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Research Article
Eight new Arthrinium species from China
expand article infoMei Wang§, Xiao-Ming Tan|, Fang Liu, Lei Cai§
‡ Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
§ University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
| Gannan Normal University, Ganzhou, China
Open Access

Abstract

The genus Arthrinium includes important plant pathogens, endophytes and saprobes with a wide host range and geographic distribution. In this paper, 74 Arthrinium strains isolated from various substrates such as bamboo leaves, tea plants, soil and air from karst caves in China were examined using a multi-locus phylogeny based on a combined dataset of ITS rDNA, TEF1 and TUB2, in conjunction with morphological characters, host association and ecological distribution. Eight new species were described based on their distinct phylogenetic relationships and morphological characters. Our results indicated a high species diversity of Arthrinium with wide host ranges, amongst which, Poaceae and Cyperaceae were the major host plant families of Arthrinium species.

Keywords

Ascomycota, Morphology, Phylogeny, Systematics, Taxonomy

Introduction

Arthrinium Kunze is an anamorph-typified genus, which has been traditionally linked to the teleomorph-typified genus Apiospora Sacc. (Ellis 1971, Seifert et al. 2011). It is strikingly different from other anamorphic genera for the presence of basauxic conidiophores (Hughes 1953, Minter 1985). The traditional generic circumscription of Arthrinium was primarily based on morphological characters (e.g. conidial shape, conidiophores, sterile cells and the presence of setae) but has been regarded as too narrow (Ellis 1971, Minter 1985, Crous et al. 2013). It is now recognised that, at the generic level, conidial shape and the presence of setae are not reliable characters to infer phylogenetic relationships (Crous et al. 2013). For example, Arthrinium was regarded as being different from Cordella Speg. (1886) by the absence of setae amongst the clusters of specialised hyphae and different from Pteroconium Sacc. (1892) by the absence of sporodochia and pseudoparenchyma (Minter 1985). However, both genera have been reduced to the generic synonyms of Arthrinium, based on molecular phylogenetic data (Crous et al. 2013).

Arthrinium species are geographically widely distributed in various hosts. Many species of Arthrinium are associated with plants as endophytes or saprobes, as well as plant pathogens on some important ornamentals, e.g. A. phaeospermum causing culm rot on Phyllostachys viridis (Li et al. 2016); A. arundinis causing brown culm streak of Phyllostachys praecox (Chen et al. 2014). Moreover, A. phaeospermum has been reported for causing cutaneous infections of humans (Rai 1989, Zhao et al. 1990, de Hoog et al. 2000, Crous et al. 2013). Many Arthrinium species are also known to produce bioactive compounds with pharmacological and medicinal applications, such as A. arundinis and A. saccharicola isolated from a brown alga Sargassum sp., with good antifungal activities against some plant pathogenic fungi (Hong et al. 2015). Arthrinium saccharicola, A. sacchari and A. phaeospermum isolated from Miscanthus sp. are known to produce industrially important enzymes (Shrestha et al. 2015).

In this paper, eight new Arthrinium species are described and characterised based on morphological characters and phylogeny inferred from the combined ITS rDNA, TEF1 and TUB2 sequences dataset. Comparisons were made with morphologically similar and phylogenetically related species. Fungus-host distribution of Arthrinium species are summarised based on data from literature and this study.

Materials and method

Isolates

Diseased and healthy tissues of bamboo leaves and other plant hosts were collected from six provinces or municipalities in China (Chongqing, Guangxi, Guangdong, Guizhou, Jiangxi, Hunan). Tissue pieces (5 mm × 5 mm) were taken from the margin of leaf lesions and the surface sterilised with 75% ethanol for 1 min, 5% NaClO for 30 s, followed by rinsing in sterile distilled water for 1 min. The pieces were dried with sterilised paper towels and then placed on 1/4 PDA (potato dextrose agar) (Cai et al. 2009).

All cultures were preserved in the LC culture collection (personal culture collection of Lei Cai housed in the Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences). Type specimens were deposited in Mycological Herbarium of the Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China (HMAS), with ex-type living cultures deposited in China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center (CGMCC). Taxonomic information of the new taxa was deposited in MycoBank (www.MycoBank.org; Crous et al. 2004).

Morphology

Cultures were incubated on PDA for 7 d at 25 °C to measure the growth rates and on 2% malt agar with bamboo leaves to enhance sporulation. Morphological descriptions were based on cultures sporulating on MEA (malt extract agar) medium at room temperature (ca. 25 °C). Shape and size of microscopic structures were observed using a light microscope and colonies were assessed according to the colour charts of Rayner (1970). At least 50 conidiogenous cells and conidia were measured to calculate the mean size.

DNA extraction, PCR amplification and sequencing

Fresh fungal mycelia were taken from 7-d-old cultures growing on PDA and ground with the organisation disruptor FastPrep-48. Genomic DNA was extracted following the modified CTAB protocol as described in Guo et al. (2000).

Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using partial sequences of three loci, 5.8S nuclear ribosomal gene with the two flanking transcribed spacers (ITS), part of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1) and beta-tubulin (TUB2). The ITS locus was amplified using the primer pair ITS1/ITS4 (Vilgalys and Hester 1990, White et al. 1990); TEF1 using EF1-728F/ EF-2 (O’Donnell et al. 1998, Carbone and Kohn 1999); and TUB2 using T1 (O’Donnell and Cigelnik 1997) and Bt-2b (Glass and Donaldson 1995).

PCR was performed in a 25 ml reaction containing 18.95 µl double distilled water, 2.5 µl 10 × PCR buffer, 0.3 µl dNTP mix (2.5 mM), 1 µl of each primer (10 mM), 1 µl DNA template and 0.25 µl Taq DNA polymerase (Genstar). The annealing temperatures were adjusted to 52 °C for ITS and TUB2, and 56 °C for TEF1. Purification and sequencing of the PCR amplicons were done by SinoGenoMax, Beijing.

Phylogenetic analysis

Sequences generated from the forward and reverse primers were used to obtain consensus sequences using MEGA v. 6.0 (Tamura et al. 2013). The concatenated tree was inferred based ITS, TUB2 and TEF1 sequences (Figure 1) using Bayesian and Maximum-likelihood analyses. Sequences were aligned using an online version of MAFFT v. 7 (available at http://mafft.cbrc.jp/alignment/server/). Ambiguous regions were excluded from the analyses and gaps were treated as missing data. Maximum-likelihood (ML) analysis was performed in RAxML v. 7.2.6 (Stamatakis and Alachiotis 2010), employing GTR models of evolution settings of the programme and bootstrap support obtained by running 1000 pseudo replicates. Maximum Likelihood bootstrap values (ML) equal to or greater than 70% are given above each node.

Bayesian analysis was conducted using MrBayes v. 3.2.1 (Ronquist et al. 2012) and the best nucleotide substitution model for each locus was calculated with jModelTest v. 2.1.4 (Posada 2008). Posterior probabilities (PP) (Zhaxybayeva and Gogarten 2002) were determined by Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling (MCMC) under the estimated model of evolution. Four simultaneous Markov chains were run for 10 million generations and trees were sampled every 1000 generations. The run was stopped automatically when the average standard deviation of split frequencies fell below 0.01. The first 25% trees, which represented the burn-in phase of the analyses, were discarded and the remaining trees were used for calculating PP in the majority rule consensus tree. Sequences generated in this study were deposited in GenBank (Table 1) and the final matrices used for the phylogenetic analyses in TreeBASE (www.treebase.org; accession number: 21341).

Figure 1. 

Phylogenetic tree based on the combined ITS, TEF1 and TUB2 sequences alignment generated from a Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis. Bootstrap support values (>70%) and posterior probabilities (>0.9) are given at the nodes (ML/PP). The tree is rooted with Nigrospora gorlenkoana CBS 480.73. The novel species were highlighted (* indicates the ex-type cultures).

Strains included in the phylogenetic analyses.

Speices Strain numbers1 Hosts Countries GenBank accessions
ITS TUB TEF
Arthirinium arundinis CBS 114316 Leaf of Hordeum vulgare Iran KF144884 KF144974 KF145016
CBS 124788 Living leaves of Fagus sylvatica Switzerland KF144885 KF144975 KF145017
LC4477 Unknow host China KY494688 KY705159 KY705087
LC4493 Phyllostachys sp. China KY494689 KY806202 KY705088
LC4650 Osmanthus sp. China KY494695 KY705165 KY705094
LC4951 Dichotomanthus tristaniaecarpa China KY494698 KY705168 KY705097
LC4959 Bothrocaryum controversum China KY494699 KY705169 KY705098
LC5311 Air in karst cave China KY494706 KY705175 KY705105
LC5312 Air in karst cave China KY494707 KY705176 KY705106
LC5332 Air in karst cave China KY494710 KY705179 KY705109
LC5394 Soil in karst cave China KY494711 KY705180 KY705110
LC5416 Water in karst cave China KY494712 KY705181 KY705111
LC7118 Leaf of bamboo China KY494723 KY705191 KY705120
LC7122 Leaf of bamboo China KY494726 KY705194 KY705123
LC7160 Leaf of bamboo China KY494738 KY705206 KY705134
LC7211 Leaf of bamboo China KY494739 KY705207 KY705135
LC7216 Leaf of bamboo China KY494741 KY705209 KY705137
LC7218 Leaf of bamboo China KY494742 KY705210 KY705138
LC7243 Leaf of bamboo China KY494744 KY705212 KY705140
LC7252 Leaf of bamboo China KY494747 KY705215 KY705143
LC7277 Leaf of bamboo China KY494750 KY705218 KY705146
A. aureum CBS 244.83* Air Spain AB220251 KF144981 KF145023
A. bambusae LC7106* = CGMCC 3.18335 Leaf of bamboo China KY494718 KY705186 KY806204
LC7107 Leaf of bamboo China KY494719 KY705187 KY705117
LC7113 Leaf of bamboo China KY494720 KY705188 KY806205
LC7124 Leaf of bamboo China KY494727 KY705195 KY806206
LC7125 Leaf of bamboo China KY494728 KY705196 KY705124
LC7128 Leaf of bamboo China KY494730 KY705198 KY705126
LC7246 Leaf of bamboo China KY494745 KY705213 KY705141
A. camelliae-sinensis LC5007* = CGMCC 3.18333 Camellia sinensis China KY494704 KY705173 KY705103
LC8181 Brassica capestris China KY494761 KY705229 KY705157
A. dichotomanthi LC4950* = CGMCC 3.18332 Dichotomanthus tristaniaecarpa China KY494697 KY705167 KY705096
LC8175 Dichotomanthus tristaniaecarpa China KY494755 KY705223 KY705151
LC8176 Dichotomanthus tristaniaecarpa China KY494756 KY705224 KY705152
A. euphorbiae IMI 285638b Bambusa sp. Bangladesh AB220241 AB220288
A. guizhouense LC5318 Air in karst cave China KY494708 KY705177 KY705107
LC5322* =CGMCC3.18334 Air in karst cave China KY494709 KY705178 KY705108
A. gutiae CBS 135835 Gut of a grasshopper India KR011352 KR011350 KR011351
A. hispanicum IMI 326877* Maritime sand Spain AB220242 AB220289
A. hydei CBS 114990* Culms of Bambusa tuldoides Hong Kong KF144890 KF144982 KF145024
LC7103 Leaf of bamboo China KY494715 KY705183 KY705114
LC7105 Leaf of bamboo China KY494717 KY705185 KY705116
A. hyphopodii MFLUCC 15-0003* Culms of Bambusa tuldoides Thailand KR069110
A. japonicum IFO 30500 Carex despalata (dead leaf) Japan AB220262 AB220309
IFO 31098 Carex despalata (leaf) Japan AB220264 AB220311
A. garethjonesii KUMCC 16-0202 Dead culms of bamboo China KY356086
A. jatrophae MMI 00052* = MCC 1014 Healthy petiole of Jatropha podagrica India JQ246355
A. jiangxiense LC2831 Leaf of bamboo China KY494686 KY80620106201 KY705085
LC4494 Phyllostachys sp. China KY494690 KY705160 KY705089
LC4541 Maesa sp. China KY494691 KY705161 KY705090
LC4547 Machilus sp. China KY494692 KY705162 KY705091
LC4577* = CGMCC 3.18381 Maesa sp. China KY494693 KY705163 KY705092
LC4578 Camellia sinensis China KY494694 KY705164 KY705093
LC4993 Phyllostachys sp. China KY494700 KY806203 KY705099
LC4997 Phyllostachys sp. China KY494701 KY705170 KY705100
LC5001 Phyllostachys sp. China KY494702 KY705171 KY705101
LC5004 Phyllostachys sp. China KY494703 KY705172 KY705102
LC5015 Imperata cylindrica China KY494705 KY705174 KY705104
A. jiangxiense LC7104 Leaf of bamboo China KY494716 KY705184 KY705115
LC7154 Leaf of bamboo China KY494736 KY705204 KY705132
LC7156 Leaf of bamboo China KY494737 KY705205 KY705133
LC7275 Leaf of bamboo China KY494749 KY705217 KY705145
A. kogelbergense CBS 113333* Dead culms of Restionaceae South Africa KF144892 KF144984 KF145026
A. longistromum MFLUCC 11-0481* Decaying bamboo culms Thailand KU940141
MFLUCC 11-0479 Decaying bamboo culms Thailand KU940142
A. malaysianum CBS 102053* Macaranga hullettii stem colonised by ants Malaysia KF144896 KF144988 KF145030
A. marii CBS 497.90* Air Spain AB220252 KF144993 KF145035
A. mediterranei IMI 326875* Air Spain AB220243 AB220290
A. mytilomorphum DAOM 214595* Dead blades of Andropogon sp. India KY494685
A. neosubglobosa JHB006 Dead culms of bamboo China KY356089
KUMCC 16-0203 Dead culms of bamboo China KY356090
A. obovatum LC4940* = CGMCC 3.18331 Lithocarpus sp. China KY494696 KY705166 KY705095
LC8177 Lithocarpus sp. China KY494757 KY705225 KY705153
LC8178 Lithocarpus sp. China KY494758 KY705226 KY705154
A. ovatum CBS 115042* Arundinaria hindsii Hong Kong KF144903 KF144995 KF145037
A. paraphaeospermum MFLU 16-1974 Dead clumps of Bambusa sp. Thailand KX822128
A. phaeospermum CBS 114314 Leaf of Hordeum vulgare Iran KF144904 KF144996 KF145038
CBS 114315 Leaf of Hordeum vulgare Iran KF144905 KF144997 KF145039
CBS 114317 Leaf of Hordeum vulgare Iran KF144906 KF144998 KF145040
CBS 114318 Leaf of Hordeum vulgare Iran KF144907 KF144999 KF145041
A. phragmites CPC18900* Culms of Phragmites australis Italy KF144909 KF145001 KF145043
A. pseudoparenchymaticum LC7234* = CGMCC 3.18336 Leaf of bamboo China KY494743 KY705211 KY705139
LC8173 Leaf of bamboo China KY494753 KY705221 KY705149
LC8174 Leaf of bamboo China KY494754 KY705222 KY705150
A. pseudosinense CPC 21546* Leaf of bamboo The Netherlands KF144910 KF145044
A. pseudospegazzinii CBS 102052* Macaranga hullettii stem colonised by ants Malaysia KF144911 KF145002 KF145045
A. pterospermum CPC 20193* Leaf lesion of Machaerina sinclairii Australia KF144913 KF145004 KF145046
A. puccinioides CBS 549.86 Leaf of Lepidosperma gladiatum Germany AB220253 AB220300
A. rasikravindrii CBS 337.61 Cissus sp. The Netherlands KF144914
CPC 21602 Rice Thailand KF144915
MFLUCC 15-0203 Dead bamboo culms Thailand KU940143
MFLUCC 11-0616 Dead bamboo culms Thailand KU940144
NFCCI 2144* Soil Svalbard JF326454
LC5449 Soil in karst cave China KY494713 KY705182 KY705112
LC7115 Leaf of bamboo China KY494721 KY705189 KY705118
LC7117 Leaf of bamboo China KY494722 KY705190 KY705119
LC7119 Leaf of bamboo China KY494724 KY705192 KY705121
LC7120 Leaf of bamboo China KY494725 KY705193 KY705122
LC7126 Leaf of bamboo China KY494729 KY705197 KY705125
LC7129 Leaf of bamboo China KY494731 KY705199 KY705127
LC7135 Leaf of bamboo China KY494732 KY705200 KY705128
LC7139 Leaf of bamboo China KY494733 KY705201 KY705129
LC7141 Leaf of bamboo China KY494734 KY705202 KY705130
LC7142 Leaf of bamboo China KY494735 KY705203 KY705131
LC7251 Leaf of bamboo China KY494746 KY705214 KY705142
LC7254 Leaf of bamboo China KY494748 KY705216 KY705144
LC8179 Brassica capestris China KY494759 KY705227 KY705155
LC8180 Brassica capestris China KY494760 KY705228 KY705156
A. sacchari CBS 212.30 Phragmites australis United Kingdom KF144916 KF145005 KF145047
CBS 301.49 Bamboo Indonesia KF144917 KF145006 KF145048
A. saccharicola CBS 191.73 Air The Netherlands KF144920 KF145009 KF145051
CBS 334.86 Dead culms of Phragmites australis France AB220257 KF145010 KF145052
CBS 463.83 Dead culms of Phragmites australis The Netherlands KF144921 KF145011 KF145053
A. serenense IMI 326869* Food, pharmaceutical excipients, atmosphere and home dust Spain AB220250 AB220297
A. subglobosum MFLUCC 11-0397* Dead bamboo culms Thailand KR069112
A. subroseum LC7215 Leaf of bamboo China KY494740 KY705208 KY705136
LC7291 Leaf of bamboo China KY494751 KY705219 KY705147
LC7292* =CGMCC3.18337 Leaf of bamboo China KY494752 KY705220 KY705148
A. thailandicum MFLUCC 15-0202* Dead bamboo culms Thailand KU940145
LC5630 Rotten wood China KY494714 KY806200 KY705113
A. xenocordella CBS 478.86* Soil from roadway Zimbabwe KF144925 KF145013 KF145055
LC3486 Camellia sinensis China KY494687 KY705158 KY705086
A. yunnanum MFLUCC 15-0002* Decaying bamboo culms China KU940147
N. gorlenkoana CBS 480.73 Vitis vinifera Kazakhstan KX986048 KY019456 KY019420

Fungus-host distribution of Arthrinium species

To determine the distribution of Arthrinium species on host/substrate, the number of species occurred on each host (based on family level) was counted based on data from this study, relevant literature and the USDA fungal database (https://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/). The proportion account for the known 66 species in Arthrinium (Index Fungorum) was illustrated in a histogram. Four species with an unknown host range were not included in this analysis.

Results

Phylogeny

The combined ITS, TUB2 and TEF1 dataset contained 75 strains, with Nigrospora gorlenkoana CBS 480.73 as the out group. For the Bayesian analyses, the best-fit models TrN+I+G, GTR+I+G, HKY+I+G were selected for ITS, TUB2 and TEF1 loci, respectively. The ML analysis showed the same tree topology as that obtained in the Bayesian analysis. All the Arthrinium strains in this study separated into 13 clades, representing five known (A. arundinis, A. hydei, A. rasikravindrii, A. thailandicum, A. xenocordella) and eight new species (Figure 1). The eight new species clustered in distinct clades with high bootstrap supports (Figure 1). Phylogenetic analyses based on an individual locus were also conducted (not shown) and the generated trees are similar to the one generated from the combined multi-locus dataset (Figure 1).

Host associated with Arthrinium species

The histogram in Figure 2 shows that Arthrinium species were widely distributed amongst 17 plant families, including Brassicaceae, Bromeliaceae, Cornaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fagaceae, Juncaceae, Lauraceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Pinaceae, Poaceae, Restionaceae, Rosaceae, Tiliaceae, Urticaceae and Vitaceae. Arthrinium species were also isolated from air, dust, soil and sand. The proportion of species occurring on each host family was assessed (Figure 2). Poaceae and Cyperaceae were the major host families for Arthrinium, which accounted for 42.42% and 24.24% of species in Arthrinium respectively.

Figure 2. 

A Histogram to show fungus-host distribution of Arthrinium species.

Taxonomy

Arthrinium bambusae M. Wang & L. Cai, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: 824906
Figure 3

Type

CHINA, Guangdong Province, on bamboo leaves, 10 Jul. 2016, D.W. Xiao, (holotype: HMAS 247187; culture ex-type: CGMCC 3.18335 = LC7106).

Etymology

Named after the host of the holotype.

Description

Hyphae hyaline, branched, septate, 1.5–5.0 μm diam. Conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells erect, aggregated in clusters on hyphae, hyaline to pale brown, smooth, doliiform to ampulliform, or lageniform, 4.0–12.0 × 3.0–7.0 μm ( = 6.6 ± 1.8 × 4.8 ± 0.9, n = 30). Conidia olivaceous to brown, smooth to finely roughened, subglobose to ellipsoid, 11.5–15.5 × 7.0–14.0 μm ( = 13.2 ± 0.8 × 11.4 ± 1.2, n = 50).

Culture characteristics

On PDA, colonies flat, spreading, margin circular, with abundant aerial mycelia, surface and reverse white to grey. On MEA, colonies flat, spreading, surface and reverse brown to black.

Additional specimens examined

CHINA, Jiangxi Province, on bamboo leaves, 10 Jul. 2016, Q. Xiong, living culture LC7246; Guangdong Province, on bamboo leaves, 10 Jul. 2016, D.W. Xiao, living culture LC7107; ibid. living culture LC7113; ibid. living culture LC7124; ibid. living culture LC7125; ibid. living culture LC7128.

Notes

Seven strains representing A. bambusae clustered in a well-supported clade closely related to A. subroseum (98% sequence similarity in ITS; 92% in TUB2; 96% in TEF1). Arthrinium bambusae differs from A. subroseum in the morphology of conidiophore (reduced to conidiogenous cells in A. bambusae vs. erect or ascending, clustered in groups in A. subroseum). Moreover, A. bambusae does not produce pigment on the PDA.

Figure 3. 

Arthrinium bambusae (from ex-holotype strain CGMCC 3.18335) A–B 7 d old cultures on PDA C Colony on MEA producing conidia masses D–F Conidiogenous cells giving rise to conidia G Conidia. Scale bars = 10 μm.

Arthrinium camelliae-sinensis M. Wang, F. Liu & L. Cai, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: 824907
Figure 4

Type

CHINA, Jiangxi Province, on Camellia sinensis, 22 Apr. 2013, Q. Chen, (holotype: HMAS 247186; culture ex-type: CGMCC 3.18333 = LC5007).

Etymology

Named with the host plant of the type.

Description

Hyphae hyaline, branched, septate, 2.0–4.5 μm diam. Conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells erect, aggregated in clusters, hyaline to pale brown, smooth, doliiform to ampulliform, 4.0–9.5 × 3.0–6.0 μm ( = 6.1 ± 1.4 × 4.4 ± 0.9, n = 30). Conidia brown to dark brown, smooth, globose to subglobose, 9.0–13.5 × 7.0–12.0 μm ( = 11.1 ± 0.9 × 10.1 ± 1.0, n = 50).

Culture characteristics

On PDA, colonies flat, margin circular, initially white, becoming greyish on surface, reaching 9 cm in 7 days at 25 °C. On MEA, with sparse aerial mycelia, surface dirty white, reverse pale luteous.

Other specimens

CHINA, Hubei Province, on Brassica campestris, 31 Mar. 2016, Y.Z. Zhao, living culture LC8181 = LF1498.

Notes

Two strains representing A. camelliae-sinensis clustered in a well-supported clade and appeared closely related to A. jiangxiense (97% sequence similarity in ITS; 94% in TUB2; 94% in TEF1) and A. obovatum (98% sequence similarity in ITS; 95% in TUB2; 93% in TEF1). While A. camelliae-sinensis is distinct from A. jiangxiense in its larger conidia (globose or subglobose, 9.0–13.5 × 7.0–12.0 μm in A. camelliae-sinensis vs. surface view 7.5–10.0 μm diam, side view 4.5–7.0 μm diam in A. jiangxiense) and conidiogenous cell arrangement (aggregated irregularly on hyphae vs. scattered on hyphae in A. jiangxiense) and distinct from A. obovatum in the lack of obovoid conidia (see the note under A. obovatum).

Figure 4. 

Arthrinium camelliae-sinensis (from ex-holotype strain CGMCC 3.18333) A–B 7 d old cultures on PDA C Colony on MEA with bamboo leaves producing conidia masses D–F Conidiogenous cells giving rise to conidia G Conidia. Scale bars = 10 μm.

Arthrinium dichotomanthi M. Wang & L. Cai, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: 824908
Figure 5

Type

CHINA, Chongqing, on Dichotomanthus tristaniaecarpa, 20 Dec. 2012, L. Cai, (holotype: HMAS 247185; culture ex-type: CGMCC 3.18332 = LC4950).

Etymology

Named after the host from which it was isolated.

Description

Hyphae hyaline, branched, septate, 1.5–5.0 μm diam. Conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells erect, aggregated in clusters on hyphae, hyaline to pale brown, smooth, doliiform to clavate or lageniform, 5.5–11.0 × 3.0–5.0 μm ( = 7.9 ± 1.4 × 4.0 ± 0.5, n = 30). Conidia brown to dark brown, smooth to finely roughened, globose, subglobose to lenticular, with a longitudinal germ slit, 9.0–15.0 × 6.0–12.0 μm ( = 12.0 ± 1.4 × 8.5 ± 1.1, n = 50).

Culture characteristics

On PDA, colonies umbonate, margin irregular, with sparse aerial mycelia. Colonies creamy-white to greyish without patches reverse, reaching 9 cm in 7 days at 25 °C. On MEA, colonies flat, spreading, surface and reverse pale luteous.

Other specimens

CHINA, Chongqing, on Dichotomanthus tristaniaecarpa, 20 Dec. 2012, L. Cai, living culture LC8175 = WM529; ibid. living culture LC8176 = WM 530.

Notes

Three strains representing A. dichotomanthi formed a distinct clade closely related to A. phaeospermum (Corda) M.B. Ellis (99% sequence similarity in ITS; 96% in TUB2; 96% in TEF1), A. serenense Larrondo & Calvo (99% sequence similarity in ITS; 95% in TUB2) and A. saccharicola F. Stevens (99% sequence similarity in ITS; 95% in TUB2; 97% in TEF1). Arthrinium dichotomanthi differs from A. phaeospermum and A. saccharicola in its larger conidia (globose or subglobose, 9.0–15.0 × 6.0–12.0 μm in A. dichotomanthi vs. surface view (9–)10(–12) μm diam, side view 6–7 μm diam in A. phaeospermum, surface view (7–)8–9(–10) μm diam, side view (4–)5(–6) μm diam in A. saccharicola) and from A. serenense by the absence of odour on the MEA colony (Larrondo 1990).

Figure 5. 

Arthrinium dichotomanthi (from ex-holotype strain CGMCC 3.18332) A–B 7 d old cultures on PDA C Colony on MEA producing conidia masses D–F Conidiogenous cells giving rise to conidia G Conidia. Scale bars = 10 μm.

Arthrinium guizhouense M. Wang & L. Cai, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: 824909
Figure 6

Type

CHINA, Guizhou Province, from the air in karst cave, 23 Jul. 2014, Z.F. Zhang, (holotype: HMAS 247188; culture ex-type: CGMCC 3.18334 = LC5322).

Etymology

Named after the province where type was collected, Guizhou province.

Description

Hyphae hyaline, branched, septate, 1.5–5.0 μm diam. Conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells erect, aggregated in clusters on hyphae, pale brown, smooth, subglobose, ampulliform or doliiform, 3.5–8.0 × 3.0 – 4.5 μm ( =5.1 ± 1.08 × 3.7 ± 0.49, n = 30). Conidia dark brown to black, smooth to finely roughened, globose or subglobose, occasionally elongated to ellipsoidal, with a longitudinal, hyaline, thin, germ slit, 5.0–7.5 × 4.0–7.0 μm ( = 6.1 ± 0.5 × 5.5 ± 0.6, n = 50).

Culture characteristics

On PDA, colonies flat, woolly, margin circular, with moderate aerial mycelia, surface initially white, becoming greyish and reverse with black patches, reaching 9 cm in 9 days at 25 °C. On MEA, surface dirty white with patches of olivaceous-grey and reverse greyish.

Other specimens examined

CHINA, Guizhou Province, from the air in karst cave, 23 Jul. 2014, Z.F. Zhang, living culture LC5318.

Notes

Arthrinium guizhouense is closely related to A. sacchari (Speg.) M.B. Ellis (99% sequence similarity in ITS; 99% in TUB2; 94% in TEF1). Morphologically, A. guizhouense and A. sacchari are very similar in conidial size, but A. guizhouensis produces relatively shorter conidiogenous cells (3.5–8.0 μm in A. guizhouense vs. 5–12 μm in A. sacchari).

Figure 6. 

Arthrinium guizhouense (from ex-holotype strain CGMCC 3.18334) A–B 6 d old cultures on PDA C Colony on MEA producing conidia masses D–H Conidiogenous cells giving rise to conidia I Conidia. Scale bars = 10 μm.

Arthrinium jiangxiense M. Wang & L. Cai, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: 824910
Figure 7

Type

CHINA, Jiangxi Province, on Maesa sp., 05 Sept. 2013, Y.H. Gao, (holotype: HMAS 247183; culture ex-type: CGMCC3.18381 = LC4577).

Etymology

Named after the province where the most strains of this species were collected, Jiangxi.

Description

Hyphae hyaline, branched, septate, 1.5–5.0 μm diam. Conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells erect, scattered or aggregated in clusters on hyphae, hyaline to pale brown, smooth, ampulliform, 6.0–15.0 × 2.5–5.0 μm ( = 9.7 ± 2.6 × 3.7 ± 0.6, n = 30), apical neck 2.5–6.0 μm long, basal part 3.0–9.0 μm long. Conidia brown, smooth to finely roughened, granular, globose to ellipsoid in surface view, 7.5–10.0 μm diam ( = 8.7 ± 0.6, n = 50), lenticular in side view, with longitudinal, pale germ slit, 4.5–7.0 μm diam ( = 5.8 ± 0.6, n = 50). Sterile cells forming on solitary loci on hyphae, brown, finely roughened, subcylindrical to clavate.

Culture characteristics

On PDA, colonies flat, woolly, margin circular, with sparse aerial mycelia, initially white, becoming greyish due to sporulation, reaching 9 cm in 10 days at 25 °C, on MEA, sienna with patches of luteous, reverse luteous to sienna.

Other specimens examined

CHINA, Hunan Province, on bamboo, 22 Sept. 2010, L. Cai, living culture LC2831; Jiangxi Province, on Phyllostachys sp., 05 Sept. 2013, Y.H. Gao, living culture LC4494; on Phyllostachys sp., 22 Apr. 2013, Q. Chen, living culture LC4993; ibid. living culture LC4497; ibid. living culture LC5001; ibid. living culture LC5004; on Imperata cylindrical, 22 Apr. 2013, Q. Chen, living culture LC5015; on Maesa sp., 05 Sept. 2013, Y.H. Gao, living culture LC4541; on Machilus sp., 05 Sept. 2013, Y.H. Gao, living culture LC4547; on Camellia sinensis, 05 Sept. 2013, Y.H. Gao, living culture LC4578; on bamboo, 01 Jul. 2016, J.E. Huang, living culture LC7104; ibid. living culture LC7154; ibid. living culture LC7156; ibid. living culture LC7275.

Notes

Two strains representing Arthrinium jiangxiense clustered in a well-supported clade and appeared closely related to A. camelliae-sinensis (97% sequence similarity in ITS; 94% in TUB2; 94% in TEF1). While A. jiangxiensis is distinct from A. camelliae-sinensis in its smaller conidia (surface view 7.5–10.0 μm diam, side view 4.5–7.0 μm diam in A. jiangxiensis vs. globose or subglobose, 9.0–13.5 × 7.0–12.0 μm in A. camelliae-sinensis) and conidiogenous cell arrangements (conidiogenous cells scattered on hyphae vs. aggregated irregularly on hyphae in A. jiangxiense).

Figure 7. 

Arthrinium jiangxiense (from ex-holotype strain CGMCC 3.18381) A–B 5 d old cultures on PDA C Colony on MEA producing conidia masses D–F Conidiogenous cells giving rise to conidia G Elongated conidia H Conidia. Scale bars = 10 μm.

Arthrinium obovatum M. Wang & L. Cai, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: 824911
Figure 8

Type

CHINA, Chongqing, on Lithocarpus sp., 20 Dec. 2012, L. Cai, (holotype: HMAS 247184; culture ex-type: CGMCC 3.18331 = LC4940).

Etymology

Referring to the production of the large obovoid conidia.

Description

Hyphae hyaline to pale brown, branched, septate, 1.5–5.0 μm diam. Conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells erect, aggregated in clusters on hyphae, pale brown, smooth, subcylindrical or clavate, 5.5–13.5 × 2.5–5.0 μm ( = 8.7 ± 2.4 × 3.6 ± 0.6, n = 30). Conidia dark brown, roughened, globose to subglobose, 11.0–16.5 μm ( = 13.8 ± 1.5, n = 50) in diam.; obovoid, 16.0–31.0 × 9.0–16.0 μm ( = 23.0 ± 2.7 × 12.7 ± 1.4, n = 50), occasionally elongated to ellipsoidal.

Culture characteristics

On PDA, colonies flat, spreading, margin circular, initially white, becoming olivaceous-grey on surface, reverse smoke-grey with patches of olivaceous grey, reaching 9 cm in 7 days at 25 °C. On MEA, surface olivaceous grey in the central and luteous around, reverse with patches of olivaceous grey.

Other specimens examined

CHINA, Chongqing, on Lithocarpus sp., 20 Dec. 2012, L. Cai, living culture LC8177; ibid. living culture LC8178.

Notes

Arthrinium obovatum is the only species that produces obovoid conidia (Figure 8F) in this genus, a character distinctly different from other species (Ellis 1965, 1976, Gjaerum 1967, Pollack and Benjamin 1969, Hudson et al. 1976, Calvo and Guarro 1980, Khan and Sullia 1980, Samuels et al. 1981, von Arx 1981, Koskela 1983, Kirk 1986, Larrando and Calvo 1990, 1992, Müller 1992, Bhat and Kendrick 1993, Hyde et al. 1998, Jones et al. 2009, Singh et al. 2012, Crous et al. 2013, 2015, Sharma et al. 2014, Senanayake et al. 2015, Senanayake et al. 2015, Hyde et al. 2016, Dai et al. 2016a, b).

Figure 8. 

Arthrinium obovatum (from ex-holotype strain CGMCC 3.18331) A–B 7 d old cultures on PDA C Colony on MEA producing conidia masses D–E Conidiogenous cells giving rise to conidia F Obovoid conidia G Globose to subglobose conidia. Scale bars = 10 μm.

Arthrinium pseudoparenchymaticum M. Wang & L. Cai, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: 824912
Figure 9

Type

CHINA, Guangdong Province, on bamboo, Jul. 2016, D.W. Xiao, (holotype: HMAS 247189; culture ex-type: CGMCC 3.18336 = LC7234).

Etymology

Referring to the pseudoparenchymatous hyphae.

Description

Hyphae hyaline to pale brown, branched, septate, 1.5–5.0 μm diam., pseudoparenchymatous. Conidiophores aggregated in hyaline to light brown sporodochia, smooth, usually unbranched, up to 40 μm long, 3–6 μm width. Conidiogenous cells hyaline to pale yellow, smooth to finely roughened, subcylindrical to doliiform, 8.0–18.5 × 3.0–8.5μm ( = 13.7 ± 3.2 × 5.4 ± 1.2, n = 30). Conidia pale to dark brown, smooth, finely guttulate, globose to subglobose, 13.5–27.0 × 12.0–23.5 μm ( = 20.2 ± 2.5 × 17.1 ± 2.4, n = 50). Sometimes lobed or dentate, polygonal or irregular in surface view.

Culture characteristics

On PDA, colonies flat, spreading, margin circular, with moderate aerial mycelia, initially white, becoming grey on surface, reverse smoke-grey without patches, reaching 9 cm in 8 days at 25 °C. On MEA, surface pale luteous to grey with abundant mycelia, reverse greyish without patches.

Other specimens examined

CHINA, Guangdong Province, on bamboo, Jul. 2016, D.W. Xiao, living culture LC8173; ibid. living culture LC8174.

Notes

Arthrinium pseudoparenchymaticum is closely related to A. hyphopodii (94% sequence similarity in ITS), but differs in its much larger conidia (13.5–27.0 × 12.0–23.5 μm vs. 5–10 × 4–8 μm), the absence of hyphopodia and the presence of dentate conidia.

Figure 9. 

Arthrinium pseudoparenchymaticum (from ex-holotype strain CGMCC 3.18336) A–B 8 d old cultures on PDA C Colony on MEA producing conidia masses D–E Conidiogenous cells giving rise to conidia F–G Dentate conidia H Globose conidia. Scale bars = 10 μm.

Arthrinium subroseum M. Wang & L. Cai, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: 824913
Figure 10

Type

CHINA, Jiangxi Province, on bamboo, 1 Jul. 2016, J.E. Huang, (holotype: HMAS 247190; culture ex-type: CGMCC3.18337 = LC7292).

Etymology

Named after the colour of colony on PDA, pinkish.

Description

Hyphae hyaline to pale brown, branched, septate, 1.5–6.0 μm diam. Conidiophores hyaline to pale brown, smooth, erect or ascending, simple, flexuous, subcylindrical, clustered in groups. Conidiophores aggregated in brown sporodochia, smooth, hyaline to brown, up to 20 μm long, 2–4.5 μm width. Conidiogenous cells pale brown, smooth, doliiform to subcylindrical, 3.0–6.5 × 2.0–5.0 μm ( = 4.7 ± 1.2 × 3.7 ± 0.9, n = 30). Conidia pale brown to dark brown, smooth, globose to subglobose or ellipsoidal, 12.0–17.5 × 9.0–16.0 μm ( = 14.9 ± 1.4 × 11.8 ± 1.8, n = 50).

Culture characteristics

On PDA, colonies flat, spreading, margin circular, with moderate aerial mycelia, initially white, becoming light pink on surface, reverse peach-puff without patches, reaching 10 cm in 8 days at 25 °C. On MEA, surface blackish-green with abundant mycelia, reverse with patches of greyish.

Other specimens

CHINA, Jiangxi Province, on bamboo, 1 Jul. 2016, J.E. Huang, living culture LC7215; ibid. living culture LC7291.

Notes

Three strains representing A. subroseum clustered in a well-supported clade, closely related to A. garethjonesii (94% sequence similarity in ITS) and A. bambusae (98% sequence similarity in ITS; 92% in TUB2; 96% in TEF1). However, A. subroseum differs from A. bambusae in the morphology of conidiophores (erect or ascending, clustered in groups in A. subroseum vs. reduced to conidiogenous cells in A. bambusae). Arthrinium subroseum is not morphologically comparable to A. garethjonesii, whose asexual morph is undetermined (Dai et al. 2016b).

Figure 10. 

Arthrinium subroseum (from ex-holotype strain CGMCC3.18337) A–B 10 d old cultures on PDA C Colony on MEA producing conidia masses D–E Conidiogenous cells giving rise to conidia F–G Conidia. Scale bars = 10 μm.

Discussion

Arthrinium, Cordella and Pteroconium share similar morphological characters, e.g. basauxic conidiophores with terminal and intercalary polyblastic conidiogenous cells and brown, unicellular conidia with a pallid germ slit (Ellis 1971, Hyde et al. 1998). Crous et al. (2013) reduced both Cordella and Pteroconium as generic synonyms of Arthrinium based on molecular phylogenetic data and regarded traditionally applied morphological characters in distinguishing these genera as phylogenetically insignificant. This study added eight novel species and our data are in good accordance with that of Crous et al. (2013). For example, A. pseudoparenchymaticum is sporodochial and pseudoparenchymatous, which would be classified as Pteroconium in the traditional taxonomy. However, the multi-locus (ITS, TEF1 & TUB2) tree (Figure. 1) shows that A. pseudoparenchymaticum is phylogenetically distant from A. pterospermum (syn. P. pterospermum, the type of “Pteroconium”).

Currently there are 70 recognised species in Arthrinium (Index Fungorum), occurring on a wide variety of both living and decaying plant materials. It is noteworthy that Arthrinium species showed distinct preference for growing on two graminaceous families, Poaceae and Cyperaceae, amongst which, Bambusa (Poaceae) and Carex (Cyperaceae) are two of the most common host genera for Arthrinium species. For example, seven species have been recorded from Carex spp., i.e. A. austriacum Petr. (1959), A. caricicola Kunze (1817), A. globosum Koskela (1983), A. kamtschaticum Tranzschel & Woron (1914), A. morthieri Fuckel (1870), A. muelleri Ellis (1976) and A. naviculare Rostr. (1886). Bamboo has been widely known as a favourable host for Arthrinium, e.g. A. hyphopodii, A. longistromum, A. subglobosum, A. thailandicum and A. yunnanum (Senanayake et al. 2015, Dai et al. 2016). In this study, three new species (A. bambusae, A. subroseum and A. pseudoparenchymaticum) were also isolated from bamboo. In addition, three species (A. arundinis, A. guizhouense, and A. rasikravindrii) were isolated from air and soil from karst caves, where have been shown to encompass a high fungal diversity (Jiang et al. 2017, Zhang et al. 2017).

In addition to the Arthrinium species from China, we also tried to resolve the phylogenetic status of Arthrinium mytilomorphum Bhat & W.B. Kendr. (Bhat and Kendrick 1993) in the current study. DNA extraction from the type specimen of A. mytilomorphum (DAOM 214595) was prohibited but DAOM provided a DNA sample. Unfortunately, we only managed to obtain an ITS sequence from this DNA sample, while the amplifications of all other protein coding genes were unsuccessful. The ITS phylogenetic tree (not shown here) shows that A. mytilomorphum is closely related to A. subroseum (99 % sequence similarity in ITS), while the morphology of these two species are very different from each other. Conidia of A. mytilomorphum are dark brown, fusiform or navicular, measuring 20–30 × 6–8.5 μm, slightly bowed down and asymmetric (Figure 11), while those of A. subroseum are pale brown to dark brown, globose or subglobose, measuring 12–17.5 × 9–16 μm.

Teleomorph-typified genus Apiospora was treated as a synonym of anamorph-typified genus Arthrinium on the basis that Arthrinium is older and more commonly used in literature (Crous et al. 2013). However, only three of the 58 recorded Apiospora species have been properly linked to their known Arthrinium counterparts, i.e. Arthrinium hysterinum (syn. Ap. bambusae) (Sivanesan 1983, Kirk 1986); Arthrinium arundinis (syn. Ap. montagnei) (Hyde 1998); Arthrinium sinense (syn. Ap. sinensis) (Réblová et al. 2016). In addition, molecular data of only four Apiospora species (Ap. bambusae, Ap. montagnei, Ap. setosa and Ap. sinensis) are available, in which only A. bambusae and A. sinensis have type-derived sequences. A comprehensive taxonomic revision of this taxonomic group awaits fresh collection and epitypification of many Apiospora species and, based on which, phylogenetic links with Arthrinium species could be established.

Figure 11. 

Arthrinium mytilomorphum (from holotype DAOM 214595) A–B Overview of the type specimen C–F Conidiogenous cells giving rise to conidia G Conidia. Scale bars = 10 μm.

Acknowledgments

We thank Peng Zhao, Qian Chen, Yahui Gao and Zhifeng Zhang for providing strains and technical assistance. We kindly appreciated the curator of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada herbarium and Dr. Wen Chen in Ottawa Research and Development Centre AAFC for providing DNA samples and microscope slides of the type specimen of Arthrinium mytilomorphum. This work was financially supported by the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars of China (NSFC 31725001) and the Frontier Science Research Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (QYZDB-SSW-SMC044).

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