 15–25 × 8–15) μm, thin walled, colourless, hyaline, clamps present. Subhymenium 30 µm thick, wst-near = 28–45 μm, wst-far= 35–50 μm, ramose, with inflated; ovoid to ellipsoid cells 12–18 × 8–14 μm; clamp present. Hymenophoral trama, bilateral, divergent; wcs= 40–65 μm; lateral stratum comprising of inflated intercalary segment 30–65 × 8–20 μm, common; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 3–9 μm wide, thin-walled, colourless, hyaline, vascular hyphae rare; clamp present. Pileipellis hardly differentiated; filamentous hyphae 2–7 μm wide, interwoven, non-gelatinised, thin walled, colourless, hyaline. Universal veil on the pileus with elements anticlinally arranged; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 4–8 μm wide, abundant, branched, colourless, hyaline; inflated cells dominantly subglobose to pyriform 16–46 × 14–32 μm, broadly ellipsoid to fusiform 30–66 × 10–21 μm; clamp present. Universal veil on the stipe base with elements anticlinally arranged; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 4–7 µm wide, scattered to abundant, colourless, thin walled, hyaline; inflated cells dominantly globose to subglobose 20–50 × 18– 48 µm, broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid 45–65 × 15–20 µm, thin walled, hyaline, colourless, clamps present. Partial veil abundant inflated cells subglobose to ellipsoid 15–36 × 12–28 μm, thin walled, colourless, hyaline; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 3–8 µm wide, dominant, colourless, thin walled, clamps present. Stipe context longitudinally acrophysalidic; filamentous hyphae 2–13 μm wide, acrophysalides measuring 120 –181 × 20–30 μm, dominant, colourless, thin walled, hyaline, clamps present. Clamp connections common.

Macrochemical tests on fresh basidiomata

Chemical reactions on pileus surface: 10% NH4OH - pinkish, 5% KOH - negative, 2% phenol - negative; and FeSO4 crystals - negative on pileus and stipe context.

Habitat and distribution

Solitary to subgregarious in temperate mixed forest dominated by Quercus leucotrichophora and Cedrus deodara at 1850–2050 m a.s.l.

Known distribution: This species was originally described from Japan. It has also been reported from China (Yang 1997), South Korea (Kim et al. 1993), Thailand (Sanmee et al. 2008) and now India.

Specimens examined

INDIA, Uttarakhand, Pauri district, Phedkhal, 24 August 2014, T. Mehmood, TM 14-413 (RET 717-9); same location, 12 August 2015, T. Mehmood, TM 15-917 (GUH-M-27012); same location, 16 July 2016, T. Mehmood, TM 16-1098 (GUH-M-27013); same location, 24 July 2017, T. Mehmood, TM 17-1468 (GUH-M-27014).

Commentary

An Indian collection (RET 717-9) is grouped phylogenetically with Chinese material of A. virgineoides (HKAS 79691, GenBank nrLSU: KJ466495 and HKAS 77278, GenBank nrLSU: KC429043), with pairwise genetic divergence between their nrLSU sequences = 0.35% (might be intragenomic heterogeneity present amongst collections as the sequence was not clean). It is worth mentioning that there is no genetic distance between rpb2 sequences derived from the Chinese (HKAS 79691, GenBank rpb2: KJ466663) and Indian (RET 717-9) collections. The evidence suggests that the two collections could be conspecific and exhibiting a minor intra-specific variability. In addition, the sample size is also small. For these reasons, we do not feel justified in erecting a new species or subspecies. Interestingly, another Chinese collection (HKAS 18394), labelled as A. virgineoides (GenBank nrLSU: AF024484, Weiß et al. 1998), is also grouped with the Indian collection, but the sequence derived from this collection is divergent from the two previously cited collections (Fig. 1). However, the habit and size of the basidiomata and basidiospores of the Indian collections match well with those characters in the descriptions of A. virgineoides provided by Bas (1969) and Yang (1997, 2015). Therefore, the Indian collection (RET 717-9) is being treated here as A. virgineoides – a new record for India.

Amanita virgineoides belongs to Amanita [sect. Lepidella subsect. Solitariae] stirps Virgineoides because of the presence of conical to subconical warts on the pileus surface which consist of inflated cells rather abundant hyphae, the presence of clamp connections at the bases of basidia and the broadly ellipsoid basidiospores (Bas 1969, Yang 1997). In stirps Virgineoides, A. gracilior Bas & Honrubia and A. miculifera Bas & Hatanaka resemble A. virgineoides morphologically. Amanita gracilior, originally described from Spain, has a white pileus turning yellowish-brown with age, a rooting base and elongate basidiospores 10–11.5 × 5.5–6.5 µm, with a higher Q' value = 1.8 (Bas 1969). Amanita miculifera, originally described from Japan, has a pearl grey pileus and a stipe with a notably radicating basal bulb (Bas and Hatanaka 1984, Yang 1997). The white basidiomata of A. virgineoides also resembles the basidiomata of other of Bas’ stirpes. In creating these stirpes, Bas morphologically segregated these taxa from A. virgineoides (Bas 1969).

Acknowledgements

The authors are very grateful to Dr. Rodham E. Tulloss (USA) for his providing valuable comments on versions of this manuscript and his giving consent to propose the new species name in his honour; and to the Head, Department of Botany and Microbiology, H.N.B Garhwal University (Srinagar, Garhwal, India) for providing many facilities during the present study. The second author (TM) acknowledges the University Grants Commission (UGC, India) for providing a PhD fellowship. The third author (KD) is thankful to the Director, Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata for supporting this study. Field assistance rendered by Miss Priyanka Uniyal, Mr. Upendra Singh, Mr. Aniket Ghosh and Mr. M.E. Hembrom are also acknowledged. This study was partially supported by the NSFC Research Fund for International Young Scientists (No. 31750110476) and 11th Special Fund of the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2018T110854) to the first author (MIH) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31470155).

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