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The lichens of the Alps – an annotated checklist
expand article infoPier Luigi Nimis, Josef Hafellner§, Claude Roux|, Philippe Clerc, Helmut Mayrhofer§, Stefano Martellos, Peter O. Bilovitz§
‡ University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy
§ University of Graz, Graz, Austria
| Unaffiliated, Mirabeau, France
¶ Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève, Genève, Switzerland
Open Access

Abstract

This is the first attempt to provide an overview of the lichen diversity of the Alps, one of the biogegraphically most important and emblematic mountain systems worldwide. The checklist includes all lichenised species, plus a set of non- or doubtfully lichenised taxa frequently treated by lichenologists, excluding non-lichenised lichenicolous fungi. Largely based on recent national or regional checklists, it provides a list of all infrageneric taxa (with synonyms) hitherto reported from the Alps, with data on their distribution in eight countries (Austria, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Italy, Slovenia, Switzerland) and in 42 Operational Geographic Units, mostly corresponding to administrative subdivisions within the countries. Data on the main substrates and on the altitudinal distribution are also provided. A short note points to the main ecological requirements of each taxon and/or to open taxonomic problems. Particularly poorly known taxa are flagged and often provided with a short description, to attract the attention of specialists. The total number of infrageneric taxa is 3,163, including 117 non- or doubtfully lichenised taxa. The richness of the lichen biota fairly well corresponds with the percent of the Alpine area occupied by each country: Austria (2,337 taxa), Italy (2,169), France (2,028), Switzerland (1,835), Germany (1,168), Slovenia (890) and Lichtenstein (152), no lichen having ever been reported from Monaco. The number of poorly known taxa is quite high (604, 19.1% of the total), which indicates that, in spite of the Alps being one of the lichenologically most studied mountain systems worldwide, much work is still needed to reach a satisfactory picture of their real lichen diversity. Thirteen new combinations are proposed in the genera Agonimia, Aspicilia, Bagliettoa, Bellemerea, Carbonea, Lepra, Miriquidica, Polysporina, Protothelenella, Pseudosagedia and Thelidium.

Keywords

Europe, biodiversity, lichenised fungi, fungi, taxonomy

Introduction

In the history of biogeography, the Alps play a most important role: they are one of the largest continuous natural areas in Europe and probably the most studied mountain system worldwide, to the point that terms such as “alpine” and “subalpine” are widely used for any mountain system in the world.

Situated between the Eurosiberian and the Mediterranean biogeographic regions, the Alps are an interzonal mountain system distributed amongst eight countries over an area of ca. 170,000 km2, with a length of ca. 1,200 km and a maximum width of 300 km; they start at sea level and peak at 4,807 m (Mt. Blanc). The Alps are present in eight countries: Austria (28.7% of the overall area of the Alps), Italy (27.2%), France (21.4%), Switzerland (13.2%), Germany (5.8%), Slovenia (3.6%), Liechtenstein (0.08%) and Monaco (0.01%) with a total population of ca. 11.1 million people. The Alps, which include fourteen national parks and many regional protected areas, shelter a large number of natural and semi-natural habitats, with a rich diversity of organisms and landscapes. They are one of the richest biodiversity hotspots in Europe, hosting e.g. 4,450 vascular plant taxa with a density of 2,200 taxa per 10,000 km² (Aeschimann et al. 2011a), the most species-rich areas being in the West and the South, the richest in endemics corresponding to areas that were glacier-free during the Pleistocene, such as the southern part of the Western Alps and the Eastern Alps (Tribsch 2004, Aeschimann et al. 2011b).

The Alps are also the mountain system which was explored with more continuity by botanists, zoologists and mycologists, including lichenologists. It is not easy for present readers to imagine the problems facing the first scholars in studying the lichens of the Alps: neither highways nor rapid trains existed in the Alpine region and any ascension to the Alpine belt had to be made with days of travel through dusty or muddy roads and by hard climbing through paths built by shepherds, with uncomfortable overnight stays in primitive shelters with limited food, finally carrying down the heavy collections to the next village. In spite of these difficulties, the Alps have been intensively studied since the earliest years by important lichenologists such as, to mention only a few, M. Anzi (1812–1881), F. Arnold (1828–1901), F. Baglietto (1826–1916), S. Garovaglio (1805–1882), Ph. Hepp (1797–1867), A. M. Hue (1840–1917), E. Kernstock (1852–1900), A. von Krempelhuber (1813–1882), A. Massalongo (1824–1860), W. Nylander (1822–1899), J. Müller Argoviensis (1828–1896), A. E. Sauter (1800–1881), L. E. Schaerer (1785–1853), G. A. Scopoli (1723–1788), E. Stizenberger (1827–1895) and F. X. von Wulfen (1728–1805). In the second half of the 19th Century, the first attempts of national-regional checklists appeared, such as those of Krempelhuber (1861) for Bavaria, Stizenberger (1882, 1883) for Switzerland and Jatta (1900) for Italy. In the 20th Century, the lichenological exploration of the Alps continued and intensified to the present times, especially from the post World War II period, when important Masters such as Georges Clauzade (1914–2002), Eduard Frey (1888–1974) and Josef Poelt (1924–1995) contributed to a revival of lichenological studies in the Alps by training a new generation of lichenologists, including most authors of the present checklist.

Thus, the Alps are, beyond doubt, one of the lichenologically best investigated parts of the world. Surprisingly, however, no general overview of their lichen diversity was ever attempted, all of the existing checklists having being compiled at the national or regional levels, a situation which also applies to most of the other taxonomic groups, including animals and to most transnational orobiomes worldwide, with the notable exception for lichens of the Carpathian mountains (Bielczyk et al. 2004, Lisická 2005). This lack of a general overview hampered the possibility of comparing the biogeographic traits of such an emblematic area as the Alps with those of other mountains systems worldwide, including not only other European orobiomes (Carpathians, Pyrenees, Scandinavian Mts., Caucasus) but also extra-European ones (Himalayas, Rocky Mountains, tropical high mountains of Africa, New Zealand Alps etc.), to elucidate various patterns of disjunctions and overall distribution, both on the taxonomic level (species, genera) and on that of entire biota. This fact is particularly annoying in the case of lichens, which include many broad-ranging species and relatively few endemics, so that many taxa described from the Alps have been later detected in other parts of the world.

Work for the present checklist started almost 15 years ago, upon a suggestion by P.L. Nimis. The idea was to rapidly produce a catalogue of lichens known from the Alps, by electronically merging the information contained in the checklists of Germany (Grummann 1963, Scholz 2000), Italy (Nimis 1993), Austria (Türk and Poelt 1993, Hafellner and Türk 2001), Slovenia (Suppan et al. 2000) and Switzerland (Clerc 2004, at that time in preparation), plus those included in the still unpublished catalogue of the lichens of France by C. Roux and collaborators. A first general list was produced in 2005, but its completion proved to be much less easy than foreseen, mainly because of the many open taxonomic problems and the necessity for continuous updates due to intense lichenological exploration in most countries. The progress of lichenological activity in several “Alpine” countries was such, that in the last few years, new, updated checklists were published for Switzerland (Clerc and Truong 2012), France (Roux et al. 2014, 2017), Italy (Nimis and Martellos 2003, Nimis 2016), Germany (Wirth et al. 2013), and Austria (Hafellner and Türk 2016).

The present checklist tries to summarise all of this information, providing, for the first time, a complete annotated catalogue of all lichenised fungi hitherto reported from the Alps.

Delimitation of the Alps

In planning a checklist of the Alps, the authors had to face the question of delimiting the corresponding geographic area. As there is no unique delimitation of the Alps, one was adopted approaching the boundaries proposed by Marazzi (2005), within which Aeschimann et al. (2004) only retained the Alpine phytogeographic unit. However, some differences are identified: 1) contrary to Aeschimann et al. (2004), in the Western Alps, these limits extend to sea level, also encompassing areas with an eu-Mediterranean vegetation and the coastal rocks along the Mediterranean Sea. 2) Monaco is included; however, to the authors’ knowledge, there is no lichen record from this small country (ca. 2 km2), which is practically devoid of natural areas. 3) Contrary to Marazzi (2005), the Mt. Salève range was included as for example Führer (1979) did, when he drew the border of the Alps along the Rhine and therefore regarded it as part of the Bornes Alpes. Despite geological similarities with the Jura, Mt. Salève is much closer to the Alps and lichens described from there may well occur in the adjacent, equally mainly calcareous Massif de Bornes. 4) The area of Trnovsky gozd in Slovenia has also been included, this being sometimes considered as part of the Alps (e.g. by Bätzing 2001, 2015), sometimes of the Dinarides (e.g. by Marazzi 2005).

Alpine and pre-Alpine Slovenia were delimited according to the phytogeographic units proposed by Wraber (1969) and Zupančič et al. (1987), because of the lack of suitable administrative subdivisions in the young country when the checklist was starting to be prepared. With the exception of Slovenia, the further subdivision of the Alpine area into Operational Geographic Units corresponds with those of the main administrative units (Bundesländer in Austria, Départements in France, Regierungsbezirke in Germany/Bavaria, Regioni in Italy, Cantons in Switzerland), as this is the way the records are organised in the national lichen checklists.

In several cases, the adopted delimitation of the Alps does not correspond with the limits of the administrative subdivisions; typical is the case of Liguria (Italy), where only a very minor part of the regional territory falls within the Alpine area. In such cases, the authors have tried, as far as possible, to eliminate from the regional lists all species which occur in these regions, but have no record from the Alpine area proper.

Figure 1. 

Delimitation of the Alps, with the administrative subdivisions (for abbreviations, see below).

Structure of the checklist

The list is mainly based on records published in the recent checklists of Slovenia (Suppan et al. 2000, integrated by Mayrhofer 2006), Switzerland (Clerc and Truong 2012), Germany (Grummann 1963, Scholz 2000, Wirth et al. 2013), France (Roux et al. 2014, 2017), Italy (Nimis 2016) and Austria (Hafellner and Türk 2016). The authors refer to these works for a more extensive list of references and/or further details on the data sources. The data concerning Liechtenstein derive from a still unpublished work by Hafellner and Boom (in prep.). In a few cases, floristic and taxonomic treatments published after the national checklists were also taken into consideration. Several non-lichenised species which were and are traditionally treated by lichenologists are included, but non-lichenised lichenicolous fungi are excluded. Particularly dubious records are listed at the end.

Nomenclature and synonyms

The authors have tried to update nomenclature to the latest standards. However, the authors have preferred to maintain some old, well-established genera such as Caloplaca s.lat. and Aspicilia s.lat., since too many species from the Alps still await a re-assignment to the new genera in which they were split, mainly on the basis of molecular data. Generic concepts of cetrariod macrolichens are the object of a long ongoing controversy amongst different working groups: a recent phylogenetic reconstruction based on sequence data resulted in the recognition of a few genera only, which include morphologically and chemically fairly different groups (e.g. inclusion of Allocetraria, Cetrariella, Usnocetraria and Vulpicida in Cetraria; inclusion of Flavocetraria, Tuckermannopsis, Tuckneraria and further genera in Nephromopsis). As other working groups are expected to have different views, for the time being, the traditionally more or less well-established genera are maintained. The authors’ treatment of morphologically and chemically heterogeneous groups also needs an explanation. For example, the Xanthoparmelia pulla-group, the Lecidea atrobrunnea-group, the Sarcogyne regularis-group and the Thamnolia vermicularis-group include morphotypes and chemical strains, which in the past have been treated partly as species, partly as infraspecific taxa. Their taxonomic value is still not well understood. For practical reasons, infraspecific ranks are applied here, so that closely related taxa and strains can be listed together, but the authors are aware of the subjectivity of this decision.

Apart from the basionyms, well-established synonyms used in publications about lichens in the Alps are included, but due to space limitations, an index of all cited names is not included. Such a thesaurus will be included in a forthcoming online version of the checklist.

Lichenised and non-lichenised species

L Lichenised species.

F Non- or doubtfully lichenised species usually reported by lichenologists.

Poorly known taxa

# – This checklist includes quite a high number of very poorly understood taxa, often only known from the type material. The authors have decided to retain most of them, for the following reasons: 1) They could constitute good taxa, as is happening for some of the many species of Verrucariaceae described by M. Servít, 2) They could prove to be the correct name for other taxa described later, 3) In some cases their omission was mainly due to the unavailability of the type material, which was recently discovered and awaits further study (e.g. for some of the taxa described by M. Anzi, see Nimis 2016).

Substrates (Subs.)

The main types of substrates are abbreviated as follows:

sil siliceous rocks and corresponding man-made substrata (e.g. roofing tiles),

cal calciferous rocks and corresponding man-made substrata (e.g. concrete, cement, asbestos etc.),

int intermediate rocks (such as calciferous schists),

met metal-rich siliceous rocks,

sax rocks (without more detailed information),

ter-cal calciferous soil,

ter-sil acidic soil (mostly on siliceous substrata),

bry living mosses,

deb plant debris,

cor bark,

xyl lignum,

fol living leaves,

res resin,

alg living algal colonies,

par parasitic on other lichens,

aqu temporary or permanently submerged.

Bioclimatic/Altitudinal distribution (Alt.)

1 Mesomediterranean belt (potential vegetation: evergreen broad-leaved forests dominated by Quercus ilex),

2 Submediterranean/colline belt (potential vegetation: mixed deciduous forests dominated by Quercus and Carpinus),

3 Montane belt (potential vegetation: deciduous forests dominated by Fagus sylvatica and closed coniferous forests with Picea abies),

4 Subalpine belt (potential vegetation: open, taiga-like forests dominated by Larix decidua and/or Pinus cembra and Rhododendron),

5 Alpine (potential vegetation: treeless Alpine grasslands and tundras, to the lower limit of perennial snow and the equilibrium line of glaciers),

6 Nival (as before, above the lower limit of perennial snow and glaciers).

Regional distribution

For each infrageneric taxon, the authors report the presence in the 7 Alpine countries and in 42 Operational Geographic Units, corresponding to their main subdivisions. Particularly dubious records are flagged with “?”. In the very few cases of records from a country without specification of locality, the abbreviation of that country has been repeated.

Austria (Au): V – Vorarlberg, T – Tirol, S – Salzburg, K – Kärnten, St – Steiermark, O – Oberösterreich, N – Niederösterreich (incl. Wien), B – Burgenland.

Germany (Ge): OB – Oberbayern, Schw – Schwaben.

Switzerland (Sw): AP – Appenzell, BE – Bern, FR – Fribourg, GL – Glarus, GR – Graubünden, LU – Luzern, SG – St. Gallen, SZ – Schwyz, TI – Ticino, UR – Uri, UW – Unterwalden, VD – Vaud, VS – Valais.

France (Fr): in brackets the number designating each Departement in the French administrative system. AHP – Alpes-de-Haute-Provence (04), HAl – Haute-Alpes (05), AMa – Alpes-Maritimes (06), Drô – Drôme (26), Var – Var (83), Isè – Isère (38), Sav – Savoie (73), HSav – Haute-Savoie (74), Vau – Vaucluse (84).

Italy (It): Frl – Friuli (excluding the Province of Trieste), Ven – Veneto, TAA – Trentino-Alto Adige, Lomb – Lombardia, Piem – Piemonte, VA – Valle d’Aosta, Lig – Liguria (limited to the westernmost part of the region).

Slovenia (Sl): SlA – Alpine and Pre-Alpine Slovenia, Tg – Trnovsky gozd.

Liechtenstein (Li).

Notes

The notes to each taxon briefly describe its main ecology and distribution. For poorly known taxa, a brief description has often been added, in order to help the reader understanding to what the name may refer. For obvious reasons of space, in the notes, the authors have refrained from citing any literature, except the national checklists on which the present catalogue is based. Those are referred to for more detailed literature citations.

Databasing the checklist

The present checklist will be converted into a freely searchable database within a month from its publication in paper-form. The database will also include a searchable thesaurus of synonyms, which will compensate for the fact that, for reasons of space, this paper-printed version is not provided with an alphabetical index for the thousands of names included in the text.

The lichen diversity of the Alps: some numbers

The present checklist includes, excluding the dubious records, 3,163 infrageneric taxa, 3,009 of which are certainly lichenised. The number of poorly known taxa is quite high (604, 19% of the total), which indicates that much work is needed to reach a satisfactory picture of the real lichen diversity of the Alpine system.

The number of infrageneric taxa known for the different countries and their subdivisions, only their “Alpine” areas being considered, is as follows:

Austria (2,337 infrageneric taxa): V – Vorarlberg (1,249), T – Tirol (1,704), S – Salzburg (1,495), K – Kärnten (1,525), St – Steiermark (1,670), O – Oberösterreich (1,001), N – Niederösterreich (1,194), B – Burgenland (280).

Italy (2,169): Frl – Friuli (1,022), Ven – Veneto (1,160), TAA – Trentino-Alto Adige (1,562), Lomb – Lombardia (1,298), Piem – Piemonte (1,282), VA – Valle d’Aosta (793), Lig – Liguria (722).

France (2,028): AHP – Alpes-de-Haute-Provence (1,056), HAl – Haute-Alpes (788), AMa – Alpes-Maritimes (1,392), Drô – Drôme (363), Var – Var (841), Isè – Isère (747), Sav – Savoie (858), HSav – Haute-Savoie (1,062), Vau – Vaucluse (848).

Germany (1,168): OB – Oberbayern (942), Schw – Schwaben (630).

Switzerland (1,835): AP – Appenzell (51), BE – Bern (960), FR – Fribourg (147), GL – Glarus (305), GR – Graubünden (1,206), LU – Luzern (609), SG – St. Gallen (238), SZ – Schwyz (873), TI – Ticino (697), UR – Uri (655), UW – Unterwalden (467), VD – Vaud (598), VS – Valais (1,191).

Slovenia (890): SlA – Alpine and Pre-Alpine Slovenia (843), Tg – Trnovsky gozd (346).

Liechtenstein (152).

The number of taxa is well in agreement with the percentage of the Alpine area occupied by the various countries. Comparing the smaller OGUs is quite difficult, considering that they vary considerably in surface areas, geomorphological heterogeneity and degree of conservation of local ecosystems. In general terms, however, the richest areas are located in the Eastern Alps, such as Tyrol (1,704 taxa), Steiermark (1,670), Trentino-Alto Adige (1,562) and Kärnten (1,525), while, even considering their mostly smaller surface areas, several OGUs located in the Western Alps, especially in Switzerland and in France and those in Germany and in Slovenia, would need a more intense lichenological exploration.

Concluding remarks

Checklists summarise, in a more or less critical way, the hitherto known information on the biodiversity of a given group of organisms in a given area. They can have different nature, scope and contents and they should always be judged considering the situation of floristic and taxonomic research that they reflect. Obviously, not all literature records can be accepted uncritically: the circumscription of taxa may differ amongst authors, recent taxonomic revisions might have shown that a given taxon actually includes several taxa of the corresponding rank, some authors may be more reliable than others etc. The author of a checklist is often forced to make difficult decisions, since in most cases, it is not possible to check directly all identifications cited in literature. Checklists might differ also on account of the degree of exploration of the area they cover. In the case of poorly explored areas, they just summarise the current state of knowledge, but cannot pretend to be exhaustive. For well-explored areas, one could think that they do not only represent a basis for future updates, but also a kind of prodromus for a true Flora. This, however, is not the case of the present checklist. The idea that the degree of taxonomic knowledge parallels that of floristic exploration, i.e. that in well-studied areas, most infrageneric taxa are likely to be relatively well-delimited taxonomically, proved to be basically wrong. The authors’ checklist includes many long-forgotten names referring to very poorly understood taxa, often only known from the type collection, which are in need of critical revision. Thus, the total number of taxa accepted in this checklist does not reflect the actual species diversity of the Alps, due to inadequate taxonomic knowledge. Incidentally, further taxonomic research will often reduce rather than increase the number of accepted taxa. The citation of these names in the checklist is, however, important, because it will bring these potentially correct names, often published in long-forgotten papers, to the attention of specialists. For this reason, a number of species were also transferred to genera to which they most likely belong, in order to increase the probability of their inclusion in future critical revisions.

Checklists are never-ending ventures, subject to continuous updating following the developments of current research. It is hoped that the present checklist will prove to be a valuable tool for retrieving and accessing the enormous amount of information on the lichens of the Alps which has accumulated during centuries of research, offering a basis for specimen revision, for the critical re-appraisal of poorly-known taxa and for the further exploration of under-investigated areas, becoming a catalyst for new, more intensive investigations. The best criterion for a checklist to have accomplished its task as a facility to the scientific community, is the speed of its becoming outdated (Nimis 2016), which is what is paradoxically wished for the present one.

Taxonomic and nomenclatural novelties

Agonimia bryophilopsis (Vain.) Hafellner, comb. nov. MB 824184 – Bas.: Polyblastia bryophilopsis Vain., Acta Soc. Fauna Flora Fennica 49(2): 104 (1921).

Aspicilia niesenensis (H. Magn.) Hafellner, comb. nov. MB 824185 – Bas.: Lecanora niesenensis H. Magn., Kungl. Svensk Vetensk. Handl. ser 3, 17: 97 (1939).

Bagliettoa crassiuscula (Servít) Hafellner, comb. nov. MB 824186 – Bas.: Verrucaria crassiuscula Servít, Studia Botanica Cechoslovaca 9: 78 (1948) as nom. nov. for Verrucaria crassa A. Massal. 1852 non Eschw. 1833.

Bellemerea subnivea (Müll. Arg.) Hafellner, comb. nov. MB 824187 – Bas.: Lecanora subnivea Müll. Arg., Flora (Regensburg) 55: 467 (1872).

Carbonea viriduloatra (B. de Lesd.) Hafellner, comb. nov. MB 824188 – Bas.: Lecidea viriduloatra B. de Lesd., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 57: 32 (1910).

Lepra erumpens (Erichsen) Hafellner, comb. nov. MB 824189 – Bas.: Pertusaria erumpens Erichsen, Acta Fauna Flora Univ., ser. 2, Bot., 1(17): 1 (1935).

Miriquidica aeneovirens (Müll. Arg.) Hafellner, comb. nov. MB 824190 – Bas.: Lecidea aeneovirens Müll. Arg., Flora (Regensburg) 57: 530 (1874).

Polysporina limborinella (Müll. Arg.) Hafellner, comb. nov. MB 824191 – Bas.: Lecidea limborinella Müll. Arg., Bull. Trav. Soc. Murithienne Valais 10: 64 (1881).

Protothelenella anodonta (Nyl.) Hafellner, comb. nov. MB 824192 – Bas.: Odontotrema anodontum Nyl., Flora 52: 411 (1869).

Protothelenella viridis (Rehm) Hafellner, comb. nov. MB 824193 – Bas.: Melanomma viridis Rehm, Hedwigia 21: 119 (1882).

Pseudosagedia lucens (Taylor) Hafellner, comb. nov. MB 824194 – Bas.: Verrucaria lucens Taylor, in Mackay, Flora Hibernica 2: 257 (1836).

Thelidium helveticum (Servít) Hafellner, comb. nov. MB 824195 – Bas.: Involucrothele helvetica Servít, Rozpravy Československé Akademie Věd 65(3): 15 (1955).

Thelidium pyrenophorellum (Servít) Hafellner, comb. nov. MB 824196 – Bas.: Involucrothele pyrenophorella Servít, Rozpravy Československé Akademie Věd 63(7): 22 (1953).

The taxa

Lichenised taxa

Absconditella annexa (Arnold) Vězda

Syn.: Gyalecta annexa (Arnold) H. Olivier, Secoliga annexa Arnold

L – Subs.: ter-sil, bry-sil – Alt.: 4-5 – Note: an ephemeral lichen found on moribund bryophytes and organic soil over siliceous substrata; in the study area so far reported only from the Eastern Alps (Austria, Italy), but certainly more widespread. – Au: V, T, K, St. It: Frl.

Absconditella delutula (Nyl.) Coppins & H. Kilias

Syn.: Absconditella modesta (Hegetschw.) Vězda, Gyalecta modesta (Hegetschw.) Zahlbr., Lecidea delutula Nyl., Lecidea modesta Hegetschw., Secoliga modesta (Hegetschw.) Arnold

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3 – Note: a coloniser of small stones and pebbles in moist and shaded situations; so far reported from a few scattered localities in the Alps, but perhaps more widespread. – Au: S, St, N. Sw: LU. Fr: Isè.

Absconditella lignicola Vězda & Pišút

L – Subs.: xyl – Alt.: 2-3 – Note: on moist decaying wood in the shade of forests, mostly on logs and horizontal cut surfaces; perhaps more widespread in the Alps. – Au: T, K, St, O, N, B. Sw: GR, LU, SZ, VS. It: TAA. Sl: SlA.

Absconditella pauxilla Vězda & Vivant

L – Subs.: xyl – Alt.: 3-4 – Note: distinguished from A. lignicola by the narrower ascospores (< 3 µm); on wood, more rarely on siliceous rocks in forests; in the study area so far only reported from Switzerland. – Sw: SZ.

Absconditella sphagnorum Vězda & Poelt

L – Subs.: bry, xyl – Alt.: 3 – Note: on moribund Sphagnum in raised bogs, usually in the uppermost part of the cushions, in sunny places; locally abundant in late summer and autumn, especially after dry summers, and probably somehow overlooked due to its ephemeral character. – Au: St. Ge: OB, Schw.

Absconditella trivialis (Willey ex Tuck.) Vězda

Syn.: Gyalecta geoica (Wahlenb.) Ach. f. trivialis Willey ex Tuck.

L – Subs.: ter-sil – Alt.: 3 – Note: on clay soil under moist conditions; perhaps more widespread in the Alps, being easy to overlook. – Au: St. Ge: OB.

Acarospora admissa (Nyl.) Kullh.

Syn.: Lecanora admissa Nyl.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3-5 – Note: similar to A. nitrophila, but thallus squamules with wavy-crenulate, mostly black margins; in the study area so far only reported from the Western Alps (France). – Fr: AHP, AMa, Sav.

Acarospora albomarginata (H. Magn.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux [nom.illeg. , non B. de Lesd. nec (Herre) G. Salisb.]

Syn.: Acarospora hospitans H. Magn. f. albomarginata H. Magn.

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a poorly known species resembling in habitus, and probably related to A. hospitans, differing in having larger thalline squamules with a white margin, apothecia usually 2–5 per areole, surrounded by a prominent thin thalline margin and with a rough to umbonate disc, asci containing more than 100 ellipsoid ascospores (3.5–5 × 2–3 μm); on exposed outcrops and boulders of schists with low content of calcium in sunny sitations; only known from the type locality in the Eastern Alps (Switzerland). – Sw: GR.

Acarospora anomala H. Magn.

L # – Subs.: xyl – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a species of eutrophicated, dry and hard lignum, closely related to other saxicolous species, hitherto reported from Scandinavia and a few scattered localities in the Alps. – Fr: Isè. It: TAA.

Acarospora austriaca H. Magn.

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 4 – Note: the type, from the Austrian Alps, is perhaps A. helvetica, but according to Roux et al. (2014) it is different from A. complanata. – Au: St.

Acarospora badiofusca (Nyl.) Th. Fr. subsp. badiofusca

Syn.: Lecanora badiofusca Nyl.

L – Subs.: sil, int – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar species of base-rich or lime-containing siliceous rocks, such as mica-schists and calciferous sandstone, found on faces wetted by rain, including stones near the ground in grasslands; widespread and locally common throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, UR, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, Sav, HSav. It: Frl, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig.

Acarospora badiofusca (Nyl.) Th. Fr. subsp. badiorubra Clauzade & Cl. Roux

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: non-calcicolous, and more thermophilous than the typical subspecies; certainly more widespread in the Alps. – Au: T, K, St. Fr: AHP, HAl. It: Frl, VA.

Acarospora bullata Anzi

L – Subs.: int – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: closely related to A. complanata, but with a clearly effigurated thallus; on steeply inclined faces of base-rich, weakly calciferous siliceous rocks; probably more widespread, but certainly not common in the Alps. – Au: K, St. Sw: GR, VS. Fr: AMa. It: Lomb, Piem, VA.

Acarospora cervina A. Massal.

Syn.: Acarospora glaucocarpa (Ach.) Körb. var. cervina (A. Massal.) Cl. Roux

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–5 – Note: a widespread, probably holarctic species found on the top of exposed, more or less calcareous boulders in natural habitats, especially common in dry-continental areas, but with a wide altitudinal range, sometimes considered as a form of A. glaucocarpa. The nomenclature should be studied further: according to Nimis (2016) Massalongo was not describing a species, but proposing a new combination. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA.

Acarospora chrysocardia Poelt & M. Steiner

L – Subs.: sil-par – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: on base-rich siliceous rocks, growing on the thalli of Diploschistes scruposus below the subalpine belt; hitherto known only from dry-warm valleys of the Western Alps and Catalonia, and certainly worthy of protection. – Sw: VS. It: Piem, VA.

Acarospora cinerascens J. Steiner

Syn.: Acarospora alboatra H. Magn.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: on weathered base-rich siliceous rocks, restricted to dry-warm valleys of the Alps with a continental climate. – Sw: VS. It: TAA, VA.

Acarospora complanata H. Magn

Syn.: ?Acarospora crozalsii B. de Lesd.

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: this species was described from France, on basaltic rocks, and has a southern distribution in Europe, extending to North Africa; it has been also reported from North America. It belongs to a difficult complex of closely related taxa, which is in need of revision. Its ecology is poorly understood as well, the species being most frequent on base-rich siliceous rocks. – Au: T, S, K, St, N. Sw: BE, TI. Fr: AMa, Var, Vau. It: Piem, Lig.

Acarospora discreta (Ach.) Th. Fr.

Syn.: Acarospora durietzii H. Magn., Parmelia squamulosa Ach. var. discreta Ach.

L # – Subs.: sax – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: based on a type from extra-Alpine Europe (Scandinavia), with a few records from from the Swiss Alps. – Sw: GR, VS.

Acarospora freyi H. Magn.

Syn.: Acarospora impressula Th. Fr. var. freyi (H. Magn.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux

L – Subs.: sil, met, int – Alt.: 5–6 – Note: probably overlooked and more widespread in the Alps, with optimum near and above treeline, this lichen starts the life-cycle on Aspicilia candida and A. polychroma on calciferous rocks which are at least partly decalcified on the surface. – Au: T, S. Sw: BE. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa. It: Lomb, Piem, VA.

Acarospora fuscata (Schrad.) Arnold.

Syn.: Acarospora squamulosa (Schrad.) Trevis., Lichen fuscatus Schrad.

L – Subs.: sil, int – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: a holarctic species of acid siliceous rocks wetted by rain, sometimes growing on other nitrophytic lichens; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, TI, UR, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA. Sl: SlA.

Acarospora gallica H. Magn.

Syn.: ?Acarospora hungarica H. Magn.

L – Subs.: sil, int – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a probably holarctic species of base-rich, weakly calciferous siliceous substrata, such as calcareous sandstone, brick, and roofing tiles, with several scattered records from the Alps. – Au: T, K, N. Sw: GR. Fr: AMa, Var. It: Piem, Lig.

Acarospora glaucocarpa (Ach.) Körb.

Syn.: Acarospora cervina A. Massal. var. conspersa (Th. Fr.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Acarospora glaucocarpa (Ach.) Körb. var. conspersa Th. Fr., Biatora conspersa Fr. nom. nud., Parmelia glaucocarpa Ach.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–5 – Note: a widespread, probably holarctic species found on more or less calcareous boulders in natural habitats, sometimes overgrowing other crustose lichens, with a wide altitudinal range but most common in upland areas; closely related to A. cervina, perhaps more frequent in less exposed situations; widespread and locally common throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, UR, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Acarospora hellbomii H. Magn.

Syn.: ?Acarospora marcii H. Magn.

L # – Subs.: sil, met – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: the type, from extra-Alpine Europe (Scandinavia), is perhaps identical with A. peliscypha; the synonymy with A. marcii, which is also based on a type from extra-Alpine Europe (SW Europe), is uncertain. – Fr: AMa. It: TAA, VA (as A. marcii).

Acarospora helvetica H. Magn.

Syn.: Acarospora intermedia H. Magn.

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3-4 – Note: a taxon based on a type from the Alps; according to Roux it is different from A. complanata. – Fr: AHP, AMa.

Acarospora heufleriana Körb.

Syn.: Acarospora heufleriana Körb. var. massiliensis Harm., Acarospora massiliensis (Harm.) H. Magn.

L – Subs.: sil-par – Alt.: 1–2 – Note: on horizontal to gently sloping faces near the ground in open habitats, especially in grasslands, sometimes starting the life-cycle on other crustose lichens; restricted to dry-continental areas, both in the Alps and in the Mediterranean Region. – Au: T. Sw: VS. It: TAA, Piem, VA.

Acarospora hospitans H. Magn.

Syn.: Acarospora impressula Th. Fr. var. hospitans (H. Magn.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux

L – Subs.: sil-par – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: closely related to A. impressula; parasitic on several silicicolous species of Aspicilia; widespread throughout the siliceous Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Sav, HSav. It: TAA, Piem.

Acarospora hostilis H. Magn.

L # – Subs.: sil, sil-par – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: a species resembling in habitus A. veronensis, with a thallus consisting of dispersed, red-brown, irregular, flattened areoles (not reacting with K, C, Pd) with incised to sublobate margins and a pale underside, a thin thalline cortex of small cells, immersed, contiguous to fusing apothecia (0.2–0.4 mm in diam.), a more than 100 µm tall hymenium, and asci with more than 100, broadly ellipsoid ascospores (2–3.5 × 1.5 μm); on siliceous boulders, often invading the thallus of other crustose lichens; described from the treeline ecotone in Northern Italy and only known from the Alps; the study of the type material could prove that this a synonym for another species. – It: TAA.

Acarospora imbricatula H. Magn.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: hitherto known only from dry-continental valleys in the Alps, on south-facing slopes, where it is locally common. – Sw: VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa. It: TAA, VA.

Acarospora impressula Th. Fr.

Syn.: Acarospora atrata Hue

L – Subs.: sil, met – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, probably circumpolar species found on metal-rich rocks and roofing slates, more rarely on weakly calciferous siliceous rocks, usually in upland areas, with optimum above treeline; probably overlooked and more widespread in the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, N. Sw: BE, GR, SZ, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Sav, HSav. It: Frl, TAA, Piem, VA.

Acarospora insolata H. Magn.

L – Subs.: sil, sil-par – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: on inclined surfaces of siliceous rocks wetted by rain, often growing on other crustose lichens (e.g. Immersaria, Rhizocarpon); certainly more widespread in the Alps. – Au: ?V. Ge: OB. Sw: GR, TI. It: Ven, Piem.

Acarospora laqueata Stizenb.

Syn.: ?Acarospora caesiocinerea B. de Lesd., Lecanora laqueata (Stizenb.) Stizenb.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–2 – Note: on hard calcareous rocks, both on vertical faces and at the top of birds’ perching sites in dry-continental areas; very rare in the Alps. – Sw: VS. Fr: AHP, Var, Vau. It: Lomb.

Acarospora macrospora (Hepp) A. Massal. ex Bagl.

Syn.: Acarospora castanea (DC.) Körb, Acarospora squamulosa sensu Th. Fr. non (Schrad.) Trevis., Myriospora macrospora Hepp

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: on steeply inclined faces of fissured calcareous rocks in upland areas; widespread throughout the Alps. See also note on A. murorum. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Acarospora melaplaca (Nyl.) Arnold

Syn.: Lecanora melaplaca Nyl.

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: a species with blackish-brown thallus and effigurate, very thin areolae, whose ecology and distribution need further study. – Au: T. Sw: GR.

Acarospora microcarpa (Nyl.) Wedd.

Syn.: Acarospora tersa (Fr.) J. Steiner, Lecanora schleicheri (Ach.) Nyl. var. microcarpa Nyl., Lecanora tersa (Fr.) Nyl.

L – Subs.: sil-par – Alt.: 1–2 – Note: a mainly Mediterranean-Atlantic species with optimum in coastal situations; on basic siliceous rocks wetted by rain, parasitic on several crustose lichens, especially Diploschistes actinostoma; extremely rare in the dry-continental valleys of the Alps. – It: TAA, Piem.

Acarospora modenensis H. Magn.

Syn.: ?Acarospora engadinensis H. Magn.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: a mild-temperate species of siliceous rocks, often found on walls; apparently more frequent in the Western and Southern Alps, but probably overlooked and more widespread elsewhere in lowland areas. – Sw: GR. Fr: HAl, AMa, HSav. It: Piem, Lig.

Acarospora moenium (Vain.) Räsänen

Syn.: Aspicilia excavata G. Thor & Timdal, Aspicilia moenium (Vain.) G. Thor & Timdal, Endocarpon moenium Vain.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a mainly temperate, inconspicuous species, usually sterile, the rare case of a sorediate Acarospora; certainly more widespread on man-made substrata (mortar, cement, etc.), or more rarely on calciferous schists, on steeply inclined faces. – Au: S, St, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: GR, VS. It: Frl, TAA, Lomb. Sl: SlA.

Acarospora murorum A. Massal.

Syn.: Acarospora macrospora (Hepp) A. Massal. ex Bagl. subsp. murorum (A. Massal.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux. Acarospora truncata (A. Massal.) A. Massal., Biatorella truncata A. Massal.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a mild-temperate species found on walls, gravestones, and monuments; related to A. macrospora, but with a different ecology and altitudinal distribution; apparently more frequent in the Western and Southern Alps. – Au: S. Sw: BE, LU. Fr: AHP, AMa, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig.

Acarospora nitrophila H. Magn. subsp. nitrophila

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: a widespread species found on steeply inclined to overhanging faces of basic siliceous rocks, usually in species-poor communities, mostly near settlements; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, SZ, TI, UR, VS. Fr: HAl, AMa, HSav, Var. It: TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig.

Acarospora nitrophila H. Magn. subsp. normanii (H. Magn.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux

Syn.: Acarospora normanii H. Magn.

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: a rather poorly known taxon, in the study area so far only reported from the Alps of Austria and France. – Au: ?V. Fr: HAl.

Acarospora nitrophila H. Magn. subsp. praeruptorum (H. Magn.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux

Syn.: Acarospora nitrophila H. Magn. var. praeruptorum (H. Magn.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Acarospora praeruptorum H. Magn.

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: in the checklist of Italy (Nimis 2016) this taxon is subsumed under A. nitrophila. – Au: T, S, St, N. Fr: AHP, AMa, Sav, Var.

Acarospora nodulosa (Dufour) Hue var. nodulosa

Syn.: Lecanora nodulosa (Dufour) Colmeiro, Parmelia nodulosa Dufour, Urceolaria nodulosa (Dufour) Schaer.

L – Subs.: ter-cal – Alt.: 2 – Note: a xeric subtropical species, parasitic on Diploschistes spp., found on weathered gypsum and calcareous substrata in very open habitats. – Sw: VS.

Acarospora nodulosa (Dufour) Hue var. reagens (Zahlbr.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux

Syn.: Acarospora reagens Zahlbr.

L # – Subs.: ter-cal – Alt.: 2 – Note: this taxon, based on a type from Western North America, is sometimes treated as chemical strain without rank, sometimes at species level; often parasitic on Diploschistes diacapsis. – Fr: Drô.

Acarospora oligospora (Nyl.) Arnold

Syn.: Acarospora glebosa (Flot.) Körb., Lecanora oligospora Nyl.

L – Subs.: sil, int – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a holarctic-temperate species found on basic siliceous rocks (e.g. calciferous sandstone and schist), usually on pebbles, but also on walls, roofing tiles, etc., below the subalpine belt. – Au: T, St. Ge: OB. Fr: AMa, Sav, HSav. It: Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem.

Acarospora peliscypha Th. Fr.

L – Subs.: sil, met – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, probably circumpolar species found on siliceous, often iron-rich substrata, on exposed birds’ perching rocks (e.g. windy ridges, isolated boulders). See also notes on A. bullata and A. rugulosa. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, N. Sw: GR, UR. Fr: HAl, HSav. It: TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA.

Acarospora picea H. Magn.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 5 – Note: among the species with a brown effigurate thallus, this is the only one with globose ascospores; described from high altitudes in the Sierra Nevada (Spain), with a few records from the Western Alps (France), growing on non – or slightly calciferous siliceous rocks in dry, sunny, moderately eutrophicated situations. – Fr: AHP, AMa.

Acarospora pyrenopsoides H. Magn.

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: a taxon probably belonging to the A. nitrophila-group; the small apothecia, several per areola, and the narrowly ellipsoid ascospores are diagnostic; the ecology is poorly known, but the species usually occurs on steep faces and overhangs of siliceous rocks; known from a few localities in the Alps; the type is from Greenland. – Au: T. Fr: AMa, HSav.

Acarospora rosulata (Th. Fr.) H. Magn.

Syn.: Acarospora discreta (Ach.) Th. Fr. f. rosulata Th. Fr.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: characterised by the rosulate thalli with indistinctly lobate peripheral squamules with a whitish lower surface, this species, described from Norway where it is rare, is known from Western North America, Asia (Mongolia) and the Alps. It grows on sun-exposed siliceous rocks, with optimum in dry, subcontinental areas; being easily overlooked, the species might be more widespread in the Alps. – Fr: AHP, AMa, HSav. It: Lomb.

Acarospora rugulosa Körb.

L – Subs.: sil, met – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: closely related to A. peliscypha. – Au: T, S, K. Fr: AHP, AMa.

Acarospora schleicheri (Ach.) A. Massal.

Syn.: Urceolaria schleicheri Ach.

L – Subs.: ter-cal, ter-par – Alt.: 2 – Note: on consolidated soil and facultatively parasitic on Diploschistes diacapsis, in dry habitats; widespread in Eurasia and North America; in the Alps confined to inner-Alpine dry valleys; the type material is from the Alps (Switzerland). – Sw: VS.

Acarospora scotica Hue

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a probably Mediterranean-Atlantic species of siliceous rocks wetted by rain, reaching the montane (rarely also the subalpine) belt in the Western Alps. – Fr: AHP, AMa, Var, Vau. It: Lomb, Piem.

Acarospora similis H. Magn.

L # – Subs.: xyl – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a lignicolous taxon of the A. veronensis-group, often found on roofing tiles, based on a type from outside the Alps (Switzerland), with a few records from the Alps. – Fr: HSav. It: TAA.

Acarospora sinopica (Wahlenb.) Körb.

Syn.: Acarospora smaragdula (Wahlenb.) A. Massal. var. sinopica (Wahlenb.) A. Massal., Endocarpon sinopicum Wahlenb., Polysporinopsis sinopica (Wahlenb.) Vězda, Zeora sinopica (Wahlenb.) Flot.

L – Subs.: met – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: a probably holarctic species of iron-rich rocks and mine-spoil heaps in exposed situations; widespread, but local, throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, B. Sw: BE, GR, TI, UR, VD, VS. Fr: HAl, AMa, Sav, HSav. It: Frl, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA.

Acarospora sulphurata (Arnold) Arnold var. sulphurata

Syn.: Acarospora heufleriana Körb. f. sulphurata Arnold

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a species of dry-continental areas, found on basic siliceous rocks, often near the ground, in dry grasslands, both in dry Mediterranean areas and in continental inner-Alpine valleys. – It: TAA, Piem, VA.

Acarospora sulphurata (Arnold) Arnold var. rubescens Buschardt

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: perhaps just a chemical strain; hitherto known only from the Alps, where it is restricted to inner-Alpine valleys. – It: TAA.

Acarospora suzai H. Magn. var. tyroliensis H. Magn.

Syn.: Acarospora tyroliensis (H. Magn.) H. Magn.

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: a taxon of the A. nitrophila-complex, which needs further study. – Au: T. Fr: AMa.

Acarospora tenuicorticata H. Magn.

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: in the study area only reported from a few localities in the Eastern Alps (Austria). – Au: S, St.

Acarospora tongletii (Hue) Hue var. tongletii

Syn.: Acarospora variegata H. Magn., Lecanora tongletii Hue

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: a temperate to southern boreal-montane, probably circumpolar species, most frequent on base-rich sandstone walls; much overlooked, and perhaps more widespread in the Alps. – Au: K. Sw: GR.

Acarospora tongletii (Hue) Hue var. paupera (H. Magn.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux

Syn.: Acarospora paupera H. Magn.

L # – Subs.: sax – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: in the study area only reported from the base of the Western Alps (France). – Fr: AMa.

Acarospora umbilicata Bagl.

Syn.: Acarospora cinerea (Nyl.) Wedd., Acarospora percaenoides (Nyl.) Flagey, Acarospora rufidulocinerea Hue

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a mild-temperate, mainly Mediterranean-Atlantic species found on steeply inclined sunny faces of basic siliceous substrata, on roofing tiles and brick; widespread but rare in the Alps. – Au: T, N. Sw: VS. Fr: AMa, Sav, Var. It: TAA, Piem, VA, Lig.

Acarospora valdobbiensis Bagl. & Carestia

Syn.: Biatorella valdobbiensis (Bagl. & Carestia) Zahlbr., Lecanora valdobbiensis (Bagl. & Carestia) Stizenb., Sarcogyne valdobbiensis (Bagl. & Car.) Jatta

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: a very poorly known taxon, also reported from Macedonia. The type, which from the description is actually an Acarospora, was collected on schist in the alpine belt. – It: Piem.

Acarospora veronensis A. Massal.

Syn.: Acarospora fuscata (Schrad.) Arnold. subsp. discreta sensu Th. Fr., Acarospora magnussonii Samp.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 1–5 – Note: a holarctic early coloniser of base – rich siliceous pebbles, roofing tiles, walls, sometimes also found on soil and lignum, also in small settlements: occasionally overgrowing other crustose lichens, with a wide altitudinal range; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, TI, UR, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA.

Acarospora versicolor Bagl. & Carestia

Syn.: Acarospora cineracea (Nyl.) Hue; incl. Acarospora miskolensis H. Magn.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: on basic siliceous rocks, also on walls in small Alpine settlements, and on thin soil layers, probably more widespread in the Alps, below the subalpine belt. – Au: ?V, T, St, N. Sw: BE, GR, VS. Fr: AMa, Sav. It: TAA, Lomb, Piem.

Acolium inquinans (Sm.) A. Massal.

Syn.: Acolium neesii (Flot.) Körb., Acolium subsimile (Nyl.) Arnold, Acolium tympanellum (Ach.) Gray, Calicium cembrinum Ach., Calicium inquinans (Sm.) Schaer., Calicium neesii Flot., Calicium tympanellum Ach., Cyphelium cembrinum (Ach.) Ach., Cyphelium inquinans (Sm.) Trevis., Cyphelium inquinans (Sm.) Trevis. var. ollare (Ach.) Trevis., Cyphelium neesii (Flot.) Trevis., Cyphelium ollare Ach., Cyphelium pileatum Ach., Cyphelium subsimile (Nyl.) Trevis., Cyphelium tympanellum (Ach.) Ach., Lichen inquinans Sm., Trachylia inquinans (Sm.) Rabenh., Trachylia neesii (Flot.) Rabenh., Trachylia subsimilis Nyl., Trachylia tympanella (Ach.) Fr.

L – Subs.: xyl, cor – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a temperate to southern boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen found on old conifer stumps, more rarely on lignum of broad-leaved deciduous trees (especially Quercus and Castanea), and on wooden fence-posts, with optimum in upland areas. – Au: T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, UR, VD, VS. Fr: AMa, HSav. It: Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem.

Acolium karelicum (Vain.) M. Prieto & Wedin

Syn.: Cyphelium karelicum (Vain.) Räsänen, Cyphelium lucidum (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr. var. karelicum Vain.

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a mainly cool-temperate to southern boreal-montane lichen found on ancient boles of conifers in semi-natural forests, often on basal parts of trunks, mostly on old Abies, much more rarely on lignum. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: Ge. Sw: BE, SZ, UW, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa. It: TAA.

Acolium sessile (Pers.) Arnold

Syn.: Cyphelium sessile (Pers.) Trevis., Calicium sessile Pers.

L – Subs.: xyl-par – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a species with a grey thallus forming insular patches on the thalli of epiphytic Pertusaria-species (mainly P. coccodes), found on very old oaks; also known from North America, it is most common in Western Europe; records from the Alps have a fairly different ecology, and therefore need confirmation. – Sw: GR, UR. It: Lomb, Lig.

Acrocordia cavata (Ach.) R.C. Harris

Syn.: Arthopyrenia cavata (Ach.) R.C. Harris, Verrucaria cavata Ach.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a mild-temperate, incompletely holarctic species found on smooth bark in humid deciduous forests; widespread but not common in the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Sw: GL, GR, SZ, UW. Fr: Var, Vau. It: Frl, TAA.

Acrocordia conoidea (Fr.) Körb. var. conoidea

Syn.: Arthopyrenia conoidea (Fr.) Zahlbr., Acrocordia epipolaea (Borrer) A.L. Sm., Verrucaria conoidea Fr.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–5 – Note: a mild-temperate species of compact limestone and dolomite, mostly in woodlands, on sheltered faces seldom wetted by rain, with optimum in submediterranean areas; widespread and locally common throughout the Alps. The forma carnea Arnold, with pale perithecia, has been reported from the Julian Pre-Alps. – Au: V, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, GR, LU, VD. Fr: AHP, AMa, Drô, Isè, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Acrocordia conoidea (Fr.) Körb. var. glacialis (Bagl. & Carestia) Vězda

Syn.: Acrocordia glacialis Bagl. & Carestia

L # – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 5–6 – Note: a taxon with small spores, only known from the type locality in the Italian Alps where it was found on fissures of marble. – It: VA.

Acrocordia conoidea (Fr.) Körb. var. suzae (Vězda) Vězda

Syn.: Arthopyrenia conoidea (Fr.) Zahlbr. var. suzae Vězda

L # – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: differing from var. conoidea by the sessile perithecia, this taxon is based on a type from the Carpathian Mts.; its taxonomic value is uncertain and its distribution is poorly known. – Fr: AMa.

Acrocordia gemmata (Ach.) A. Massal. var. gemmata

Syn.: Acrocordia alba (Schrad.) B. de Lesd., Acrocordia sphaeroides (Wallr.) Arnold, Arthopyrenia alba (Schrad.) Zahlbr., Arthopyrenia gemmata (Ach.) A. Massal., Arthopyrenia sphaeroides (Wallr.) Zahlbr., Arthopyrenia tersa auct. non Körb., Lichen gemmatus Ach., Verrucaria gemmata (Ach.) Ach.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a mild-temperate species found on rough bark of mature broad-leaved trees (both deciduous and evergreen) in open woodlands; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, FR, LU, SZ, TI, VD. Fr: AMa, Isè, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Acrocordia gemmata (Ach.) A. Massal. var. rhododendri Hinteregger

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 4 – Note: a recently-described variety found on shrubs, mostly in the subalpine belt, to be looked for throughout the Alps. – Sl: SlA.

Acrocordia macrospora A. Massal.

Syn.: Acrocordia conoidea (Fr.) Körb. var. macrospora (A. Massal.) B. de Lesd., Arthopyrenia macrospora (A. Massal.) J. Steiner

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: an apparently Mediterranean-Atlantic, mild-temperate species (from Macaronesia to Norway), found on base-rich or weakly calciferous siliceous rocks in sheltered situations; certainly rare in the Alps. – Au: V. Sw: SZ. Fr: Var. It: Ven, Lomb. Sl: Tg.

Acrocordia salweyi (Leight. ex Nyl.) A.L. Sm.

Syn.: Arthopyrenia salweyi (Leight. ex Nyl.) Zahlbr., Verrucaria salweyi (Leight. ex Nyl.) Leight. ex Cromb.

L – Subs.: ter-sil – Alt.: 1–2 – Note: an apparently Mediterranean-Atlantic, mild-temperate species (from Macaronesia to Norway), found on soft calcareous substrata (mortar, calciferous sandstone) in warm-humid areas; certainly very rare in the Alps. – Fr: AMa. It: TAA, Lig.

Acrocordia scotophora A. Massal.

L # – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2 – Note: a species with an effuse, white, farinose thallus and finally semi-immersed perithecia, persistent interascal filaments, cylindrical, 8-spored asci, and 1-septate ascospores with rounded ends, arranged in a single row; on the bark of deciduous trees; only recorded from Northern Italy and in urgent need of critical re-evaluation (frequently considered as a synonym of Anisomeridium biforme, but perhaps closely related to, or a synonym of A. gemmata). – It: Ven.

Acrocordia subglobosa (Vězda) Poelt & Vězda

Syn.: Arthopyrenia subglobosa Vězda

L # – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 3 – Note: this species is characterised by sessile ascomata, but contrary to A. conoidea var. suzae, has a basally closed (entire) involucrellum; the type material is from the Sudety Mts., and the distribution is poorly known. – Fr: AMa.

Adelolecia kolaensis (Nyl.) Hertel & Rambold

Syn.: Catillaria tavastiana H. Magn., Lecidea conferenda Nyl., Lecidea dolosula (Nyl.) Vain., Lecidea kolaensis Nyl., Lecidea migratoria Lynge, Lecidea umbratilis (Arnold) Th. Fr., Lecidella umbratilis Arnold

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: an arctic-alpine, probably circumpolar species of basic to weakly calciferous siliceous rocks in exposed situations, with optimum above treeline. – Au: ?V, T, K, St, N. Ge: OB. Sw: BE. Fr: AMa, Isè, Sav. It: TAA, Piem, VA.

Adelolecia pilati (Hepp) Hertel & Hafellner

Syn.: Biatora pilati Hepp, Buellia modicula (Nyl.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Lecidea auriculata Th. Fr. var. hardangeriana Vain., Lecidea chrysotheicha Nyl., Lecidea lyngeana Zahlbr., Lecidea modicula Nyl., Lecidea pilati (Hepp) Körb., Lecidea proludens Nyl., Lecidea subauriculata Lynge nom.illeg. non B. de Lesd., Lecidea tirolica Vain., Lecidella botryosa Hepp ex Arnold, Lecidella proludens (Nyl.) Arnold

L – Subs.: sil, met – Alt.: 3–6 – Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species of steeply inclined to underhanging surfaces of weathered, metal-rich metamorphic rocks seldom wetted by rain, from the subalpine to the nival belt; widespread in the Alps and also occurring in the high Mediterranean mountains. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Sw: BE, GR, LU, TI, UW, VS. Fr: AMa, HSav. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig.

Adelolecia rhododendrina (Nyl.) Printzen ex Hafellner & Türk

Syn.: Lecidea rhododendrina Nyl.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: on twigs of subalpine shrubs, especially Rhododendron ferrugineum; probably more common and widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St. It: Frl.

Agonimia allobata (Stizenb.) P. James

Syn.: Amphoroblastia allobata (Stizenb.) Servít, Polyblastia allobata (Stizenb.) Zschacke, Verrucaria allobata Stizenb.

L – Subs.: cor, bry – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a mild-temperate species with subtropical affinities, found on ancient deciduous trees, in crevices or amongst mosses, in undisturbed forests or in deep gorges; widespread but usually rare in the Alps. – Au: S, K, O, N. Sw: GR, SZ, TI, UW, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, Var, Vau. It: Ven.

Agonimia borysthenica Dymytrova, Breuss & S.Y. Kondr.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a species of the A. allobata-group (asci 8-spored) with thallus consisting of distinct subglobose granules recalling those of A. vouauxii (with 2-spored asci) and larger ascospores; the type is from the Ukraine, and the distribution is poorly known. – Sw: TI.

Agonimia bryophilopsis (Vain.) Hafellner

Syn.: Polyblastia bryophilopsis Vain.

L # – Subs.: deb, bry, int – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: a species said to be similar to Polyblastia nigrata (a heterotypic synonym of A. gelatinosa), but thallus whitish-grey and ascomata subglobose and only basally immersed, the 8-spored asci with non-pigmented muriform ascospores; overgrowing mosses and plant debris on calcareous soil; apparently rare or not recognised in the Alps. – Au: T, S, St.

Agonimia gelatinosa (Ach.) M. Brand & Diederich

Syn.: Endocarpon gelatinosum (Ach.) Müll. Arg., Polyblastia caliginosa Norman, Polyblastia gelatinosa (Ach.) Th. Fr., Polyblastia nigrata Nyl., Verrucaria gelatinosa Ach., Verrucaria nigrata Nyl.

L – Subs.: deb, bry – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: a rather inconspicuous species growing on plant debris and mosses in dry calcareous grasslands, with optimum near treeline; widespread in the Alps. – Au: ?V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, LU, SZ, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, Vau. It: Frl, TAA. Sl: SlA.

Agonimia globulifera M. Brand & Diederich

L – Subs.: ter-cal – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a species growing on soil, plant debris and mosses in dry calcareous grasslands, mostly below the subalpine belt. The sterile, glossy black globules are diagnostic, while ascomata are rare and dull black; the total distribution is poorly known. – Au: St, O. Sw: LU.

Agonimia octospora Coppins & P. James

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2 – Note: a mild-temperate species with subtropical affinities, found on basal parts of old broad-leaved trees, on bark or amongst mosses in rather open, humid woodlands, with several records from the Western Alps (France). – Fr: AHP, AMa, Isè, Var, Vau.

Agonimia opuntiella (Buschardt & Poelt) Vězda

Syn.: Phaeophyscia opuntiella (Buschardt & Poelt) Hafellner, Physcia opuntiella Buschardt & Poelt

L – Subs.: bry, ter-cal, cor, deb – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a mild-temperate species found on terricolous mosses and plant debris over calcareous substrata, sometimes amongst mosses on basal parts of old trees; widespread, but only locally rather common in the Alps. – Au: T, K, St, N. Sw: LU, TI, VS. Fr: AMa, Var, Vau. It: Frl, TAA, Lomb.

Agonimia tristicula (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

Syn.: Polyblastia tristicula (Nyl.) Arnold, Sporodictyon tristiculum (Nyl.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Verrucaria tristicula Nyl.

L – Subs.: bry-cal, deb, ter-cal, cor – Alt.: 1–5 – Note: a probably holarctic species with a wide altitudinal and latitudinal range, found on terricolous mosses, but also, albeit rarely, on basal parts of old trunks in calcareous areas; widespread and often common throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GL, GR, LU, SG, SZ, TI, UR, UW, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, Drô, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig. Sl: SlA. Li.

Agonimia vouauxii (B. de Lesd.) M. Brand & P. Diederich

Syn.: Polyblastia vouauxii B. de Lesd.

L – Subs.: bry, deb, ter-cal, cal, bry-cal, xyl – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: a taxon described from maritime Northern France, where it colonises organic waste like paper, leather, etc.; elsewhere it was reported from soil rich in calcium in open vegetation types; the distribution in the Alps is poorly known, and records from high altitudes need verification. – Au: V, St, O. Sw: BE. Fr: AHP.

Ainoa geochroa (Körb.) Lumbsch & I. Schmitt

Syn.: Biatora geochroa Körb., Lecidea geochroa (Körb.) Lettau, Trapelia geochroa (Körb.) Hertel

L – Subs.: ter-sil – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: on fresh acidic mineral soil in open vegetation developing in areas with a long snow cover (Solorinion croceae-communities); distribution in the Alps poorly known, perhaps overlooked. – Au: V, T, S, K, St. Sw: UR, VS.

Ainoa mooreana (Carroll) Lumbsch & I. Schmitt

Syn.: Biatora brujeriana (Schaer. ex D. Dietr.) Arnold, Biatora lopadioides Th. Fr., Biatora torellii Anzi, Lecidea brujeriana (Schaer. ex D. Dietr.) Leight., Lecidea lopadioides (Th. Fr.) Grummann, Lecidea mooreana Carroll, Lecidea oblita Bagl. & Carestia, Lecidea torellii (Anzi) Nyl., Trapelia mooreana (Carroll) P. James, Trapelia torellii (Anzi) Hertel

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: a circumboreal-montane early coloniser of weathered siliceous rocks, also known from the Southern Hemisphere, mostly found on pebbles, or on large boulders near the soil surface in rather disturbed habitats (e.g. on track sides, in clearings of light forests, etc.), with optimum near treeline. – Au: V, T, S, K, St. Sw: SZ, TI. Fr: HSav. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA. Sl: SlA.

Alectoria nigricans (Ach.) Nyl.

Syn.: Alectoria thulensis (Th. Fr.) Nyl., Cornicularia ochroleuca (Hoffm.) DC. var. nigricans Ach., Gowardia nigricans (Ach.) Halonen, Myllys, Velmala & Hyvärinen

L – Subs.: ter-sil, deb-sil – Alt.: 4–6 – Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species found on ground or on rocks in wind-exposed siliceous ridges in moss-lichen heaths; widespread in the siliceous Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, N. Sw: BE, GR, SZ, TI, UR, VS. Fr: HAl, Isè, Sav, HSav. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA.

Alectoria ochroleuca (Hoffm.) A. Massal.

Syn.: Bryopogon ochroleucus (Hoffm.) Link, Cornicularia ochroleuca (Hoffm.) DC., Usnea ochroleuca Hoffm.

L – Subs.: ter-sil, bry, deb, cor – Alt.: 3–6 – Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species found on windy ridges in moss-lichens heaths, more frequent on siliceous substrata, but sometimes also occurring in areas with dolomite; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, TI, UR, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, Isè, Sav, HSav. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA.

Alectoria sarmentosa (Ach.) Ach.

Syn.: Alectoria cincinnata (Fr.) Lynge, Alectoria luteola Mont. ex De Not., Alectoria ochroleuca (Hoffm.) A. Massal. var. sarmentosa (Ach.) Nyl., Alectoria sarmentosa (Ach.) Ach. subsp. vexillifera (Nyl.) D. Hawksw., Alectoria vexillifera (Nyl.) Stizenb., Lichen sarmentosus Ach.

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, probably circumpolar species found on branches, more rarely on trunks of (mainly) conifers in forests with frequent fog; in the Alps it was probably more common in the past, presently certainly declining, being very sensitive to forest management. – Au: T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, GL, GR, LU, SZ, UR, VD, VS. Fr: HAl, Isè, Sav, HSav. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA. Sl: SlA.

Alectoria variegata (Samp.) Tav.

Syn.: Alectoria dichotoma var. variegata Samp., Alectoria ochroleuca var. variegata (Samp.) Zahlbr.

L # – Subs.: ter-sil – Alt.: 5 – Note: a species of doubtful taxonomic value, differing from other Alectorias of the A. ochroleuca-group mainly in the conspicuous violet-black patches on the thallus surface; described from siliceous boulders in the montane belt in Portugal and hardly recorded from elsewhere, except one terricolous finding in the alpine belt of the Western Alps (France). – Fr: HAl.

Allantoparmelia alpicola (Th. Fr.) Essl.

Syn.: Hypogymnia alpicola (Th. Fr.) Hav., Parmelia alpicola Th. Fr., Parmelia jinretleni Gyeln., Parmelia nigrita (Flot.) Hillmann

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 5–6 – Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species found on hard siliceous rocks, often on quartz, in wind-exposed ridges near or above treeline; probably ranging throughout the siliceous Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, N. Sw: BE, GR, UR, VS. Fr: Isè, HSav. It: TAA, Lomb.

Allocetraria madreporiformis (Ach.) Kärnefelt & A. Thell

Syn.: Dactylina madreporiformis (Ach.) Tuck., Dufourea madreporiformis Ach., Evernia madreporiformis (Ach.) Fr.

L – Subs.: ter-cal, deb – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: an arctic-alpine species found in open grasslands and in wind-exposed ridges near and above treeline; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, FR, GR, VD, VS. It: Frl, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA. Sl: SlA.

Alyxoria culmigena (Lib.) Ertz

Syn.: Opegrapha atrorimalis Nyl., Opegrapha betulina Sm. non Pers., Opegrapha culmigena Lib., Opegrapha herbarum Mont., Opegrapha turneri Leight., Opegrapha varia Pers. var. herbarum (Mont.) Källsten

L – Subs.: cor, deb – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: usually on bark of broad-leaved trees, but also on coarse debris like stems of larger herbs; mostly at low altitudes in areas with mild winters. – Au: O, N. Fr: AMa, Isè, Var, Vau. It: ?TAA, Piem. Sl: SlA.

Alyxoria mougeotii (A. Massal.) Ertz, Frisch & G. Thor

Syn.: Opegrapha leightonii Cromb. ex Nyl., Opegrapha mougeotii A. Massal.

L # – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: on steeply inclined surfaces of calcareous or base-rich siliceous substrata (limestone, calcareous sandstone, roofing tiles), in areas with mild winters, below the montane belt; related to A. varia. – Au: S, O, B. Sw: SZ. Fr: AHP, AMa, Vau. It: Ven, Piem.

Alyxoria ochrocheila (Nyl.) Ertz & Tehler

Syn.: Opegrapha atricolor Stirt., Opegrapha ochrocheila Nyl., Opegrapha rubescens Sandst.

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a Mediterranean-Atlantic species found on on the smooth bark of (mostly) evergreen broad-leaved trees and shrubs, more rarely on lignum; in the Alps it is very rare and restricted to areas with mild winters. The orange pruina on the exciple is diagnostic. – Sw: SZ. Fr: AMa. Sl: Tg.

Alyxoria varia (Pers.) Ertz & Tehler

Syn.: Alyxoria diaphora (Ach.) Gray, Alyxoria notha (Ach.) Gray, Opegrapha chlorina Pers., Opegrapha cymbiformis Flörke, Opegrapha diaphora (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha lichenoides Pers., Opegrapha notha Ach., Opegrapha pulicaris auct. p.p. non Pers. ex Fr., Opegrapha rimalis Pers., Opegrapha varia Pers., Opegrapha varia Pers. var. fagicola A. Massal., Opegrapha vulvella Ach.

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: a mainly temperate lichen found on old trees in humid but rather open forests, occasionally on basic siliceous rocks in humid and shaded situations. The delimitation of this species is still an open problem: here it is still treated as a collective taxon. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, FR, GL, GR, LU, SG, SZ, TI, UR, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA.

Alyxoria variiformis (Anzi) Ertz

Syn.: Opegrapha variiformis Anzi

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 2 – Note: a mild-temperate to Mediterranean-Atlantic species found on steeply inclined faces of calciferous rocks near the coast, in rather shaded and humid situations, with a few records from the base of the Western Alps (France). – Fr: AHP, Var, Vau.

Amandinea cacuminum (Th. Fr.) H. Mayrhofer & Sheard

Syn.: Rinodina cacuminum (Th. Fr.) Malme non (A. Massal.) Anzi, Rinodina sophodes (Ach.) A. Massal. var. milvina (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. f. cacuminum Th. Fr.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 5 – Note: on large boulders frequently visited by birds; described from Scandinavia, and also reported from the Eastern Alps (Austria). – Au: St.

Amandinea oleicola (Nyl.) Giralt & van den Boom

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 1 – Note: a recently resurrected epiphytic species known from Tuscany, Portugal and the Canary Islands, also reported from the base of the Western Alps. – Fr: Var.

Amandinea pelidna (Ach.) Fryday & Arcadia

Syn.: Amandinea lecideina (H. Mayrhofer & Poelt) Scheid. & H. Mayrhofer, Biatora pelidna (Ach.) Rabenh., Lecidea lygaea Ach. f. pelidna (Ach.) Ach., Lecidea pelidna Ach., Rinodina lecideina H. Mayrhofer & Poelt

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: this species differs from A. punctata in the median spore wall thickening, the rimose thallus, and perhaps in the frequent presence of pycnidia. The typical form is apparently a coloniser of siliceous boulders and outcrops near the seashore (type from a lowland locality in Ireland), and the identity of records from the Alps, treated as “orophilous ecotype” by Roux et al. (2017), requires further critical study. – Au: Au. Fr: AHP. It: TAA.

Amandinea punctata (Hoffm.) Coppins & Scheid.

Syn.: Buellia cupreola Müll. Arg., Buellia myriocarpa (DC.) De Not., Buellia punctata (Hoffm.) A. Massal., Buellia punctiformis (Hoffm.) A. Massal., Buellia stigmatea (Schaer.) Körb., Karschia thallophila (Ohlert) Rehm, Lecidea myriocarpa (DC.) Röhl., Lecidea punctata (Hoffm.) Flörke, Patellaria myriocarpa DC., Verrucaria punctata Hoffm.

L # – Subs.: cor, xyl, sil, deb, bry, ter-sil – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: a very poorly understood taxon; in its present circumscription, an almost cosmopolitan lichen found on a wide variety of substrata, including bark, lignum, siliceous rocks, roofing tiles and brick; heterogeneous, and in need of revision. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, FR, GR, LU, SG, SZ, TI, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA, Tg. Li.

Amygdalaria consentiens (Nyl.) Hertel, Brodo & May. Inoue

Syn.: Lecidea consentiens Nyl.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 5 – Note: a probably circum-arctic species, peculiar in having sunken apothecia and lacking soralia; very rare in the Alps. – Au: T. Ge: OB, Schw.

Amygdalaria panaeola (Ach.) Hertel & Brodo

Syn.: Huilia panaeola (Ach.) Hertel, Lecidea panaeola Ach., Psora panaeola (Ach.) Anzi

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, incompletely circumpolar species of weathered, mineral-rich siliceous rocks close to the ground, in areas with late snow cover, with optimum above treeline. – Au: T, St. Sw: BE, UR, VS. It: TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA.

Amylora cervinocuprea (Arnold) Rambold

Syn.: Aspicilia cervinocuprea Arnold, Aspicilia olivacea Bagl. & Carestia f. cervinocuprea (Arnold) Arnold, Lecanora cervinocuprea (Arnold) Mig.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 5–6 – Note: on vertical to overhanging faces of gneissic rocks; perhaps more widespread in the Alps, but not common. – Au: T, K. Sw: GR, VS. It: TAA.

Anaptychia bryorum Poelt

Syn.: Anaptychia fusca (Huds.) Vain. var. stippaea auct., Anaptychia stippaea auct.

L – Subs.: ter-cal, bry-cal, deb – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, probably circumpolar species found amongst mosses and moribund plants over base-rich siliceous substrata; widespread almost throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, GL, GR, SZ, UR, VS. Fr: HAl, AMa. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA.

Anaptychia ciliaris (L.) Flot.

Syn.: Anaptychia melanosticta (Ach.) Trass, Borrera ciliaris (L.) Ach., Borrera solenaria Duby, Hagenia ciliaris (L.) W. Mann, Lichen ciliaris L., Parmelia ciliaris (L.) Ach., Physcia ciliaris (L.) DC.

L – Subs.: cor, cal, ter-cal – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a temperate species found on bark of more or less isolated trees, sometimes also on rock and amongst terricolous mosses in open situations; widespread throughout the Alps, but probably declining. See also note on A. crinalis. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GL, GR, LU, SG, SZ, UR, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA, Tg. Li.

Anaptychia crinalis (Schleich.) Vězda ex J. Nowak

Syn.: Anaptychia ciliaris (L.) Körb. var. crinalis (Schleich.) Rabenh., Physcia ciliaris (L.) DC. var. crinalis Schleich.

L # – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3 – Note: perhaps just a simple forma of A. ciliaris (intermediate morphs are common), confined to humid beech forests. – Au: T, K, N. Sw: BE, GR, VD, VS. Fr: Isè, Sav, HSav. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem.

Anaptychia runcinata (With.) J.R. Laundon

Syn.: Anaptychia aquila (Ach.) A. Massal., Anaptychia fusca (Huds.) Vain., Lichen runcinatus With., Physcia fusca (Huds.) A.L. Sm.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a Mediterranean-Atlantic, European species found on hard siliceous boulders, sometimes overgrowing epilithic mosses, with a few records from the base of the Western Alps. – Fr: Vau. It: Lig.

Anaptychia ulotricoides (Vain.) Vain.

Syn.: Physcia ulotricoides Vain.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 4 – Note: a species described from the inner-Asian steppe zone, where it grows on various substrates including bark and rock; in the Alps it is certainly not common, being perhaps restricted to dry valleys. – Fr: AHP.

Anema decipiens (A. Massal.) Forssell

Syn.: Collema decipiens (A. Massal.) Nyl., Omphalaria decipiens A. Massal., Thyrea decipiens (A. Massal.) A. Massal.

L – Subs.: cal, int – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: on steeply inclined, sunny surfaces of calcareous rocks (mainly limestone, but also calciferous schists and sandstone) with periodical water seepage after rain, below the alpine belt. – Au: V, T, S, O. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: GR, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, Var, Vau. It: Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem.

Anema moedlingense Zahlbr.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–2 – Note: the suberect, deeply sulcate squamules with a reticulate surface are diagnostic; on sunny calcareous rocks with periodical water seepage; often confused with A. nummularium, and certainly more widespread in the Alps. – Fr: AMa. It: Frl.

Anema nummularium (Dufour ex Durieu & Mont.) Nyl. ex Forssell

Syn.: Anema notarisii (A. Massal.) Forssell, Anema nummulariellum Nyl., Collema nummularium Dufour ex Durieu & Mont., Omphalaria frustillata Nyl., Omphalaria notarisii A. Massal., Thyrea frustillata (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: on steeply inclined surfaces of limestone and dolomite with periodical water seepage after rain, below the subalpine belt. See also note on A. moedlingense. – Au: K, T, St, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: SZ, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig.

Anema prodigulum (Nyl.) Henssen

Syn.: Omphalaria prodigula Nyl., Thyrea prodigula (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–2 – Note: on sunny seepage tracks of calcareous rocks, mostly below the montane belt. – Fr: AHP, AMa. It: Frl.

Anema suffruticosum P.P. Moreno & Egea

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–2 – Note: on sunny seepage tracks of calcareous, more rarely of base-rich siliceous rocks; certainly not common, but probably more widespread in the Alps. – Fr: AMa, Var. It: TAA.

Anema tumidulum Henssen ex P.M. Jørg., M. Schultz & Guttová

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: this species seems to be fairly common in Central Europe. It grows on steeply inclined, sunny surfaces of calcareous or basic siliceous rocks with periodical water seepage after rain, with optimum in upland areas. – Au: ?N. Sw: GR, TI, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa. It: Frl, Lomb, VA.

Anisomeridium biforme (Schaer.) R.C. Harris

Syn.: Acrocordia biformis (Schaer.) Arnold, Acrocordia polycarpa (Körb.) Körb., Arthopyrenia biformis (Schaer.) A. Massal., Arthopyrenia byssacea (Taylor) A.L. Sm., Arthopyrenia conformis (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Arthopyrenia tersa Körb. non auct., Ditremis biformis (Schaer.) R.C. Harris, Epicymathia thallophila (Cooke) Sacc., Leiophloea biformis (Schaer.) Trevis., Verrucaria biformis Schaer., Verrucaria conformis Nyl.

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a mild-temperate, probably holarctic species found on deciduous trees in open and humid woodlands, e.g. along creeks and rivers on Fraxinus, Populus and Salix, sometimes also on oaks. – Au: S, K, O. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, FR, GR, LU. Fr: AHP, AMa, Isè, Var. It: Frl, Ven, Lomb, Piem.

Anisomeridium carintiacum (J. Steiner) R.C. Harris

Syn.: Arthopyrenia carintiaca J. Steiner, Paraphysothele carintiaca (J. Steiner) Keissl.

L # – Subs.: sil-aqu – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: in the study area only known from the type locality in Austria. – Au: K.

Anisomeridium macrocarpum (Körb.) V. Wirth

Syn.: Acrocordia macrocarpa Körb., Arthopyrenia macrocarpa (Körb.) Zahlbr.

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a mainly Central European lichen also known from Northern Spain, with a poorly developed, mainly endosubstratic thallus; the large 1-septate ascospores (30–45 × 7–10 μm) are diagnostic; on the trunks of broad-leaved deciduous trees in woodlands, mostly near the base of the boles, or on roots. – Au: V, T, S, K, O. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, GL, GR, SZ, VD, VS. It: Ven.

Anisomeridium polypori (Ellis & Everh.) M.E. Barr

Syn.: Anisomeridium juistense (Erichsen) R.C. Harris, Anisomeridium nyssaegenum (Ellis & Everh.) R.C. Harris, Anisomeridium willeyanum (R.C. Harris) R.C. Harris, Apiospora polypori Ellis & Everh., Apiosporella polypori (Ellis & Everh.) Höhnel, Arthopyrenia willeyana R.C. Harris, Didymella polypori (Ellis & Everh.) Ellis & Everh., Ditremis nyssaegena (Ellis & Everh.) R.C. Harris, Melanopsamma corticola Ellis & Everh., Mycosphaerella hepaticarum (Pat.) Petrak, Sarcinulella banksiae B. Sutton & Alcorn, Stigmatea hepaticarum Pat., Thelidium juistense Erichsen, Zygonella nyssaegenum Ellis & Everh.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a mainly mild-temperate, perhaps holarctic species, mainly found on bark along rivers and brooks; overlooked for a long time, but certainly widespread and locally common in the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: GL, GR, SZ, TI, UR, UW, VS. Fr: AMa, Drô, Isè, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem. Sl: SlA.

Anisomeridium ranunculosporum (Coppins & P. James) Coppins

Syn.: Arthopyrenia ranunculospora Coppins & P. James

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: this species is peculiar in the shape of the one-septate ascospores with the lower cell much longer than the upper one; thalli with macroconidiomata only are difficult to identify; on smooth bark in old-growth broad-leaved forests; perhaps overlooked but certainly rare in the Alps, more common in extra-Alpine Europe. – Au: S.

Anisomeridium viridescens (Coppins) R.C. Harris

Syn.: Arthopyrenia viridescens Coppins

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: the brown, persistent involucrellum reacting K+ green, as well as the strongly branched interascal filaments are diagnostic; usually on smooth bark in woodlands with a long ecological continuity; the total distribution is incompletely known. – Au: St.

Anzina carneonivea (Anzi) Scheid. var. carneonivea

Syn.: Caloplaca carneonivea (Anzi) Jatta, Diphratora carneonivea (Anzi) Jatta, Gyalecta carneonivea (Anzi) Lettau, Gyalolechia carneonivea Anzi, Lecidea carneonivea (Anzi) Nyl., Pertusaria carneonivea (Anzi) Vain., Pertusaria infralapponica Vain., Pertusaria tauriscorum Zahlbr., Secoliga carneonivea (Anzi) Arnold, Varicellaria carneonivea (Anzi) Erichsen

L – Subs.: xyl, deb, ter, bry, cor – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: on acidic substrata such as bark – especially of conifers – wood, plant debris, moribund bryophytes, in the understory of upper montane moist forest, and among shrubs, with optimum in the subalpine belt; widespread, but in some areas of the Alps still overlooked. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, GL, GR, SZ, TI, VD, VS. Fr: HSav. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb.

Anzina carneonivea (Anzi) Scheid. var. tetraspora Scheid.

L # – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: the taxonomic value of this variety is unclear; the ecology is as in the type variety. – Au: V, T, S, K, St. Sw: GR, TI.

Aphanopsis coenosa (Ach.) Coppins & P. James

Syn.: Collema coenosum Ach., Lecidea humigena Taylor, Lecidea praecox Vězda

L – Subs.: ter-sil – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: on humid, bare, clayey or fine-grained sandy soil on track sides or ditch margins in woodlands; easy to overlook and perhaps more widespread in the Alps, but certainly not common. – Au: St. Sw: VS. It: Lomb.

Arctoparmelia centrifuga (L.) Hale

Syn.: Lichen centrifugus L., Parmelia centrifuga (L.) Ach., Xanthoparmelia centrifuga (L.) Hale

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: an arctic-alpine species of exposed siliceous rocks; certainly very rare in the Alps. Italian records need confirmation (see Nimis 2016). – Au: T, St, ?N. It: ?Ven, ?Piem.

Arctoparmelia incurva (Pers.) Hale

Syn.: Lichen incurvus Pers., Parmelia incurva (Pers.) Fr., Parmelia multifida auct., Xanthoparmelia incurva (Pers.) Hale

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: a circumpolar, arctic-alpine to boreal-montane species found on steeply inclined, hard, acid siliceous rocks in cold, wind-exposed mountain summits and boulder fields; rare in the Alps, and distribution insufficiently documented. – Au: T, S, K, St. Sw: VS. Fr: HSav. It: Piem.

Arthonia apatetica (A. Massal.) Th. Fr.

Syn.: Allarthonia apatetica (A. Massal.) Lettau, Arthonia exilis auct., Arthonia rugulosa (Kremp.) Almq., Catillaria apatetica A. Massal., Coniangium apateticum (A. Massal.) A. Massal.

L – Subs.: cor-par, xyl – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a mainly temperate species found on trunks and young twigs of deciduous trees in sheltered situations, with optimum in the submediterranean belt. See also note on A. tenellula. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O. Ge: OB. Sw: VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem. Sl: SlA.

Arthonia arthonioides (Ach.) A.L. Sm.

Syn.: Arthonia aspersa Leight., Arthonia lecideoides Th. Fr., Arthonia trachylioides Nyl., Arthonia xylophila V. Wirth & P. James, Trachylia arthonioides (Ach.) Fr., Lecidea arthonioides Ach.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 1–2 – Note: a southern species, known from Europe and North America, found on acidic rocks and exposed roots in dry underhangs, also on dry undersides of trees in sheltered, humid situations, such as in forests; from the Alps there are a few scattered records only. – Au: O. It: Lomb.

Arthonia atra (Pers.) A. Schneid.

Syn.: Opegrapha atra Pers., Opegrapha denigrata Ach., Opegrapha fuliginosa Pers. ex Ach., Opegrapha salicina A. Massal., Opegrapha stenocarpa Ach.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: mainly on smooth bark of deciduous trees, widespread and often common throughout the Alps, below the subalpine belt. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, LU, SZ, TI, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Arthonia caesiella Nyl.

Syn.: Arthonia aphthoides Flagey, Arthonia aphthosa Flagey, Arthonia galactiformis Flagey

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2 – Note: a species with bluish grey-pruinose ascomata, based on a type from extra-Alpine Southern France. – Fr: Vau.

Arthonia calcicola Nyl.

Syn.: Allarthonia calcicola (Nyl.) Redinger

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–2 – Note: an early coloniser of calcareous walls and mortar; overlooked and probably more common, especially in the eu-Mediterranean belt, and also present in the warm-dry valleys of the Alps. – Au: K, St. It: TAA.

Arthonia cinereopruinosa Schaer.

Syn.: Arthonia lilacina (Ach.) Körb., Arthonia pinicola (Hepp) A. Massal., Pyrenotheca stictica Fr., Trachylia cinereopruinosa (Schaer.) A. Massal.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a mild-temperate species found on smooth bark of deciduous trees in dense humid forests. – Au: O, N. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, LU, VD. Fr: Vau. It: Frl, Ven, Lomb.

Arthonia didyma Körb.

Syn.: Arthonia aspersella Leight., Arthonia atrofuscella Nyl., Arthonia pineti Körb., Caldesia didyma (Körb.) Trevis.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a cool-temperate species found on smooth bark in humid areas. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GL, GR, SZ, TI, UR, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AMa, Drô, Isè, Var. It: Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Arthonia dispersa (Schrad.) Nyl.

Syn.: Arthonia epipasta (Ach.) Körb., Arthonia minutula Nyl., Opegrapha dispersa Schrad., Opegrapha epipasta (Ach.) Ach.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a holarctic species found on smooth, nutrient-rich bark, e.g. of Fraxinus. It belongs to a difficult complex which still awaits elucidation. – Au: S, K, St, O, N, B. Sw: BE, GR, TI, VD. Fr: Drô, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA. Sl: SlA.

Arthonia excipienda (Nyl.) Leight.

Syn.: Arthonia astroidea Ach. var. excipienda Nyl., Arthonia dispersa (Schrad.) Nyl. subsp. excipienda (Nyl.) Nyl., Arthonia dispersa (Schrad.) Nyl. var. excipienda (Nyl.) H. Olivier, Arthonia hibernica Nyl.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: on smooth bark of deciduous trees and shrubs in riparian montane woodlands; probably overlooked or confused with A. punctiformis. – Ge: OB. It: TAA, Lig.

Arthonia faginea Müll. Arg.

Syn.: Allarthonia faginea (Müll. Arg.) Redinger

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3 – Note: the ascospores which are 2-septate when fully developed are diagnostic, recalling somewhat A. radiata, but with a coccoid photobiont; on smooth bark under suboceanic conditions; distribution insufficiently known. – Au: N. Fr: HSav.

Arthonia fuliginosa (Turner & Borrer) Flot.

Syn.: Spiloma fuliginosum Turner & Borrer

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a mild-temperate lichen growing on acid bark, especially of Abies, in humid montane forests. – Au: V, T, K, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. It: Frl, TAA. Sl: SlA.

Arthonia galactites (DC.) Dufour

Syn.: Arthonia marginella Dufour ex Nyl., Arthonia punctiformis Ach. var. galactina Ach., Opegrapha galactites (DC.) M. Choisy, Verrucaria galactites DC.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a mild-temperate species with optimum on the smooth bark of Fraxinus ornus, but also of Populus and even Pistacia; probably overlooked or/and confused with other species, but certainly not common in the Alps. – Au: O. Sw: TI. Fr: Isè. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig. Sl: SlA.

Arthonia granitophila Th. Fr.

Syn.: Melaspilea granitophila (Th. Fr.) Coppins, Melaspilea subarenacea J. Nowak & Kiszka

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a melaspileoid species with an indistinct thallus and black, somewhat elongated ascomata, peculiar in Arthonia by the carbonised exciple; on shaded siliceous rocks, with optimum in the montane belt; widespread in Europe but not common, with several records from the Eastern Alps only (Austria). – Au: V, T, S, K, St.

Arthonia granosa B. de Lesd.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2 – Note: this species recalls in habitus A. galactites, but has much larger ascospores. It is has a Mediterranean-Atlantic distribution in coastal situations with humid maritime winds, generally on Juniperus, but also on Olea and Quercus ilex; in the study area it is rare and restricted to low altitudes in the Western Alps, near the Mediterranean coast, on the smooth bark of broad-leaved trees. – Fr: AMa.

Arthonia incarnata Th. Fr. ex Almq.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 4 – Note: almost exclusively on bark of young to middle-aged conifers (Picea, Abies); a typical species of boreal to temperate-montane regions; very rare in the Alps, most records being old. – Au: St.

Arthonia lapidicola (Taylor) Branth & Rostr.

Syn.: Allarthonia fusca (A. Massal.) Sandst., Allarthonia lapidicola (Taylor) Zahlbr., Arthonia fusca (A. Massal.) Hepp, Arthonia koerberi (J. Lahm ex Arnold) Malbr., Arthonia vagans Almq. var. koerberi (J. Lahm ex Arnold) Almq., Catillaria fusca A. Massal., Catillaria ooliticola Walt. Watson, Coniangium fuscum (A. Massal.) A. Massal., Coniangium lapidicola (Taylor) Arnold, Coniangium rupestre Körb., Lecidea lapidicola Taylor

L – Subs.: cal, deb – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: a holarctic species of calcareous rocks and mortar, most frequent on pebbles, but also on walls, roofing tiles etc.; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, SZ, UR, VD. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem.

Arthonia ligniaria Hellb.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2 – Note: in external appearance this species recalls A. lapidicola, but the ascospores are much larger; on bark of mature broad-leaved trees; distribution insufficiently known. – Sw: LU.

Arthonia lignariella Coppins

L – Subs.: cor-alg – Alt.: 4 – Note: in appearance and ascoma anatomy this species resembles A. ligniaria, but the hymenium is lower and the ascospores smaller; mostly on rotting wood of stumps, but also on bark; widespread in Western and Northern Europe, and also reported from the Swiss Alps. – Sw: SZ.

Arthonia mediella Nyl.

Syn.: Arthonia globulosiformis (Hepp) Arnold, Arthonia sordaria Körb.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, probably circumpolar species, living as an early coloniser of acid bark, most often of conifers, found both in humid Abies-Fagus forests and in open Larix stands; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: T, S, K, St, O. Sw: GL, GR, LU, SZ, TI, UR, VD, VS. Fr: HSav. It: TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig. Sl: SlA.

Arthonia patellulata Nyl.

Syn.: Allarthonia patellulata (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Arthonia betuleti Nyl., Coniangium krempelhuberi A. Massal.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, probably circumpolar species found on smooth bark, mostly of Populus tremula; from the Alps there are only scattered records. – Au: K. Ge: OB. It: Ven, Lomb, Piem.

Arthonia radiata (Pers.) Ach.

Syn.: Arthonia astroidea Ach., Arthonia epipastoides Nyl., Arthonia montellica A. Massal., Arthonia sorbina Körb., Arthonia swartziana Ach., Arthonia vulgaris Schaer., Lichen astroites Ach., Opegrapha astroidea (Ach.) Ach., Opegrapha radiata Pers., Opegrapha swartziana (Ach.) Hepp

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: a mainly temperate, incompletely holarctic lichen, the only Arthonia found in non-natural habitats such as in settlements, parks, etc., even in moderately polluted situations, exceptionally reaching the subalpine belt; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, FR, GL, GR, LU, SG, SZ, TI, UR, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA, Tg. Li.

Arthonia reniformis (Pers.) Röhl.

Syn.: Arthonia gyrosa Ach., Naevia gyrosa (Ach.) A. Massal., Opegrapha reniformis Pers.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a mild-temperate species of smooth bark, especially of Carpinus, more rarely of Fagus and Corylus, in humid deciduous woodlands; from the Alps there are only scattered records. – Au: K, St. Sw: SZ. Fr: Isè. It: Ven, TAA.

Arthonia ruana A. Massal.

Syn.: Arthonia anastomosans (Ach.) Nyl., Arthonia beltraminiana (A. Massal.) Anzi, ?Arthonia rosacea Anzi, Arthoniopsis ruana (A. Massal.) Trevis., Arthothelium anastomosans (Ach.) Arnold, Arthothelium beltraminianum A. Massal., Arthothelium dispersum auct., Arthothelium ruanum (A. Massal.) Körb., Arthothelium rosaceum (Anzi) Zahlbr., Arthothelium ruanideum (Nyl.) Arnold

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a temperate, suboceanic species found on smooth bark of deciduous trees and shrubs (e.g. Alnus, Fagus, Fraxinus, Corylus, etc.) in humid forests, often on the basal parts of the trunks; widespread in the Alps, but generally not common. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Fr: AMa. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem. Sl: SlA.

Arthonia spadicea Leight. var. spadicea

Syn.: Arthonia lurida Ach. non auct., Arthonia lurida Ach. var. spadicea (Leight.) Nyl., Coniangium spadiceum (Leight.) Arnold

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a mainly temperate lichen found on smooth bark, more rarely on wood, in humid forests; widespread in the Alps, but generally not common. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GL, GR, SZ, TI, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AMa, Isè, Var. It: Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig.

Arthonia spadicea Leight. var. subspadicea (Nyl.) Redinger

Syn.: Arthonia subspadicea Nyl.

L # – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3 – Note: the external appearance is like var. spadicea, but the hymenium in section is colourless to slightly yellowish and not reacting with K; the ecology as well resembles that of var. spadicea; the taxonomic value of this variety is in need of evaluation. – Au: V, T.

Arthonia stellaris Kremp.

Syn.: Arthonia armoricana Leight.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a mild-temperate lichen found on smooth bark, e.g. of Corylus, and in Abies-Fagus forests. – Au: V, S, O. Ge: OB. Sw: BE. Fr: AMa, Drô, Var.

Arthonia subastroidea Anzi

Syn.: Arthothelium subastroideum (Anzi) Rehm

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane early coloniser of bark, e.g. of Pinus cembra and Fagus in the Alps; perhaps non-lichenised. – It: Lomb.

Arthonia tenellula Nyl.

Syn.: Allarthonia tenellula (Nyl.) B. de Lesd., Arthonia horaria Norman

L # – Subs.: xyl – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: differing from A. apatetica mainly in the hypophloeodic thallus; the taxonomic value of this species is in need of re-evaluation: it was described from a site near the sea shore in western France; specimens from the Alps are in need of verification, and the distribution is insufficiently known. – Au: T, K, St.

Arthonia trifurcata (Hepp ex Müll. Arg.) Cl. Roux

Syn.: Opegrapha trifurcata Hepp ex Müll. Arg.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: this species has been often confused with A. calcarea, so that its distribution is still poorly known. The thallus is thinner and greenish-white and the apothecia are smaller than in A. calcarea, which also has a different ecology, being a littoral species; the arthonioid asci and similarities with A. atra were interestingly already noticed by Müller Argoviensis; the type is from the Jura Massif in France. It grows on calcareous rocks in rather sheltered situations below the montane belt, and sometimes it starts the life-cycle on other crustose lichens. – Au: T, S, St. Ge: OB, Schw. Fr: AHP, AMa, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Ven.

Arthonia viburnea Müll. Arg.

L # – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a species with minute, hemispherical to subglobose, black ascomata and 5-septate ascospores (15–18 × 4.5–6 μm); apparently reported only from the type locality in France, where it was found on branches of Viburnum lantana. – Fr: HSav.

Arthonia vinosa Leight.

Syn.: Arthonia lurida auct. non Ach., Coniangium luridum auct. non (Ach.) Fr., Coniangium vinosum (Leight.) A. Massal., Coniangium vulgare Fr.

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a mild-temperate species found near the base of old trees, more rarely on lignum, in very humid and closed-canopied forests; related to A. spadicea; widespread in the Alps, but generally not common. – Au: T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, SZ, VD, VS. Fr: Isè. It: Frl, Ven, TAA. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Arthopyrenia arnoldii Zahlbr.

L # – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3 – Note: a species with a thin, epiphloeodic, continuous, whitish thallus and minute, hemispherical to depressed ascomata (to 0.25 mm in diam) which are finally black and glossy, thin distinct branching interascal filaments, 4 – to 8-spored asci (to 65 × 15 µm), 1-septate, ellipsoid to oblong ascospores with both cells of about equal size, surrounded by a perisporal sheath (14–18 × 5–8 µm), and bacillary pycnoconidia (to 4 µm long); based on a type from Italy where it was found on branches of Larix. – Au: St. It: TAA.

Arthothelium lirellans (Almq.) Coppins

Syn.: Arthonia lirellans Almq.

L # – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: on smooth bark in woodlands with a long ecological continuity, in sites with an oceanic climate; distribution still insufficiently known, perhaps sometimes mistaken for Arthonia punctiformis. – Au: K, St.

Arthothelium spectabile A. Massal.

Syn.: Arthonia difformis Nyl.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a temperate-suboceanic lichen found on the smooth bark of deciduous trees in ancient forests; from the Alps there are only a few scattered records. – Au: St, O, N. Ge: Schw. Fr: AMa. It: Ven, Lomb.

Arthrorhaphis alpina (Schaer.) R. Sant.

Syn.: Arthrorhaphis citrinella (Ach.) Poelt var. alpina (Schaer.) Poelt, Bacidia alpina (Schaer.) Vain., Bacidia citrinella (Ach.) Branth & Rostr. subsp. alpina (Schaer.) J.R. Laundon, Bacidia flavovirescens (Turner & Borrer ex Schaer.) Anzi var. alpina (Schaer.) A.L. Sm., Lecidea flavovirescens Turner & Borrer ex Schaer. var. alpina Schaer.

L – Subs.: ter-sil, ter-sil-par, ter-cal, ter-cal-par, bry – Alt.: 4–6 – Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species found on weakly calciferous soil rich in humus, first parasymbiotic on Baeomyces, later an autonomous lichen; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, SG, ?SZ, TI, UR, VD, VS. Fr: HAl, AMa, Sav, HSav. It: Frl, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA.

Arthrorhaphis citrinella (Ach.) Poelt

Syn.: Arthrorhaphis flavovirescens (Turner & Borrer ex Schaer.) Th. Fr., Bacidia citrinella (Ach.) Branth & Rostr., Bacidia flavovirescens (Turner & Borrer ex Schaer.) Anzi, Bacidia flavovirescens (Turner & Borrer ex Schaer.) Anzi var. citrinella (Ach.) Vain., Lecanactis citrinella (Ach.) H. Olivier, Lecidea citrinella (Ach.) Ach., Lecidea flavovirescens Turner & Borrer ex Schaer., Lichen citrinellus Ach., Lichen flavovirescens Dicks. nom.illeg. non Wulfen, Mycobacidia flavovirescens (Turner & Borrer ex Schaer.) Rehm, Raphiospora flavovirescens (Turner & Borrer ex Schaer.) A. Massal., Scoliciosporum flavovirescens (Turner & Borrer ex Schaer.) Jatta, Skolekites citrinellus (Ach.) Norman

L – Subs.: ter-sil, sil-par, bry – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species found on mosses and soil rich in humus in sheltered situations, older thalli are lichenised, younger ones are lichenicolous on Baeomyces; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, TI, UR, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Sav, HSav. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA. Sl: SlA.

Arthrorhaphis vacillans Th. Fr. & Almq. ex Th. Fr.

Syn.: Arthrorhaphis anziana (Lynge) Poelt, Bacidia anziana Lynge, Bacidia vacillans (Th. Fr. & Almq. ex Th. Fr.) Rostr.

L – Subs.: ter-sil, ter-sil-par, ter-cal, ter-cal-par – Alt.: 4–6 – Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar species found in humid soil near and above treeline. It starts the life-cycle as a parasite of Baeomyces placophyllus, later becoming autotrophic, and is the most calcium-tolerant among the Arthrorhaphis-species, often occurring over calcareous schists and even marmor (Obermayer in litt.). – Au: T, S, K, St. Ge: OB. Sw: SG, ?SZ. It: TAA.

Arthrosporum populorum A. Massal.

Syn.: Arthrosporum accline (Flot.) A. Massal., Bacidia acclinis (Flot.) Zahlbr., Bacidia populorum (A. Massal.) Trevis., Bilimbia acclinis (Flot.) Trevis., Bilimbia populorum (A. Massal.) Vain., Lecidea acclinis Flot.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a mild-temperate lichen found on smooth bark of deciduous trees and shrubs, especially Fraxinus, Populus and Salix; widespread in the Alps, but probably declining. – Au: T, S, K, St, N. Sw: GR, VS. Fr: AMa, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig.

Aspicilia adaequata (Lettau) Poelt

Syn.: Lecanora adequata Lettau

L # – Subs.: cal, int – Alt.: 4–6 – Note: a species recalling A. candida, but marginal lobes less distinct and apothecia with black, non-pruinose discs; the distribution in the Alps is still insufficiently known. – Au: V, T, St.

Aspicilia aquatica (Fr.) Körb.

Syn.: Aspicilia eluta (Nyl.) Hue, Aspicilia flageyi Hue, Lecanora amphibola sensu Vain., Lecanora aquatica (Fr.) Hepp, Lecanora flageyi (Hue) Zahlbr., Lecanora mazarina (Wahlenb.) H. Magn., Lecanora rivulorum H. Magn., Parmelia cinerea (L.) Hepp var. aquatica Fr.

L – Subs.: sil-aqu – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: a probably holarctic species of periodically submerged rocks and boulders along streams; widespread throughout the siliceous Alps. See also note on A. proluta. – Au: V, T, S, K, St. Sw: BE, GR, TI, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, HSav, Var. It: TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig. Sl: SlA.

Aspicilia bricconensis Hue

Syn.: Lecanora bricconensis (Hue) Zahlbr.

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: a chemically variable species of siliceous rocks, reported from scattered localities in Alps. – Au: T, S, St. Sw: TI. Fr: AHP, AMa. It: TAA.

Aspicilia bunodea (A. Massal.) Maheu & A. Gillet

Syn.: Lecanora bunodea (A. Massal.) Jatta, Pachyospora bunodea A. Massal.

L # – Subs.: sil, int – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: most probably related to A. contorta (see Roux et al. 2014). – It: Ven.

Aspicilia cacuminum (Müll. Arg.) Kernst.

Syn.: Lecanora cacuminum Müll. Arg.

L # – Subs.: cal, int – Alt.: 5–6 – Note: a high-alpine species with subeffigurate thallus margins, whose taxonomic value is in need of re-evaluation; the distribution is still insufficiently known. – Au: T. Sw: VD.

Aspicilia caesiocinerea (Nyl. ex Malbr.) Arnold

Syn.: Aspicilia gibbosa auct. non (Ach.) Körb, Aspicilia rolleana Hue, Circinaria caesiocinerea (Nyl. ex Malbr.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell, Lecanora caesiocinerea Nyl. ex Malbr., Lecanora rolleana (Hue) Zahlbr.

L – Subs.: sil, int – Alt.: 1–5 – Note: on siliceous rocks wetted by rain, with a wide altitudinal range. Very heterogeneous both morphologically and ecologically, and in need of revision; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, N, B. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, GR, SZ, TI, UR, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA. Li.

Aspicilia calcarea (L.) Bagl.

Syn.: Aspicilia lundensis (Fr.) Uloth, Circinaria calcarea (L.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell, Lecanora calcarea (L.) Sommerf., Lecanora lundensis (Fr.) Zahlbr., Lecidea calcarea (L.) Schaer., Lichen calcareus L., Pachyospora calcarea (L.) A. Massal., Parmelia calcarea (L.) Michx., Patellaria calcarea (L.) Trevis., Urceolaria calcarea (L.) Ach., Verrucaria calcarea (L.) Humb.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: a mainly Mediterranean to mild-temperate species found on limestone and dolomite, sometimes also on other calciferous substrata; absent only from large conurbations, sometimes reaching beyond treeline; widespread and common throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: GR, LU, SZ, TI, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: Tg.

Aspicilia calcitrapa Cl. Roux & A. Nordin

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2 – Note: on siliceous rocks in sunny places at low elevations, where it forms a community together with Pertusaria chiodectonoides; most common in the Pyrenees, with a few records from the SW Alps. – Fr: AHP, AMa.

Aspicilia candida (Anzi) Hue

Syn.: Aspicilia candida (Anzi) Hue var. flavoreagens Asta & Cl. Roux [invalidly published, ICN Art. 40.1 + 8], Aspicilia polychroma Anzi var. candida Anzi, Aspicilia rosacea Hue, Lecanora candida (Anzi) Nyl., Lecanora rosacea (Hue) Zahlbr.

L – Subs.: cal, int, sil – Alt.: 3–6 – Note: known from Europe and North America, this lichen occurs in the Alps on weakly calciferous rocks, especially calcareous schists, mostly near or above treeline. The species is chemically variable (see e.g. Roux et al. 2014); widespread in the Alps, wherever suitable substrata are present. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, UW, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, Sav, HSav, Vau. It: Frl, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig.

Aspicilia capituligera (Poelt) Poelt

Syn.: Lecanora capituligera Poelt

L – Subs.: sil, sil-aqu, int – Alt.: 5–6 – Note: a lichen with distinctly elongated marginal lobes and cone-shaped papillae producing terminally soredia-like diaspores; optimum in the spray-zone of alpine streams; the distribution is still insufficiently known. – Au: T. Sw: GR.

Aspicilia cinerea (L.) Körb.

Syn.: Aspicilia depressa (Ach.) Anzi, Lecanora cinerea (L.) Sommerf., Lecanora excipularis H. Magn. nomen sed non planta, Lichen cinereus L., Parmelia cinerea (L.) Hepp, Sagedia depressa Ach., Urceolaria cinerea (L.) Ach.

L – Subs.: sil, int, cor – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: on acid to basic siliceous rocks wetted by rain. Taken in the broadest sense, this is a holarctic and probably bipolar, extremely variable lichen, widespread from subtropical to arctic areas. Material from the Alps should be also compared with A. calcitrapa Cl. Roux & Nordin, with which the species has been frequently confused (see Roux et al. 2014). In the Alps it has been often confused with other Aspicilia-species (A. bricconensis, A. prestensis, A. spermatomanes, see Roux et al. 2014). – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, GR, LU, ?SZ, TI, UR, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, Sav, HSav, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA.

Aspicilia contorta (Hoffm.) Körb.

Syn.: Aspicilia calcarea (L.) Bagl. var. contorta (Hoffm.) Körb., Circinaria contorta (Hoffm.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell, Lecanora calcarea (L.) Sommerf. var. contorta (Flörke) Hepp, Lecanora contorta (Hoffm.) J. Steiner, Pachyospora calcarea A. Massal. var. contorta (Hoffm.) A. Massal., Parmelia contorta (Hoffm.) Spreng. non Bory, Verrucaria contorta Hoffm.

L – Subs.: cal, int – Alt.: 1–5 – Note: less frequent than A. hoffmanniana, and generally bound to less disturbed situations, but widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, TI, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA. Li.

Aspicilia corallophora (Poelt) Hafellner & Türk

Syn.: Lecanora corallophora Poelt

L – Subs.: sil-aqu – Alt.: 5 – Note: a lichen with a non-effigurate, coarsely areolate thallus and soralia developing from verrucose areoles, the soredia transforming into isidia; on periodically submerged rocks and boulders along Alpine streams; the distribution is still insufficiently known. – Au: T.

Aspicilia coronata (A. Massal.) B. de Lesd.

Syn.: Aspicilia calcarea (L.) Bagl. var. coronata (A. Massal.) Körb., Aspicilia laurensii B. de Lesd., Lecanora coronata (A. Massal.) Jatta, Lecanora laurensii (B. de Lesd.) Croz., Pachyospora coronata A. Massal.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: most common on hard calcareous rocks and sometimes on dolomite, mostly in upland areas; this taxon is probably heterogeneous. – Au: V, T, K, St. Ge: OB. Sw: LU, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Ven.

Aspicilia cupreoglauca B. de Lesd.

Syn.: Lecanora lacunosa Zschacke non Mereschk.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2 – Note: a mild-temperate to Mediterranean lichen found on base-rich siliceous rocks wetted by rain, mostly on sunny, horizontal surfaces, with a few records from the Western Alps. – Fr: AMa, Var, Vau.

Aspicilia cupreogrisea (Th. Fr.) Hue

Syn.: Circinaria cupreogrisea (Th. Fr.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell, Lecanora cupreogrisea Th. Fr.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: on siliceous rocks in the mountains; perhaps more widespread in the Alps. – Au: ?V, S. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, HSav, Vau. It: VA.

Aspicilia delimitata (H. Magn.) ined. (provisionally placed here, ICN Art. 36.1b)

Syn.: Lecanora delimitata H. Magn., Lecidea rustrelensis B. de Lesd.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2 – Note: According to Roux et al. (2014, 2017) A. rustrelensis is identical to A. delimitata. – Fr: Vau.

Aspicilia elmorei (E.D. Rudolph) ined. (provisionally placed here, ICN Art. 36.1b)

Syn.: Aspicilia desertorum auct. p.p. non (Kremp.) Mereschk., Aspicilia esculenta auct. p.p. non (Pall.) Flagey, Circinaria elmorei (E.D. Rudolph) Owe-Larss., A. Nordin & Sohrabi, Lecanora elmorei E.D. Rudolph

L # – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: a xeric subtropical lichen of steeply inclined, hard, more or less calciferous rocks and dolomite. The taxonomy of this group is still unsettled: saxicolous crustose forms formerly called Aspicilia desertorum belong to the Circinaria elmorei-complex, which is presently under revision (Sohrabi, in litt.). – Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa.

Aspicilia fimbriata (H. Magn.) Oxner

Syn.: Lecanora fimbriata H. Magn.

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 4 – Note: a fertile species of a brownish-grey colour with very narrow marginal lobes, reacting K+ red; based on a type from Siberia; the conspecificity of populations from the Alps is uncertain. – Au: K, St.

Aspicilia fumosula (Müll. Arg.) Hue

Syn.: Lecanora fumosula Müll. Arg.

L # – Subs.: sax – Alt.: 5 – Note: a species recalling in habitus Immersaria athroocarpa, but perhaps related to A. cupreogrisea, with an areolate, brown to brown-black thallus on a black hypothallus, apothecia (c. 0.5 mm in diam.) immersed in the thallus, usually 1 per areole, with a blackish-brown disc, 8-spored asci, and oblong to ellipsoid ascospores (c. 10 × 4–5 μm); on siliceous rocks in the high-alpine belt, only known from the type locality in the Western Alps (Switzerland). – Sw: VS.

Aspicilia gibbosa (Ach.) Körb.

Syn.: Circinaria gibbosa (Ach.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell, Lecanora gibbosa (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora gibbosula H. Magn., Urceolaria gibbosa Ach.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: this species is known with certainty only from Northern Europe and records from elsewhere require confirmation; the epithet “gibbosa” was frequently used by European authors for A. caesiocinerea. – Au: V, S, K, St, N. It: TAA, Lomb, Piem.

Aspicilia glomerulans (Poelt) Poelt

Syn.: Lecanora glomerulans Poelt

L # – Subs.: sil-aqu – Alt.: 5 – Note: a usually sterile species with coarse, partly branched isidia, found on siliceous boulders along streams at high altitudes; the distribution is still insufficiently known. – Au: T.

Aspicilia goettweigensis (Zahlbr.) Hue

Syn.: Lecanora goettweigensis Zahlbr.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a lowland species of sunny siliceous rocks, belonging to the A. gibbosa-group, with a dark grey thallus and a K+ yellow medulla; the original spelling (“göttweigensis“) was corrected following ICN 60.6. – Au: N. Sw: VS.

Aspicilia grisea Arnold

Syn.: Aspicilia insolata (H. Magn.) Hav., Lecanora grisea (Arnold) Lettau non Ach., Lecanora griseolans Zahlbr., Lecanora insolata H. Magn.

L – Subs.: sil, int, cor – Alt.: 3–6 – Note: a chemically variable species (see Roux et al. 2014), found on siliceous rocks, sometimes also on pebbles; certainly more widespread in the Alps, but very much overlooked. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, N. Sw: GR, VS. Fr: Sav, HSav. It: Frl. Sl: SlA.

Aspicilia helvetica Hue

Syn.: Lecanora helvetica (Hue) Zahlbr.

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 4 – Note: a species with a reddish-white, rather thick, areolate thallus (not showing any reaction), apothecia (0.4–0.8 mm in diam.) immersed in the thallus, usually 1 per areole, hymenium exceeding 150 μm in height, large 8-spored asci, and broadly ellipsoid ascospores (15–24 × 12–16 μm); on siliceous rocks (granite); only known from the type locality in the Eastern Alps (Switzerland). – Sw: GR.

Aspicilia henrici B. de Lesd.

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: a taxon described from Aosta Valley (Italy). It is similar to A. valpellinensis, but K-. – Sw: BE, GR, VS. It: VA.

Aspicilia hispida Mereschk.

Syn.: Agrestia cyphellata J.W. Thomson, Agrestia hispida (Mereschk.) Hale & W.L. Culb., Circinaria hispida (Mereschk.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell, Lecanora hispida (Mereschk.) Zahlbr., Sphaerothallia hispida (Mereschk.) Follmann & A. Crespo

L – Subs.: ter-cal – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: a species of the steppes of Central Asia, with a disjunct distribution in the most continental parts of the Iberian Peninsula, in the mountains of Greece, and in the Western Alps. – Fr: AMa. It: Piem.

Aspicilia hoffmanniana (S. Ekman & Fröberg ex R. Sant.) Cl. Roux & M. Bertrand

Syn.: Aspicilia caesioalba (Le Prévost ex Duby) Hue, Aspicilia contorta (Hoffm.) Körb. subsp. hoffmanniana S. Ekman & Fröberg, Aspicilia hoffmannii auct. non (Ach.) Flagey, Lecanora calcarea (L.) Sommerf. var. hoffmannii (Ach.) Sommerf., Lecanora hoffmannii (Ach.) Müll. Arg.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: an early coloniser of a wide variety of calciferous or base-rich substrata, from limestone and dolomite to brick, roofing tiles and mortar walls; widespread throughout the Alps, mostly below treeline. – Au: V, T, K, St, O, N, B. Sw: SZ. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig.

Aspicilia inornata Arnold

Syn.: Lecanora inornata (Arnold) Zahlbr.

L – Subs.: sil, sil-aqu – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: this species, which has been frequently confused with A. viridescens, grows on periodically submerged schistose rocks along brooks, mostly in the mountains. – Au: V, T, K. Sw: GR. It: Ven, TAA, VA.

Aspicilia intermutans (Nyl.) Arnold

Syn.: Aspicilia ammotropha Hue, Aspicilia trachytica Flagey non (A. Massal.) Arnold, Aspiciliella intermutans (Nyl.) M. Choisy, Lecanora ammotropha (Hue) Zahlbr., Lecanora intermutans Nyl.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 1–2 – Note: on more or less base-rich siliceous rocks wetted by rain. This is one of the most frequent silicicolous Aspicilia of Mediterranean Europe; most of the records from the Alps, especially those from high altitudes, are likely to refer to A. cinerea, A. prestensis, A. spermatomanes, and Aspilidea myrinii. – Au: ?V, ?St. Sw: ?GR, ?VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, Isè, Var, Vau. It: Ven, TAA, Lig.

Aspicilia laevata (Ach.) Arnold

Syn.: Aspicilia cinerea (L.) Körb. var. laevata (Ach.) Körb., Aspicilia gibbosa (Ach.) Körb. var. laevata (Ach.) Stein, Aspicilia lusca (Nyl.) B. de Lesd., Aspicilia sylvatica Arnold, Aspicilia vitrea Anzi, Lecanora distinguenda Zahlbr., Lecanora gibbosa var. laevata (Ach.) Th. Fr., Lecanora laevata (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora lusca Nyl., Lecanora sylvatica (Arnold) Sandst., Sagedia laevata Ach.

L – Subs.: sil, sil-aqu – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: a mainly boreal-montane, circumpolar species found on periodically submerged siliceous rocks, sometimes also in humid forests; widespread but not common throughout the siliceous Alps. – Au: V, T, S, St. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, GR, VS. Fr: HAl, AMa, Isè, HSav. It: Frl, TAA, Lomb, Piem. Sl: SlA.

Aspicilia laevatoides (H. Magn.) Oxner

Syn.: Lecanora laevatoides H. Magn.

L # – Subs.: sil, sil-aqu – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a species described from South Tyrol, apparently ranging from Southern Scandinavia to the mountains of North Africa, on periodically submerged siliceous rocks along brooks, with a few records from the Southern Alps (Italy). – It: TAA, Lomb.

Aspicilia lignicola Hue

Syn.: Aspicilia gibbosa (Ach.) Körb. f. lignicola Anzi, Lecanora lignicola (Hue) Zahlbr.

L # – Subs.: xyl – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a rarely collected species, reported from the Alps and the North African mountains. – Au: T. Fr: AHP, HAl. It: Lomb, Piem.

Aspicilia lobulata (Anzi) Hue

Syn.: Aspicilia calcarea (L.) Bagl. α [var.] concreta (Schaer.) Körb. [f.] lobulata Anzi, Aspicilia verruculosa auct. non Kremp., Lecanora effigurans Zahlbr., Lecanora verruculosa auct. non (Kremp.) J. Steiner nec Bagl. nec Jatta

L # – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 4–6 – Note: a species with a bluish-grey, effigurate thallus; differences from A. candida are in need of evaluation; the type is on serpentine (but the species also occurs on slightly calcareous schists). – Ge: Schw. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Sav, HSav. It: TAA.

Aspicilia mashiginensis (Zahlbr.) Oxner

Syn.: Aspicilia cinerea (L.) Körb. f. papillata Arnold, Aspicilia mastrucata auct. eur. austr. non (Wahlenb.) Ach., Lecanora mashiginensis Zahlbr.

L – Subs.: sil, int – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: on basic siliceous rocks, often on weakly calciferous schists, in humid-shaded situations near and above treeline; to be looked further throughout the Alps. – Au: T, S, K, St. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè. It: Frl, TAA, Piem.

Aspicilia mastrucata (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr.

Syn.: Lecanora lyckselensis H. Magn., Lecanora mastrucata (Wahlenb.) Ach., Lecanora subreagens H. Magn., Lichen mastrucatus Wahlenb., Sagedia mastrucata (Wahlenb.) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell

L # – Subs.: sil, int – Alt.: 4–6 – Note: a species found on siliceous to weakly calciferous rocks, mostly above treeline, belonging to a poorly understood complex, reported from Northern Europe, upland areas of Central Europe and Turkey; it is however dubious that the samples from the Alps belong to A. mastrucata in the strict sense. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, N. Ge: Ge. Sw: BE, GR, VS.

Aspicilia mauritii Hue

Syn.: Lecanora mauritii (Hue) Zschacke

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 4 – Note: this silicicolous species is known from a few localities in the Western Alps (Switzerland). – Sw: GR.

Aspicilia montana (H. Magn.) Hav.

Syn.: Lecanora montana H. Magn.

L # – Subs.: sil, met – Alt.: 4 – Note: a species with a thin, rimose, brownish-grey thallus reacting K+ red, mostly developing at the same time roundish, coarsely granular soralia and apothecia with broad, black margins; a taxon based on a type from Northern Sweden, whose ecology and distribution are still insufficiently known. – Au: S.

Aspicilia niesenensis (H. Magn.) Hafellner

Syn.: Lecanora niesenensis H. Magn.

L # – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 5 – Note: a poorly known species with a spreading, areolate, lead-grey thallus reacting K-, immersed apothecia, usually several per areole, with black discs, hymenium c. 100 μm high, paraphyses moniliform in the upper part, 8-spored asci, broadly ellipsoid ascospores (16–21 × 10–12 μm), and filiform, arcuate conidia; on calcareous rocks in the alpine belt; only known from the type locality in the Western Alps (Switzerland). – Sw: BE.

Aspicilia nunatakkorum (Poelt) Poelt ex Hafellner & Türk

Syn.: Aspicilia mastrucata (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. f. pseudoradiata Arnold, Lecanora nunatakkorum Poelt

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 5–6 – Note: a species with a (non-effigurate!) dark-grey, papillate (to almost dwarf-fruticose) thallus partially reacting K+ red, often sterile, but sometimes with solitary, sessile apothecia; on exposed siliceous rocks at high altitudes; the distribution is still insufficiently known, but is probably wider than the few records would suggest. – Au: T. Ge: Schw.

Aspicilia obscurata (Fr. ex Nyl.) Arnold

Syn.: Lecanora cinerea (L.) Sommerf. var. obscurata Fr. ex Nyl.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: the conspecificity of records from the Eastern Alps (Austria) with the type from Scandinavia is in need of evaluation; ecology and distribution are still insufficiently known. – Au: V, T.

Aspicilia plumbeola (Müll. Arg.) Hue

Syn.: Lecanora plumbeola Müll. Arg.

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 5 – Note: a species resembling in habitus a juvenile Miriquidica plumbea, with a bluish-grey, areolate thallus on a black hypothallus, apothecia (c. 0.3 mm in diam.) immersed in the thallus, usually 1 per areole, with a brown-black disc, 8-spored asci, and ellipsoid ascospores (18–20 × 9–10 μm); on siliceous rocks in the high-alpine belt; only known from the type locality in the Western Alps (Switzerland). – Sw: VS.

Aspicilia polychroma Anzi subsp. polychroma

Syn.: Lecanora polychroma (Anzi) Nyl.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: a mainly arctic-alpine, perhaps circumpolar, chemically and morphologically variable species with optimum on more or less calciferous siliceous rocks; widespread throughout the Alps, wherever suitable substrata are present. – Au: V, T, S, K, St. Ge: Schw. Sw: GR, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, Sav. It: Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig.

Aspicilia polychroma Anzi subsp. hypertrophica Cl. Roux

Syn.: Aspicilia polychroma Anzi subsp. hypertrophica Asta & Cl. Roux [invalidly published], Aspicilia polychroma Anzi var. kalireagens Asta & Cl. Roux [invalidly published]

L – Subs.: int – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: this lichen, differing from the typical subspecies in the well-developed thallus containing variable amounts of atranorin, grows on sunny surfaces of weakly calciferous siliceous rocks, often with Lecanora albula; taxon based on a type from the Pyrenees; from the Alps there are only a few scattered records. – Au: V. Ge: OB. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa.

Aspicilia prestensis Cl. Roux & A. Nordin

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: a species described from the Pyrenees, with an areolate, non-effigurate, whitish-grey thallus reacting K+ red, often confused with A. cinerea (with smaller ascospores and conidia) and A. spermatomanes (with glebulose areolae, cortex with a brown pigment, longer conidia); it grows on acidic rocks, with optimum in sunny places, near and above treeline. A similar species, A. epiglypta is restricted to coastal areas in Northern Europe, and records from elsewhere may be due to confusion with other species, especially with A. prestensis. – Fr: AHP, AMa, Sav, HSav. It: TAA.

Aspicilia proluta (Nyl.) Hue

Syn.: Aspicilia submersa (Lamy) Hue, Lecanora caesiocinerea Nyl. ex Malbr. f. proluta Nyl., Lecanora proluta (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Lecanora subdepressa (Arnold) Nyl. var. submersa Lamy, Lecanora submersa (Lamy) Zahlbr.

L # – Subs.: sil, sil-aqu – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: the differences from A. aquatica (both species have ascospores of comparable size) are in need of re-evaluation; on periodically or constantly inundated siliceous rocks; a poorly known taxon based on a type from the Pyrenees, whose distribution is insufficiently known. – Fr: HSav. It: Lig.

Aspicilia reagens (Zahlbr.) Cl. Roux & M. Bertrand

Syn.: Lecanora calcarea f. reagens Zahlbr., Aspicilia calcarea (L.) Bagl. var. reagens (Zahlbr.) Szatala

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 2 – Note: this taxon was often regarded just a chemical strain of A. calcarea with abundant norstictic acid. It is however more closely related to A. serenensis than to A. calcarea because of the cortex not filled by crystals, the rounded apothecia with a well-developed thalline margin, the amphithecium containing the subdepressa-brown pigment, and the size of conidia. It differs from A. serenensis in the chemistry (norstictic and stictic acids), in several morphological traits, and in the altitudinal distribution. To be looked for further in the Alps. – Fr: AHP, AMa, Drô, Var, Vau. It: Ven.

Aspicilia rosulata Körb.

Syn.: Aspicilia proserpens (Nyl.) Hue

L # – Subs.: sil, int – Alt.: 5–6 – Note: a fertile species with a grey to blackish-brown, effigurate thallus and finally sessile apothecia; based on a type from Franz Josef Land, where it grows on periodically inundated boulders; identity and uniformity of records from the Alps are uncertain, because the secondary chemistry is apparently not uniform, and the ecology is different (on exposed, usually steep rock faces). – Au: T, S, K. Fr: HAl.

Aspicilia serenensis Cl. Roux & M. Bertrand

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a recently described species, differing from A. calcarea (closely related), A. farinosa and A. subfarinosa in having a distinctly thicker thallus (with a thick medulla), larger apothecia with the pigment subdepressa-brown in the cortex of the thalline margin, slightly longer conidia, and a more orophilous distribution. The species might have been filed under A. calcarea in the past, and should be looked for throughout the Alps. – Fr: AHP, AMa, Drô, Isè, Var, Vau.

Aspicilia simoensis Räsänen

Syn.: Lecanora bahusiensis H. Magn., Lecanora isidiata (H. Magn.) H. Magn., Lecanora simoensis (Räsänen) Zahlbr., Lecanora simoensis (Räsänen) Zahlbr. var. isidiata H. Magn., Sagedia simoensis (Räsänen) A. Nordin, Savić & Tibell

L – Subs.: sil, int – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: a mostly sterile species with an areolate thallus reacting K+ red; based on a type from Finland and described as sorediate from the beginning; populations in the Alps have dense clusters of isidia later breaking down into soredia-like propagules (fitting Lecanora simoensis var. isidiata H. Magn.); most frequent on siliceous boulders visited by birds, widespread in the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St. Ge: OB. Sw: GR, LU, SZ. Fr: AHP, AMa, HSav. It: Ven, TAA, VA. Sl: SlA.

Aspicilia sophodopsis (Nyl.) Arnold

Syn.: Lecanora sophodopsis Nyl.

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 4 – Note: a species with a thallus recalling a sterile Staurothele ambrosiana in being minutely granulose, olive-brown to greyish-brown, but reacting K+ red; perhaps this could be the correct name for alpine populations of putative “A. leprosescens” or even “A. simoensis”; on siliceous boulders, in the study area so far only known from the Eastern Alps (Austria). – Au: T.

Aspicilia spermatomanes Maheu & A. Gillet

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: a species described from the Pyrenees and recently re-evaluated, whose distribution is insufficiently known: there are many records from the French Alps, but the species is likely to be widespread throughout the Alps, having often being confused with other species, especially A. cinerea. – Fr: AHP, AMa, Sav.

Aspicilia subdepressa Arnold

Syn.: Aspicilia caesiocinerea (Nyl. ex Malbr.) Arnold var. subdepressa (Arnold) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Lecanora subdepressa (Arnold) Nyl., Pachyospora subdepressa (Arnold) M. Choisy

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a silicicolous species of vertical to inclined rocks in rather dry areas, with optimum in the montane belt, with a few scattered records from the Alps. – Au: T, K, N. Fr: AMa. It: TAA, Piem.

Aspicilia supertegens Arnold

Syn.: Aspicilia prinii B. de Lesd., Lecanora leucostoma H. Magn., Lecanora supertegens (Arnold) Zahlbr.

L – Subs.: sil-aqu – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: a boreal-montane to arctic-alpine, perhaps circumpolar, variable lichen found on lime-free but base-rich rocks, often on mica-schist in humid situations (near brooks, melting snow, etc.). – Au: V, T, S, K. Ge: Schw. Sw: GR, VS. Fr: HAl, AMa, Sav. It: Frl, TAA, Lomb.

Aspicilia valpellinensis B. de Lesd.

Syn.: Aspicilia cinerea (L.) Körb. var. chiodectonoides Anzi, Lecanora valpellinensis (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr.

L # – Subs.: int – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: on calciferous schists; only known from the Italian Alps (Scandinavian material belongs to A. supertegens, see Nimis 2016). – It: Lomb, VA.

Aspicilia verrucigera Hue

Syn.: Lecanora verrucigera (Hue) Zahlbr.

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a fertile species with a grey, verrucose thallus; taxon based on a type from Finland, whose ecology and distribution are insufficiently understood. – Fr: HAl.

Aspicilia verrucosa (Ach.) Körb. subsp. verrucosa

Syn.: Amygdalaria verrucosa (Ach.) Norman, Lecanora urceolaria (Fr.) Wetmore, Lecanora verrucosa (Ach.) Laurer, Megaspora verrucosa (Ach.) Hafellner & V. Wirth, Pachyospora verrucosa (Ach.) A. Massal., Pertusaria freyi Erichsen, Urceolaria verrucosa Ach.

L – Subs.: bry, deb, ter-cal – Alt.: 2–6 – Note: a circumpolar, arctic-alpine lichen found on mosses and plant debris over calciferous ground in open situations; it descends to lower altitudes in dry-continental areas; widespread and common throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, TI, UR, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, Sav, HSav, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA. Li.

Aspicilia verrucosa (Ach.) Körb. subsp. mutabilis (Ach.) Cl. Roux

Syn.: Aspicilia mutabilis (Ach.) Körb., Lecanora mutabilis (Ach.) Nyl., Megaspora verrucosa (Ach.) Hafellner & V. Wirth var. mutabilis (Ach.) Nimis & Cl. Roux, Pachyospora mutabilis (Ach.) A. Massal., Patellaria mutabilis (Ach.) Trevis., Urceolaria mutabilis Ach.

L # – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: on basal parts of old deciduous trees; doubtfully distinct from the typical subspecies. – Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, Sav, HSav, Vau. It: Ven, Lomb, Piem, VA.

Aspicilia verruculosa Kremp.

L # – Subs.: sil, int – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: on weakly calciferous rocks. A critical taxon, known only from the Southern European mountains, but perhaps just a chemotype of A. polychroma (see e.g. Roux et al. 2014). – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, GR, UR. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, Sav, Vau. It: TAA, Lomb, Piem.

Aspicilia viridescens (A. Massal.) Hue

Syn.: Pachyospora viridescens A. Massal.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: this species was often confused with A. contorta, but it occurs on siliceous rocks; it is rather common at low altitudes in the Western Alps. – Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, Var, Vau. It: Ven, TAA.

Aspicilia zonata (Ach.) R. Sant.

Syn.: Aspicilia waldrastensis (H. Magn.) Clauzade & Rondon, Lecanora waldrastensis H. Magn., Sagedia zonata Ach.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a fertile silicicolous species with a grey, areolate thallus, sometimes with concentric marginal zones; the distribution is insufficiently known. The species has been frequently confused with A. caesiocinerea, from which it differs in the 8-spored asci, the slightly smaller spores, and the absence of aspicilin. Several records of A. caesiocinerea from upland areas could refer to this species. – Au: V, T. Ge: Schw. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Sav. It: TAA.

Aspilidea myrinii (Fr.) Hafellner

Syn.: Aspicilia adunans (Nyl.) Arnold, Aspicilia cinerea (L.) Körb. var. alpina (Fr.) Körb., Aspicilia glacialis (Arnold) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Aspicilia myrinii (Fr.) Stein, Lecanora adunans Nyl., Lecanora myrinii (Fr.) Tuck., Parmelia myrinii Fr.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–6 – Note: a mainly arctic-alpine, circumpolar species found on crystalline schists and acid siliceous rocks in upland areas; widespread in the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, N. Ge: Schw. Sw: GR, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, HSav. It: Frl, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA.

Atla alpina Savić & Tibell

Syn.: Polyblastia theleodes auct. p.p.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: on calcareous rocks (mesozoic limestone, marble of variable ages) with at least locally increased humidity; widespread and fairly common throughout the Alps, but often filed under “Polyblastia theleodes”, and hence under-recorded. – Au: T, S, K, St. Ge: OB, Schw. It: Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA.

Atla wheldonii (Travis) Savić & Tibell

Syn.: Polyblastia wheldonii Travis

L – Subs.: ter-cal – Alt.: 4 – Note: a relatively rare species and the only terricolous one in the genus; optimum on basic sandy soil, from where it may spread over decaying mosses and plant remains, mostly near treeline. – Sl: SlA.

Bacidia absistens (Nyl.) Arnold

Syn.: Bacidia intermissa (Nyl.) Malme, Lecidea absistens Nyl., Lecidea intermissa Nyl.

L – Subs.: cor, bry – Alt.: 3 – Note: a mild-temperate to humid subtropical species found on base-rich substrata, in clearings of ancient forests, sometimes on epiphytic bryophytes, with a few scattered records from the Alps. – Au: T, S, K, St, O. Sw: BE. It: TAA. Sl: SlA.

Bacidia arceutina (Ach.) Arnold

Syn.: Bacidia leightoniana (Larbal. ex Leight.) H. Olivier, Biatora luteola (Schrad.) Fr. var. fuscella (Fr.) Th. Fr., Lecidea arceutina (Ach.) Gray, Lecidea leightoniana Larbal. ex Leight., Lecidea luteola (Schrad.) Ach. var. arceutina Ach., Lecidea luteola (Schrad.) Ach. var. fuscella Fr.

L – Subs.: cor, cal, bry – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: a mild-temperate to humid subtropical species found on bark of broad-leaved trees (especially Acer, Fraxinus and Populus) in open woodlands near rivers, very rarely calcicolous or muscicolous; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, FR, UW, VD. Fr: AHP, AMa, Isè, Var, Vau. It: Frl, TAA, Lomb, Piem. Sl: SlA.

Bacidia auerswaldii (Hepp ex Stizenb.) Mig.

Syn.: Bacidia effusa (Auersw. ex Rabenh.) Lettau non (Sm.) Trevis, Bacidia effusella Zahlbr., Bilimbia effusa Auersw. ex Rabenh., Lecidea auerswaldii Hepp ex Stizenb., Lecidea effusa (Auersw. ex Rabenh.) Stizenb.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3 – Note: a mild-temperate to humid subtropical, mainly subatlantic species of humid open forests, with a few records from the Eastern Alps only (Austria). – Au: S, O, N.

Bacidia badensis (Körb.) Zahlbr.

Syn.: Bilimbia badensis Körb.

L # – Subs.: xyl – Alt.: 4 – Note: also reported from Germany, on wood in the subalpine belt, with a few scattered records from the Alps. – Au: S. It: Lomb.

Bacidia bagliettoana (A. Massal. & De Not.) Jatta

Syn.: Bacidia atrosanguinea var. argillicola (Malbr.) H. Olivier, Bacidia maceriarum B. de Lesd., Bacidia muscorum (Ach.) Mudd, Bacidia pezizoidea sensu Anzi, Lecidea muscorum Ach. non (Th. Fr.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Scoliciosporum bagliettoanum A. Massal. & De Not.

L – Subs.: ter-cal, bry, deb – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen of moribund bryophytes and plant debris in dry grasslands, or in fissures of calcareous rocks and dolomite, with optimum in upland areas. The holotype of B. maceriarum, examined by Roux (unpublished), proved to belong to this species; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, TI, UR, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Bacidia biatorina (Körb.) Vain.

Syn.: Bacidia acerina auct. non (Ach.) Arnold, Raphiospora atrosanguinea Ach. var. biatorina Körb.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a rare, oceanic species growing on trunks of mature trees in old woodlands, mostly in Lobarion-communities; probably more widespread in the Alps than the relatively few scattered records suggest. – Au: S, K, St. Ge: OB. Sw: SG. Sl: Tg.

Bacidia caesiomarginata (Kernst.) Lettau

Syn.: Bilimbia caesiomarginata Kernst.

L – Subs.: cal, int, bry – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: a species with apothecial margins covered with a bluish-grey pruina when young, and 1–3-septate, elongated-oblong ascospores; on limestone and overgrowing bryophytes in shaded situations, e.g. within subalpine forests; apparently rather rare. – Au: V, T, K, St. Ge: Schw.

Bacidia circumspecta (Nyl. ex Vain.) Malme

Syn.: Bacidia bacillifera (Nyl.) Arnold p.p., Bacidia quercicola (Nyl.) Vain., Lecidea bacillifera Nyl. var. circumspecta Nyl. ex Vain., Lecidea circumspecta (Vain.) Hedl.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a mild-temperate lichen found on old trees in open, humid woodlands, more rarely on primarily acid, but nutrient-enriched bark. – Au: T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, UW, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, Isè, Var. It: TAA, Lomb, Piem.

Bacidia coprodes (Körb. ex Arnold) Lettau

Syn.: Bacidia salevensis (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr., Bacidia subtrachona (Arnold) Lettau, Bacidia trachona auct. p.p., Bilimbia coprodes Körb. ex Arnold, Bilimbia subtrachona Arnold, Gyalecta salevensis (Müll. Arg.) H. Olivier, Patellaria salevensis Müll. Arg.,

L – Subs.: cal, int, cor – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: on steeply inclined to underhanging faces of calciferous or base-rich siliceous rocks, exceptionally on bark in deep crevices at the base of trunks. – Au: S K St O N. Sw: LU. Fr: HAl, AMa, Sav, HSav, Vau. It: Ven, TAA, Lig.

Bacidia fraxinea Lönnr.

Syn.: Bacidia fallax (Körb.) Lettau, Bacidia rubella (Hoffm.) A. Massal. var. fallax Körb.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a mild-temperate, probably Mediterranean-Atlantic lichen found on deciduous trees, especially Acer, in open, humid woodlands, with a few scattered records from the Alps. – Au: N. Fr: AMa, Sav, Var, Vau.

Bacidia friesiana (Hepp) Körb.

Syn.: Biatora friesiana Hepp

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a mild-temperate lichen, most frequent on Sambucus, or near the base of trees with nutrient-rich bark, with optimum in the submediterranean belt. – Au: V, T, K, St, O, N. Fr: AMa, Var, Vau. It: Frl, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig. Sl: SlA.

Bacidia fuscoviridis (Anzi) Lettau

Syn.: Biatorina albidocarnea (Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Bilimbia albidocarnea (Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Bilimbia albocarnea (Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Bilimbia fuscoviridis Anzi, Lecidea albidocarnea Nyl., Toninia albidocarnea (Nyl.) Guillaumot

L – Subs.: sil, met – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a mild-temperate lichen found on calciferous and basic siliceous rocks in sheltered and humid situations; rarely collected, being often sterile, with a few scattered records from the Alps. – Au: S, K, St. Ge: OB. Sw: LU. It: Frl, Lomb. Sl: SlA.

Bacidia herbarum (Stizenb.) Arnold

Syn.: Bacidia fraterna Anzi, Mycobilimbia herbarum (Stizenb.) Rehm, Secoliga herbarum Stizenb.

L – Subs.: bry-cal, deb-cal – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: a cool-temperate to arctic-alpine, probably circumpolar lichen found on plant remains and moribund bryophytes on calciferous ground, more rarely on bark, with optimum in upland areas; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: LU, TI, UR, UW, VD, VS. Fr: HAl, AMa, Sav, HSav, Vau. It: Frl, TAA, Lomb, Piem.

Bacidia igniarii (Nyl.) Oxner

Syn.: Bacidia abbrevians (Nyl.) Th. Fr., Bilimbia igniarii (Nyl.) Arnold, Lecidea igniarii Nyl.

L # – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a northern species of smooth bark, very rarely found on lignum; on the whole a critical taxon, which needs revision, with a few scattered records from the Alps. – Ge: OB. Sw: GR. Fr: AMa, Vau. It: TAA, Lomb, Piem.

Bacidia illudens (Nyl.) Lynge

Syn.: Lecidea illudens Nyl.

L # – Subs.: ter-sil, ter-cal, bry – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a species with apothecial margins mostly covered with a bluish-grey pruina, and 5–7-septate, acicular ascospores; on decaying bryophytes; based on a type from Finland, with a few scattered records from the Alps. – Au: St. Sw: GR.

Bacidia incompta (Borrer) Anzi

Syn.: Bacidia atrosanguinea (Schaer.) Anzi, Bacidia subinundata (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forssell, Bacidia viridula Erichsen, Biatora atrosanguinea (Schaer.) Hepp, Lecidea atrosanguinea (Schaer.) Th. Fr. non (Hoffm.) Nyl., Lecidea incompta Borrer, Scoliciosporum molle A. Massal.

L – Subs.: cor, deb, bry – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a temperate species found on base-rich bark, especially of Ulmus, near wounds of the trunk, more rarely on plant debris and terricolous mosses. – Au: S, St, O, N. Sw: GR, SZ, VS. Fr: Sav, HSav. It: Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem. Sl: SlA.

Bacidia laminularis (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.

Syn.: Bilimbia nitschkeana J. Lahm ex Rabenh. var. laminularis (Müll. Arg.) H. Olivier, Patellaria laminularis Müll. Arg.

L # – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3 – Note: a species with bluish-black apothecia and 2–4-septate, narrowly ellipsoid ascospores which are only c. 10 µm long; on the whole a poorly known taxon, perhaps a Micarea. – Fr: HSav.

Bacidia laurocerasi (Delise ex Duby) Zahlbr.

Syn.: Bacidia atrogrisea (Delise) Körb., Bacidia elevata Körb., Bacidia endoleuca auct. non (Nyl.) J. Kickx f., Bacidia subacerina Vain. subsp. laurocerasi (Delise ex Duby) Vain., Biatora atrogrisea Delise, Patellaria laurocerasi Delise ex Duby

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a humid subtropical to Mediterranean-Atlantic lichen found on smooth bark of broad-leaved trees in open, humid forests; widespread throughout the Alps but generally rare, and perhaps declining. – Au: T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, GL, GR, SZ, UW, VD. Fr: AMa, Isè, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb. Sl: SlA.

Bacidia leptosperma (Anzi) Lettau

Syn.: Bilimbia leptosperma Anzi

L # – Subs.: bry – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: a species with a whitish, granular thallus delimited by a white prothallus, small, sessile, black, first plane then convex and immarginate apothecia with a brown epithecium and a black hypothecium, coeherent paraphyses, 8-spored asci, and 1–3-septate, fusiform ascospores measuring c. 9 × 3 µm; only known from the type material, collected on terricolous mosses over granite above Bormio (Italy). – It: Lomb.

Bacidia notarisiana (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.

Syn.: Bilimbia notarisiana A. Massal.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–2 – Note: on calcareous rocks, sometimes in anthropogenic settings (e.g., cement constructions); currently known only from low or moderate elevations in Northern Italy, but likely to be more widespread in the Mediterranean region. – It: Frl, Lig.

Bacidia piciloides (Zahlbr.) ined. (provisionally placed here, ICN Art. 36.1b)

Syn.: Catillaria piciloides Zahlbr.

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3 – Note: a species which is perhaps related to Catillaria picila, with a thin, greyish, subleprose to pulverulent thallus and sessile, brown-black, lecideine apothecia with a brown-black exciple and hypothecium, a brownish epihymenium, conglutinated, not distinctly capitate paraphyses, 8-spored asci, and hyaline, oblong 1-septate ascospores (16–18 × 5–6 μm); on sandstone in a montane forest, only known from the type locality in the Eastern Alps (Austria). – Au: N.

Bacidia polychroa (Th. Fr.) Körb.

Syn.: Bacidia acerina (Ach.) Arnold, Bacidia anceps Anzi, Bacidia fuscorubella (Ach.) Bausch, Bacidia polysita (Stirt.) A.L. Sm., Biatora polychroa Th. Fr., Lecidea acerina (Ach.) Röhl., Secoliga fuscorubella (Ach.) Stizenb., Verrucaria fuscorubella Hoffm. nom. inval.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a mild-temperate to humid subtropical lichen found on broad-leaved trees in open, humid forests, with a few scattered records from the Alps. – Au: K, St, N. Fr: Var. It: TAA, Lomb. Sl: SlA.

Bacidia punica Llop

L # – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 1 – Note: a recently-described epiphytic species, widespread but not common in shaded-humid situations, with optimum within eu-Mediterranean vegetation, also reported from the base of the Western Alps. It may, however, prove to be a synonym of Bacidina phacodes (see Nimis 2016). – Fr: AMa.

Bacidia rosella (Pers.) De Not.

Syn.: Biatora alabastrina (Ach.) W. Mann, Lecidea alabastrina Ach., Lichen rosellus Pers.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a mild-temperate to Mediterranean-Atlantic lichen found on deciduous trees (especially Acer and Fraxinus, but also on Quercus ilex), in humid, open forests and in woodlands along rivers; widespread in the Alps, but generally rare, and perhaps declining. – Au: S, K, St, O, N. Ge: Schw. Sw: BE, UR. Fr: AMa, Var. It: Ven, Lomb, Piem.

Bacidia rubella (Hoffm.) A. Massal.

Syn.: Bacidia luteola auct., Biatora luteola auct., Lecidea luteola auct., Lichen luteolus Schrad. nom.illeg., Verrucaria rubella Hoffm.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a temperate lichen found on old trees, especially oaks, still widespread, but probably declining, with optimum in the submediterranean belt; widespread throughout the Alps, but generally not very common. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, FR, GL, GR, LU, SZ, TI, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig. Sl: SlA, Tg. Li.

Bacidia scoliciosporoides (Bagl. & Carestia) Lettau

Syn.: Bilimbia scoliciosporoides Bagl. & Carestia

L # – Subs.: deb – Alt.: 5 – Note: this long-forgotten and poorly understood species, often wrongly attributed to Baglietto alone, is characterised by a white, subleprose, rugulose-subgranulose, spreading thallus, small, subsessile, plane to convex, black apothecia with a thin to poorly evident proper margin (resembling those of Lecidella wulfenii), a yellowish brown epihymenium, a colourless hypothecium, adglutinate paraphyses, 8-spored, clavate asci, and large, fusiform, 3–7-septate ascospores which are 5–6 times as long as wide; known only from the type collection, on Silene acaulis in the alpine belt; the type material, most probably in MOD, would be worthy of further study. – It: Piem.

Bacidia sordida (Anzi) Lettau

Syn.: Bilimbia sordida Anzi

L # – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 3 – Note: a species with a dirty white, thin, farinose, rimose-areolate thallus, small, black apothecia (turning brownish when wet) with a hyaline to pale brownish hypothecium, 8-spored asci, and 1–3-septate, hyaline, straight to slightly curved ascospores measuring 15–20 × c. 5 µm; only known from the type collection, on calciferous rocks at 1,350 m, this species could belong to Lecania. – It: Lomb.

Bacidia subacerina Vain.

Syn.: Bacidia violacea (Arnold) Arnold

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3 – Note: a species with brown to blackish apothecia and acicular ascospores; the purple-reddish epihymenium reacting K+ violet and the reddish exciple reacting K+ purple are diagnostic to separate it from B. laurocerasi; on acid bark in boreal to temperate-montane forests; in the study area there are only a few scattered records from the Eastern Alps (Austria, Slovenia). – Au: S, K, St. Sl: SlA.

Bacidia subincompta (Nyl.) Arnold

Syn.: Bacidia affinis (Stizenb.) Vain., Bacidia atrosanguinea (Hepp) Anzi var. corticola Th. Fr., Bacidia hegetschweileri (Hepp) Vain. non auct., Bacidia intermediella Vězda, Bacidia separabilis (Nyl.) Arnold, Biatora atrosanguinea Hepp var. hegetschweileri Hepp, Lecidea hegetschweileri Hepp, Lecidea separabilis Nyl., Lecidea subincompta Nyl.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: a mainly temperate lichen found on bark of old broad-leaved trees (especially Fagus and Quercus) in open, humid woodlands; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GL, GR, LU, SG, SZ, TI, UR, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, Drô, Isè, HSav, Var. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig. Sl: SlA, Tg. Li.

Bacidia touzalinii (Harm.) Zahlbr.

Syn.: Lecidea touzalinii Harm.

L # – Subs.: cor – Alt.: not reported – Note: a corticolous species with blackish apothecia lacking a distinct margin, and 3-septate, narrowly ellipsoid ascospores; very poorly understood and perhaps belonging to Micarea; only known from the type locality in the Western Alps. – Fr: HSav.

Bacidia trachona (Ach.) Lettau

Syn.: Biatora trachona (Ach.) Körb., Bilimbia trachona (Ach.) Trevis., Verrucaria trachona Ach.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: the true B. trachona does not belong to Bacidia and has a more or less suboceanic distribution in Europe, from Portugal to Scandinavia. Several records from the Alps are dubious and could refer to B. coprodes. – Au: V, T, K. Ge: Ge. Sw: BE, GR, SZ, TI, VD. Fr: AMa, Var, Vau.

Bacidia vermifera (Nyl.) Th. Fr.

Syn.: Bacidia hegetschweileri auct. non (Hepp) Vain., Bacidia rhodopsis Th. Fr. & Almq., Bilimbia lecideoides (Hazsl. ex Körb.) Th. Fr., Lecidea vermifera Nyl., Scoliciosporum vermiferum (Nyl.) Arnold

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: on the bark of broad-leaved trees in rather humid situations, more rarely on lignum, with scattered records from the Alps. – Au: V, T, St, O, N. Fr: Isè. It: TAA, Lomb, Piem.

Bacidia viridescens (A. Massal.) Th. Fr.

Syn.: Bacidia muscorum (F.H. Wigg.) Mudd var. viridescens (A. Massal.) Arnold, Heterothecium viridescens A. Massal.

L # – Subs.: sil, cal – Alt.: 2 – Note: a species with marginate blackish apothecia and 6–8-septate acicular ascospores, pigmentation of hypothecium not indicated; on soil and overgrowing bryophytes; most likely a synonym of B. bagliettoana; B. viridescens sensu auct. brit. is likely to refer to a different species. – Au: O. It: Ven.

Bacidia viridifarinosa Coppins & P. James

L – Subs.: sil, cor – Alt.: 2 – Note: a suboceanic species growing on shaded, smooth and not too acid siliceous rocks in oceanic humid woodlands, sometimes on smooth bark at the base of old deciduous trees; mostly sterile, with confluent soralia giving raise to yellow-green farinose soredia; the type material is from an old Tilia tree; it is not a Bacidia and belongs in the Pilocarpaceae; from the Alps there are only a few scattered records. – Ge: OB. Fr: AMa, Var, Vau.

Bacidina arnoldiana (Körb.) V. Wirth & Vězda

Syn.: Bacidia arnoldiana Körb., Lecidea larbalestieri Cromb., Woessia arnoldiana (Körb.) Sérus. & Diederich

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: recently, two species were recognised within B. arnoldiana: a saxicolous species which corresponds to the type, and a corticolous species named B. sulphurella; some records from the Alps are likely to belong to B. sulphurella. – Au: O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GL, GR, SZ, TI, UR, UW, VS. Fr: AMa, Isè, Vau. It: Frl., Ven. Sl: SlA.

Bacidina assulata (Körb.) S. Ekman

Syn.: Bacidia anomala A. Massal., Bacidia assulata (Körb.) Vězda, Bacidia effusa auct., Bacidia intermedia (Hepp ex Stizenb.) Arnold, Bacidia rubella (Hoffm.) A. Massal. var. assulata Körb., Bilimbia effusa auct.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: an epiphytic species belonging to a complex which is still in need of elucidation. – Au: V, T, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Fr: AMa. It: TAA, Lomb.

Bacidina caligans (Nyl.) Llop & Hladun

Syn.: Bacidia caligans (Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Lecidea caligans Nyl., Woessia caligans (Nyl.) Sérus. & Diederich

L – Subs.: cal, cor – Alt.: 2 – Note: this species belongs to the B. arnoldiana-group, but is sorediate and generally sterile; it has a mild-temperate to Mediterranean distribution and is mainly calcicolous (sometimes occurring also on mosses and mortar, rarely on bark at the base of trunks), in shaded and humid situations at relatively low elevations; hitherto known only from the Western Alps, but, being easily overlooked, it could be more widespread. – Fr: HAl, AMa, Isè, Var.

Bacidina chloroticula (Nyl.) Vězda & Poelt

Syn.: Bacidia chloroticula (Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Bacidia lehriana Erichsen, Bacidia neglecta Vězda, Bacidia paulula Erichsen, Bacidia subchlorotica (Nyl.) Flagey, Bacidina neglecta (Vězda) Vězda, Lecidea chloroticula Nyl., Lecidea subchlorotica Nyl., Woessia chloroticula (Nyl.) Sérus. & Diederich

L – Subs.: cor, sil – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a mainly temperate to southern boreal species found on evergreen leaves and base-rich bark, sometimes on plant debris, calcareous stones, etc., mostly near the ground; certainly overlooked, and perhaps more widespread in the Alps, below the subalpine belt. – Au: V, T, St, O. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: GR, SZ, VS. Fr: AMa, Isè, Var, Vau. It: Ven, Lomb. Li.

Bacidina delicata (Larbal. ex Leight.) V. Wirth & Vězda

Syn.: Bacidia arceutinella Zahlbr., Bacidia delicata (Larbal. ex Leight.) Coppins, Bilimbia arceutinoides Anzi, Lecidea effusa auct. var. delicata Larbal. ex Leight., Woessia delicata (Larbal. ex Leight.) Sérus. & Diederich

L – Subs.: cor, sil – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a Mediterranean-Atlantic to humid subtropical species found on bark, especially of Sambucus and Salix and – but only in very humid areas – on roofing tiles and plant debris. – Au: S, St, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Fr: AMa, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, Piem. Sl: SlA.

Bacidina egenula (Nyl.) Vězda

Syn.: Bacidia egenula (Nyl.) Arnold, Bacidia epiphylla Wheldon & Travis, Bacidia genuensis B. de Lesd., Bacidia mediterranea B. de Lesd., Bacidia sbarbaronis B. de Lesd., Lecidea egenula Nyl.

L – Subs.: sil, xyl – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: a mild-temperate to humid subtropical species, most common on pebbles over moist ground in areas with siliceous substrata; from the Alps there are only a few scattered records. – Au: K, St, O. Fr: HSav, Var. It: Lomb, Lig.

Bacidina inundata (Fr.) Vězda

Syn.: Bacidia arnoldiana Körb. var. inundata (Fr.) Körb., Bacidia inundata (Fr.) Körb., Biatora inundata Fr., Lecidea inundata (Fr.) Nyl., Lichingoldia gyalectiformis D. Hawksw. & Poelt, Woessia inundata (Fr.) Sérus. & Diederich

L – Subs.: sil-aqu, cal-aqu, xyl – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: apparently this is a holarctic lichen found on periodically inundated or otherwise moist siliceous rocks, more rarely on lignum, in humid-shaded situations, with a wide altitudinal range. – Au: T, S, K, St. Sw: GR. Fr: HAl, AMa. It: TAA, Lomb, Piem. Sl: SlA.

Bacidina neosquamulosa (Aptroot & Herk) S. Ekman

Syn.: Bacidia neosquamulosa Aptroot & Herk

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3 – Note: a species of the B. arnoldiana-group resembling B. sulphurella, but thallus minutely squamulose-isidiate, with longer, 3 – to 7-septate ascospores measuring 45–60 × 1.5–2 μm, and globose, erumpent dark pycnidia (to 0.13 mm in diam.) containing filiform, distinctly 3 – to 7-septate, curved macroconidia (40–55 × 1.5–2 μm); on trees with subneutral bark in nutrient-rich, dusty situations such as in urban parks and forest edges along secondary dirt roads; widespread in Europe and also recorded from Western North America, with a single record from the Eastern Alps (Austria), but probably more widespread. – Au: N.

Bacidina phacodes (Körb.) Vězda

Syn.: Bacidia albescens (Stizenb.) Bausch, Bacidia chlorotica (Ach.) Sandst., Bacidia phacodes Körb., Lecidea chlorotica (Ach.) Nyl.

L – Subs.: cor, bry, sil – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: a mild-temperate to humid subtropical lichen found on bark of broad-leaved trees, more rarely on rock or silicicolous mosses, often on dry undersides of thick branches of ancient trees; widespread in the Alps, but not very common. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: GR, SZ, UW. Fr: AMa, Drô, Isè, Var, Vau. It: Frl, TAA. Sl: SlA.

Bacidina sulphurella (Samp.) M. Hauck & V. Wirth

Syn.: Bacidia arnoldiana Körb. var. corticola Arnold, Bacidia sulphurella Samp., Woessia fusarioides D. Hawksw., Poelt & Tscherm.-Woess

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: on bark, especially of Sambucus, sometimes invading corticolous mosses, more rarely on twigs, needles and living leaves in very humid sites. Some records of epiphytic B. arnoldiana could refer to this species. – Au: S, K, St, B. It: Frl.

Bacidina vasakii (Vězda) Vězda

Syn.: Bacidia vasakii Vězda, Woessia vasakii (Vězda) Sérus.

L – Subs.: fol – Alt.: 2 – Note: a mild-temperate to humid pantropical species described from the Caucasus and also known from the Pyrenees, with a granular to subcoralloid thallus, hemispherical, whitish apothecia, and mostly 3-septate, acicular ascospores, found in the understory of forests, mostly on twigs and leaves of Buxus; rare and scattered in the Western Alps, at low elevations – Fr: AMa, Isè, Var, Vau.

Bactrospora dryina (Ach.) A. Massal.

Syn.: Arthonia dryina (Ach.) Jatta, Lecanactis dryina (Ach.) Vain., Lecanactis dryophila Lettau, Lecidea dryina (Ach.) Ach., Lichen dryinus Ach., Melaspilea patersonii Stirt.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 1–2 – Note: a mild-temperate to Mediterranean-Atlantic species found on bark of old, isolated deciduous trees, especially oaks, on faces which are seldom wetted by rain; rare, and certainly declining. – Au: St. It: Ven, Piem, Lig.

Baeomyces carneus Flörke

Syn.: Baeomyces byssoides (L.) P. Gaertn., G. Mey. & Scherb. var. carneus (Flörke) Hepp, Baeomyces caprinus (Th. Fr.) H. Magn., Baeomyces fuscorufescens Vain., Baeomyces rufus (Huds.) Rebent. var. carneus (Flörke) Nyl.

L – Subs.: ter-sil, sil – Alt.: 2–6 – Note: a mainly boreal-montane, perhaps circumpolar lichen found on soils high in clay and on weathered siliceous rocks; widespread in the Alps, but generally not common. – Au: T, K, St, N, B. Fr: Sav, HSav. It: TAA, Lomb. Sl: SlA.

Baeomyces placophyllus Ach.

Syn.: Ludovicia placophylla (Ach.) Trevis.

L – Subs.: ter-sil, ter-cal – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, probably circumpolar lichen found on sandy-clay soil in open stands (e.g. montane-subalpine grasslands), often in moderately disturbed habitats, sometimes reaching the alpine belt; widespread throughout the siliceous Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GL, GR, SZ, UW, VS. Fr: AMa, Isè, Sav, HSav. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA.

Baeomyces rufus (Huds.) Rebent. var. rufus

Syn.: Baeomyces byssoides (L.) P. Gaertn., G. Mey. & Scherb., Baeomyces rufus (Huds.) Rebent. var. subsquamulosus Nyl., Baeomyces rupestris Pers. ex Ach., Biatora byssoides (L.) Fr., Lichen fungiformis Scop., Lichen rufus Huds., Rinodina humilis H. Magn., Sphyridium byssoides (L.) Beltr., Sphyridium fungiforme (Scop.) Flot., Tubercularia rufa (Huds.) Kuntze

L – Subs.: ter-sil, sil, xyl, bry – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: a holarctic early coloniser of acid soils with high clay content and of weathered siliceous rocks, often found in disturbed sites; mostly sterile in upland areas; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SG, SZ, UR, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Baeomyces rufus (Huds.) Rebent. var. callianthus (Lettau) Lettau ex Frey

Syn.: Baeomyces callianthus Lettau

L – Subs.: ter-sil, xyl – Alt.: 3 – Note: a taxon of the B. rufus-group with thallus composed of minute squamules and pink-coloured, distinctly marginate apothecia reacting K+ yellow, then red; on acid soil, rarely on stumps or encrusting bryophytes; distribution insufficiently known. – Au: T, S, St.

Bagliettoa baldensis (A. Massal.) Vězda

Syn.: Amphoridium baldense (A. Massal.) A. Massal., Protobagliettoa exesa (Servít) Servít, Protobagliettoa kutakiana Servít, Verrucaria baldensis A. Massal., Verrucaria baldensis A. Massal. var. insculptoides (J. Steiner) Servít, Verrucaria calciseda DC. f. insculptoides J. Steiner, Verrucaria subconcentrica (J. Steiner) Servít, Verrucaria subconcentrica (J. Steiner) Servít var. metzleri Servít

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: a mainly mild-temperate species of compact calcareous rocks in natural, sheltered situations, with optimum in the submediterranean belt; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, UR, UW, VD. Fr: AHP, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Bagliettoa caesiella (Servít) ined. (provisionally placed here, ICN Art. 36.1b)

Syn.: Amphoridium caesiellum (Servít) Servít, Verrucaria caesiella Servít, Verrucaria calciseda DC. f. caesia Anzi

L # – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a calcicolous species closely related to B. calciseda, with a spreading, whitish mainly endolithic thallus, differing in the smaller, densely arranged ascomata (to 0.3 mm in diam.), and the ellipsoid ascospores measuring 18–21 × 10–12 μm; rarely collected, and perhaps more widespread in the Alps. – Fr: AMa. It: Lomb.

Bagliettoa calciseda (DC.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux

Syn.: Amphoridium calcisedum (DC.) Servít, Verrucaria calciseda DC., Verrucaria calciseda DC. f. interrupta Anzi, Verrucaria calciseda DC. f. tuberculosa Servít, Verrucaria hiascens (Ach.) Hepp non auct., Verrucaria interrupta (Anzi ex Arnold) J. Steiner nom.illeg.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: on limestone and dolomite, more rarely on other calciferous rocks, often associated with Aspicilia calcarea; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, UW, VD. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, Lomb. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Bagliettoa cazzae (Zahlbr.) Vězda & Poelt

Syn.: Protobagliettoa alocyza (Arnold) Servít, Protobagliettoa cazzae (Zahlbr.) Servít, Verrucaria cazzae Zahlbr., Verrucaria cazzae Zahlbr. var. graeca Servít

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–2 – Note: a chiefly Mediterranean lichen of steeply inclined to horizontal, hard calcareous rocks, absent from non-natural habitats, most frequent in the Southern and Western Alps at low elevations. – Fr: AHP, AMa, Var, Vau. It: Lomb.

Bagliettoa crassiuscula (Servít) Hafellner

Syn.: Amphoridium crassum (Arnold) Servít, Bagliettoa crassa (Arnold) Cl. Roux, Thelidium crassum Arnold, Verrucaria calciseda DC. var. crassa (Arnold) Arnold, Verrucaria crassa A. Massal. 1852 non Eschw. 1833 nom.illeg., Verrucaria crassiuscula Servít

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a taxon of the B. calciseda-group with a thick, rugulose-verrucose thallus, and ellipsoid ascospores (12–18 × 6–7 μm, acc. to Servít even larger); the distribution is still insufficiently known. – Fr: AMa, Drô, Vau. It: Ven.

Bagliettoa limborioides A. Massal.

Syn.: Bagliettoa sphinctrina auct. non (Ach.) Körb., Limboria sphinctrina auct. non (Ach.) Dufour, Protobagliettoa grummannii (Servít) Servít, Thrombium limborioides (A. Massal.) Zschacke, ?Verrucaria bosniaca Servít, Verrucaria bosniaca Servít f. albae Servít, Verrucaria ceracea J. Steiner, Verrucaria grummannii Servít, Verrucaria limborioides (A. Massal.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Verrucaria sphinctrina auct. non Ach., Verrucaria sphinctrina auct. var. bavarica Servít, Verrucaria sphinctrina auct. f. gallica Servít, Verrucaria sphinctrina auct. var. lojkae Servít, Verrucaria sphinctrina auct. var. tiroliensis Servít

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a mild-temperate to Mediterranean lichen found on steeply inclined faces of compact calcareous rocks, and on small boulders; probably more widespread in the Alps, but overlooked, or confused with similar species. – Au: T, S, N. Ge: OB. Sw: ?BE, ?GR. Fr: AMa, Vau. It: Ven, TAA, Lig.

Bagliettoa marmorea (Scop.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux

Syn.: Amphoridium marmoreum (Scop.) Baroni, Amphoridium marmoreum (Scop.) Baroni var. roseum (Kremp.) Syd., Amphoridium purpurascens (Hoffm.) A. Massal., Lichen marmoreus Scop., Urceolaria wulfenii Ach., Verrucaria marmorea (Scop.) Arnold, Verrucaria purpurascens Hoffm., Verrucaria purpurascens Hoffm. var. rosea A. Massal.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: on hard, compact limestone rocks in natural habitats, with optimum below the montane belt; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, UW. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Lig. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Bagliettoa parmigera (J. Steiner) Vězda & Poelt

Syn.: Amphoridium saxivorum (Servít) Grummann, Protobagliettoa obscurata (Servít) Servít, Protobagliettoa parmigera (J. Steiner) Servít, Verrucaria gyelnikii Servít, Verrucaria inaequata (Servít) Servít f. helvetica Servít, Verrucaria inaequata (Servít) Servít var. berchtesgadensis Servít, Verrucaria parmigera J. Steiner, Verrucaria parmigera J. Steiner f. geographica Servít, Verrucaria saxivora Servít, Verrucaria subrosea Servít

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–5 – Note: close to B. baldensis with which it is sometimes merged; a mainly mild-temperate lichen found on compact limestone and in exposed situations; widespread throughout the Alps, with optimum below the subalpine belt. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA.

Bagliettoa parmigerella (Zahlbr.) Vězda & Poelt

Syn.: Protobagliettoa bagliettoaeformis (Hazsl.) Servít, Protobagliettoa erumpens (Servít) Servít, Protobagliettoa inaequata (Servít) Servít, Protobagliettoa parmigerella (Zahlbr.) Servít, Protobagliettoa sphinctrinella (Zschacke) Servít, Verrucaria bagliettoaeformis (Hazsl.) Servít var. erumpens, Verrucaria harrimannii sensu Anzi, Verrucaria inaequata (Servít) Servít, Verrucaria parmigerella Zahlbr., Verrucaria pinguis J. Steiner, Verrucaria sphinctrinella Zschacke, Verrucaria sphinctrinella Zschacke f. loferensis Servít, Verrucaria sphinctrinella Zschacke f. viridis Servít, Verrucaria steineri Kušan var. inaequata Servít

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: a mild-temperate lichen found on compact limestone and dolomite in sheltered situations (e.g. in forests), with optimum in the submediterranean belt. – Au: V, S, St, O, N. Ge: OB. Fr: AHP, AMa, Drô, Isè, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lig. Sl: SlA.

Bagliettoa steineri (Kušan) Vězda

Syn.: Protobagliettoa steineri (Kušan) Servít ex J. Nowak & Tobol., Verrucaria steineri Kušan, Verrucaria steineri Kušan var. mittenwaldensis Servít

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: a mild-temperate species found on compact calcareous rocks, especially limestone, in natural habitats; frequently confused with B. baldensis. – Au: V, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ. Fr: AHP, AMa, Drô, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Lomb. Sl: SlA.

Bagliettoa suzaeana (Servít) Gueidan & Cl. Roux

Syn.: Verrucaria suzaeana Servít, Verrucaria suzaeana Servít var. sendtneriana Servít

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–2 – Note: this recently resurrected species is closely related to B. parmigera, differing in the less dense and more irregularly distributed perithecia. The species has not been distinguished in most of the earlier literature, so that its distribution is very poorly known. – Ge: OB. Fr: AMa, Var, Vau.

Bellemerea alpina (Sommerf.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux

Syn.: Aspicilia alpina (Sommerf.) Arnold, Lecanora alpina Sommerf.

L – Subs.: sil, met, cor – Alt.: 4–6 – Note: a mainly arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen of hard siliceous rocks wetted by rain near or above treeline; widespread throughout the siliceous Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, N. Ge: Schw. Sw: BE, GR, SZ, TI, UR, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, Sav, HSav. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA.

Bellemerea cinereorufescens (Ach.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux

Syn.: Aspicilia cinereorufescens (Ach.) A Massal., Lecanora cinereorufescens (Ach.) Hepp, Urceolaria cinereorufescens Ach.

L – Subs.: sil, met – Alt.: 3–6 – Note: a species with a wide range of genotypes resulting in a number of morphs, growing on metal-rich siliceous rocks at high elevations; widespread in the Holarctic region, including the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St. Ge: Schw. Sw: BE, GR, SZ, TI, UR, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, Sav, HSav. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA.

Bellemerea diamarta (Ach.) Hafellner & Cl. Roux

Syn.: Aspicilia diamarta (Ach.) Boistel, Lecanora cinereorufescens (Ach.) Hepp var. diamarta (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora diamarta (Ach.) Vain., Lecanora ferruginata Harm., Urceolaria diamarta Ach.

L – Subs.: sil, met – Alt.: 3–6 – Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen, somehow more hygro – and less photophytic than B. alpina. – Au: V, T, S, K, St. Sw: TI, VS. Fr: Sav, HSav. It: Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA.

Bellemerea sanguinea (Kremp.) Hafellner & Cl. Roux

Syn.: Aspicilia sanguinea Kremp., Lecanora incarnata Kremp., Lecanora sanguinea (Kremp.) Mig.

L – Subs.: sil, met – Alt.: 3–6 – Note: a taxon of the B. cinereorufescens-group with a thin, rimose, grey thallus, aspicilioid, dark-red apothecia and larger ascospores; on schists with a slight content of calcium; the distribution is still poorly known. – Au: V, T, S, K. Ge: Schw. Sw: VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, Sav, HSav. It: TAA, Lomb, Piem.

Bellemerea subcandida (Arnold) Hafellner & Cl. Roux

Syn.: Aspicilia cinereorufescens (Ach.) A. Massal. f. subcandida Arnold, Lecanora sanguinea (Kremp.) Mig. f. subcandida (Arnold) Mig., Lecanora subcandida (Arnold) Lettau

L – Subs.: cal, int – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: a probably overlooked and certainly more widespread, characteristic lichen of base-rich, weakly calciferous siliceous rocks; known from the Alps and the Pyrenees; perhaps just a calcicolous morph of B. cinereorufescens. – Au: V, T, S. Sw: VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Sav, HSav. It: Ven, TAA, Piem, Lig.

Bellemerea subnivea (Müll. Arg.) Hafellner

Syn.: Aspicilia subnivea (Müll. Arg.) Hue, Lecanora subnivea Müll. Arg.

L # – Subs.: cal, int – Alt.: 5 – Note: a species related to B. cinereorufescens, but the rimulose to areolate thallus pure white to bluish white (medulla I+ violet, thallus not reacting with K), with an effuse to subarachnoid marginal zone, apothecia (to c. 0.4 mm in diam) with dark brown discs and fully immersed in the areoles, 8-spored asci, and broadly ellipsoid, simple ascospores (c. 15 × 8–11 μm); on calcareous schist in the high alpine belt; so far only recorded from the Western Alps (Switzerland). – Sw: VD.

Bellemerea subsorediza (Lynge) R. Sant.

Syn.: Aspicilia subsorediza (Lynge) R. Sant., Lecidea subsorediza Lynge

L – Subs.: sil, cor – Alt.: 3–6 – Note: on siliceous rocks in open lichen communities (e.g. near glaciers); probably more widespread in the Alps, but overlooked, being most often sterile. – Au: V, T, S, K, St. It: Frl, TAA.

Biatora aureolepra T. Sprib. & Tønsberg

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3 – Note: a recently-described species, which in Europe is only known from Central Norway and a single locality in the Eastern Alps (Austria). – Au: O.

Biatora beckhausii (Körb.) Tuck.

Syn.: Bacidia beckhausii Körb., Bacidia minuscula Anzi, Bacidia stenospora (Hepp) Arnold, Biatora stenospora Hepp Micarea beckhausii (Körb.) Vězda, Micarea minuscula (Anzi) Vězda

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a mainly mild-temperate lichen found on bark of broad-leaved trees (especially Fraxinus) in open, humid, mostly montane woodlands; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, SZ, UR, UW, VS. Fr: AHP, Sav, HSav. It: Frl, TAA, Lomb, Piem. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Biatora brunnea Anzi

Syn.: Lecidea brunnea (Anzi) Stizenb.

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 5–6 – Note: a species with a thick, well-delimited, verrucose-areolate, brown thallus, dark brown, sessile, presumably lecanorine apothecia becoming convex and immarginate, a yellowish hypothecium, conglutinate paraphyses with a brown cap, 8-spored asci, and simple ellipsoid ascospores with a thin episporium, measuring 13–15 × c. 7 µm; only known from the type collection (on mica-schist at high elevation), and well worthy of further study. Wrongly reported from Switzerland by Stizenberger, Lichenes Helvetici (1882–1883): the cited locality is in Italy. – It: Lomb.

Biatora chrysantha (Zahlbr.) Printzen

Syn.: Biatora epixanthoidiza auct., Biatora gyrophorica (Tønsberg) Coppins, Lecidea chrysantha Zahlbr., Lecidea epixanthoidiza auct., Lecidea gyrophorica Tønsberg, Lecidea incana Ach. ex Sommerf.,

L – Subs.: cor, bry – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: on epiphytic bryophytes in humid forests, more rarely on bark or soil; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GL, GR, SZ, TI, UR, UW, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Piem, Lig. Sl: SlA.

Biatora efflorescens (Hedl.) Räsänen

Syn.: Biatora epixanthoidiza (Nyl.) Räsänen, Lecidea efflorescens (Hedl.) Erichsen, Lecidea epixanthoidiza Nyl., Lecidea helvola (Körb. ex Hellb.) Th. Fr. f. efflorescens Hedl.

L – Subs.: cor, bry, xyl – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a probably holarctic lichen found on a wide variety of trees with smooth bark, sometimes overgrowing mosses, rarely on lignum, mostly in upland areas; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, SZ, TI, UR, UW, VS. Fr: Isè. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Biatora fallax Hepp

Syn.: Biatorina fallax (Hepp) Hepp, Biatora vernalis (L) Fr. f. fallax (Hepp) Arnold, Lecidea fallax (Hepp) Linds.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a species with a granular-verrucose to microsquamulose thallus reacting Pd+ red; corticolous, on the base of coniferous trees; most records from the Alps are historical. – Au: T, S, K. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, SZ, TI, UR, VS. Sl: SlA.

Biatora flavopunctata (Tønsberg) Hinteregger & Printzen

Syn.: Lecanora flavopunctata Tønsberg

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: perhaps a boreal-montane species found on twigs of subalpine shrubs, especially Rhododendron ferrugineum. – Au: V, T, S, K, St. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, GL, GR, SZ, TI, UR, VS. Fr: Sav. It: Frl, Piem, Lig.

Biatora fuscovirens Bagl. & Carestia

Syn.: Lecidea fuscovirens (Bagl. & Carestia) Lettau

L # – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3 – Note: a species of uncertain affinity, with a spreading, granulose-verrucose, greenish thallus delimited by a brown prothallus, small rounded, isolated, soon immarginate apothecia with a reddish brown disc, adglutinate, rather thick paraphyses, a yellowish epihymenium, and elliptical, subacute ascospores which are c. 2 times as long as wide and c. ⅓ larger than those of Trapeliopsis viridescens, with which it was compared in the protologue; known only from the type collection, on Castanea. – It: Piem.

Biatora globulosa (Flörke) Fr.

Syn.: Bacidia globulosa (Flörke) Hafellner & V. Wirth, Bacidia pinguicula (Bagl. & Carestia) Lettau, Biatora hyalina Fr., Biatora minuta (Schaer.) Hepp, Biatora sylvana Körb., Biatorina globulosa (Flörke) Körb., Bilimbia pinguicula Bagl. & Carestia, Catillaria globulosa (Flörke) Th. Fr., Lecania globulosa (Flörke) van den Boom & Sérus., Lecania hyalina (Fr.) R. Sant., Lecidea globulosa Flörke, Lecidea minuta (Schaer.) A. Massal., Lecidea sylvana (Körb.) Th. Fr.

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a mainly temperate, perhaps holarctic lichen found on acid and rough bark of broad-leaved trees in sheltered situations, often in fissures, and in association with calicioid species; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, FR, GL, GR, LU, SZ, TI, UR, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, Isè, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Biatora helvola Körb. ex Hellb.

Syn.: Lecidea helvola (Körb. ex Hellb.) Hedl., Lecidea vernalis (L.) Ach. subsp. helvola (Körb. ex Hellb.) Th. Fr.

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a mainly boreal-montane, circumpolar species found on basal parts of trees in open forests, often with Parmeliopsis hyperopta; widespread, to be looked for further in the Western Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, SZ, UR, UW, VD, VS. It: Frl, Ven, TAA. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Biatora hemipolia (Nyl.) S. Ekman & Printzen

Syn.: Bacidia hemipolia (Nyl.) Malme, Lecidea arceutina (Ach.) Gray f. hemipolia Nyl., Lecidea hemipolia (Nyl.) Nyl.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a species of the B. beckhausii-B. globulosa-group with acicular ascospores; on bark of deciduous trees, with a few scattered records from the Alps. – Ge: Ge. Fr: Vau.

Biatora holomicra Anzi

Syn.: Lecidea holomicra (Anzi) Jatta

L # – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a species with a thin grey thallus, hemispherical, small, black apothecia, a brownish-yellow hypothecium, and small, narrowly elliptical ascospores measuring c. 7.5 × 3.5 µm. Most probably a Micarea. – It: Lomb.

Biatora meiocarpa (Nyl.) Arnold

Syn.: Lecidea meiocarpa Nyl.

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: this species was often confused with B. helvola, differing in the C – thallus (C+ red in B. helvola), the thicker paraphysal tips, and the filiform, often curved conidia (bacilliform and straight in B. helvola); on smooth bark of deciduous trees; from the Alps there are only a few scattered records, the older ones from Switzerland are dubious. – Sw: SZ, VS. Fr: AMa.

Biatora mendax Anzi

Syn.: Biatora propinquata (Nyl.) Arnold, Biatora subflavida (Nyl.) Arnold, Biatorina mendax (Anzi) Jatta, Catillaria mendax (Anzi) Lettau, Lecidea mendax (Anzi) Hue, Lecidea propinquata Nyl., Lecidea subflavida Nyl.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: an epiphytic species found in shaded and humid situations, with optimum in humid beech forests with Abies alba. – Au: T, S, K, St, N. Sw: BE. It: Frl, TAA, Lomb. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Biatora ocelliformis (Nyl.) Arnold

Syn.: Biatora atroviridis (Arnold) Hellb., Biatorina subglobulosa (Nyl.) Arnold, Bilimbia ocelliformis (Nyl.) Branth & Rostr., Lecidea admixta Kullh., Lecidea atroviridis (Arnold) Th. Fr., Lecidea ocelliformis Nyl., Lecidea subglobulosa Nyl., Lecidea turgidula Fr. var. atroviridis Arnold

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a boreal-montane species found on the bark of deciduous and coniferous trees in montane to subalpine forests. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, UW, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa. It: TAA, Piem. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Biatora pontica Printzen & Tønsberg

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3 – Note: described from Turkey, and also known from Europe and Eastern North America, this species occurs on acid to subacid bark in shaded and humid situations within old montane forests, mainly on Fagus and Abies; so far known only from the Eastern Alps (Austria, Italy, Slovenia). – Au: T, St. It: Frl. Sl: SlA.

Biatora rufidula (Graewe) S. Ekman & Printzen

Syn.: Bacidia rufidula (Graewe) Zahlbr., Bilimbia rufidula Graewe, Lecidea rufidula (Graewe) Stizenb.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 4 – Note: a boreal-montane lichen, restricted to Picea abies in the subalpine belt of the Alps; probably more widespread in the Alps, but perhaps declining. – Ge: OB. It: TAA.

Biatora sphaeroidiza (Vain.) Printzen & Holien

Syn.: Lecidea sphaeroidiza Vain.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a boreal-montane species which occurs both on conifers and deciduous trees and shrubs (e.g. Alnus, Salix, Sorbus, Vaccinium) in rather humid areas, only reported from the Eastern Alps (Slovenia). – Sl: SlA.

Biatora subduplex (Nyl.) Räsänen ex Printzen

Syn.: Biatora vernalis (L.) Fr. f. subduplex (Nyl.) Arnold, Catillaria subduplex (Nyl.) H. Olivier, Lecidea apochroeiza Nyl., Lecidea internectens Nyl., Lecidea subduplex (Nyl.) Nyl., Lecidea vernalis (L.) Ach. f. subduplex Nyl., Lecidea vernalis (L.) Ach. var. subduplex (Nyl.) Vain.

L – Subs.: deb, bry, cor – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: one of the commonest Biatora-species in the Alps, especially on plant remains and on basal parts of subalpine shrubs. See also note on B. vernalis. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, SZ, TI, UR, VD, VS. Fr: AMa, Sav, HSav. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Biatora subgilva (Arnold) Hinteregger

Syn.: Biatora vernalis (L.) Fr. f. subgilva (Arnold) Arnold, Biatora vernalis (L.) Fr. var. subgilva Arnold, Lecidea vernalis (L.) Ach. f. subgilva (Arnold) Zahlbr.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 4 – Note: a rare species growing on old, decaying branches and stems of Rhododendron in areas with siliceous substrata; in the study area it is so far known only from the Eastern Alps (Austria, Italy). – Au: V, T. It: Frl.

Biatora vacciniicola (Tønsberg) Printzen

Syn.: Lecidea vacciniicola Tønsberg

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: a species with a sorediate, often sterile, partly endophloeodic thallus and confluent soralia reacting C+ red; on bark of various trees, mostly near the base and on branches of dwarf shrubs, often with B. subduplex; from the Alps there are only a few scattered records. – Au: T, S. Sw: BE, GR, VS.

Biatora valerii Anzi

Syn.: Lecidea valerii (Anzi) Jatta

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a species with a pinkish white, orbicular, thick, almost pulvinate, plicate thallus, the individual thalli solitary to confluent, 5–8 mm across, 2–4 mm tall, apothecia and spores as in Lecanora polytropa; only known from the type collection, on schist, this taxon would be well worthy of further study. – It: Lomb.

Biatora vernalis (L.) Fr.

Syn.: Bacidia vernalis (L.) Clauzade & Rondon, Biatora sphaeroides (Dicks.) Hornem. var. vernalis (L.) Rabenh., Bilimbia vernalis (L.) Trevis., Lecidea vernalis (L.) Ach., Lichen vernalis L., Patellaria vernalis (L.) Spreng., Pyrrhospora vernalis (L.) M. Choisy, Secoliga vernalis (L.) Norman

L – Subs.: cor, bry, deb, ter-sil – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a mostly boreal-montane, circumpolar species, ranging from Northern Scandinavia to the Alps, the Pyrenees and the Balkan mountains, becoming progressively rarer southwards, found on bryophytes, plant debris, soil and bark. Several records could refer to B. subduplex; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, ?SZ, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, Sav. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Biatora veteranorum Coppins & Sérus.

Syn.: Catillaria alba Coppins & Vězda

L – Subs.: xyl – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a mild-temperate lichen found on decorticated trunks of old deciduous trees protected from rain, with a few scattered records from the Alps. – Au: T. Sw: GL, GR, SZ, TI. It: TAA.

Biatorella fossarum (Dufour ex Fr.) Arnold.

Syn.: Biatora rousselii (De Not.) Durieu & Mont., Biatorella rousselii De Not., Lecidea fossarum Dufour ex Fr.

L # – Subs.: ter-int – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: closely related to B. hemisphaerica; on slightly calciferous, often strongly decalcified soil in rather disturbed habitats; chiefly southern in Europe, with a few scattered records from the Alps. – Ge: OB, Schw. Fr: Drô. It: Ven, TAA.

Biatorella germanica A. Massal. ex Körb.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: on sheltered calcareous rocks; perhaps overlooked, but certainly not common, from the Alps there are only a few scattered records. – Ge: Schw. Sw: VD. It: Frl, Piem.

Biatorella hemisphaerica Anzi

Syn.: Biatorella fossarum (Dufour ex Fr.) Arnold. var. rubicunda (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr.

L – Subs.: ter-cal, bry – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: on calciferous soil and amongst bryophytes, most often in rock fissures; widespread in the Alps, but generally not very common. – Au: T, S, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: GR, SZ, VD, VS. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Lig.

Biatorella heterospora Kalb & Vězda

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3 – Note: a corticolous species, peculiar in having a inspersed epihymenium with olive-blue granules, and ellipsoid ascospores of various shape; apparently rare (for the Alps reported only from Austria), and ecology therefore insufficiently known. – Au: K, St.

Biatorella microhaema Norman

Syn.: Strangospora microhaema (Norman) R.A. Anderson

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, perhaps circumpolar species with minute, blood-red, immarginate apothecia, whose taxonomic position is still unresolved; on base-rich bark and slightly eutrophicated lignum with a few scattered records from the Alps. – Au: V, T, St. Ge: OB. It: TAA.

Biatorella tiroliensis H. Magn.

L # – Subs.: ter-cal – Alt.: 4 – Note: a terricolous species, probably belonging to the B. germanica-group, but with fewer ascospores per ascus, only known from the type locality in Austria. – Au: T.

Biatoridium delitescens (Arnold) Hafellner

Syn.: Biatorella delitescens Arnold, Strangospora delitescens (Arnold) Coppins

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3 – Note: a species differing from the more common B. monasteriense in the exciple lacking attached thallus granules, and the paraphyses without enlarged tips; on bark in Xanthorion-communities; distribution insufficiently known, but apparently rare in the Alps. – Au: St. Ge: Schw. Sw: BE.

Biatoridium monasteriense J. Lahm ex Körb

Syn.: Biatorella elegans (A. Massal.) Stizenb., Biatorella monasteriensis (J. Lahm ex Körb.) J. Lahm, Biatoridium elegans (A. Massal.) Reinke, Chiliospora elegans A. Massal.

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a mild-temperate lichen found on deciduous trees with base-rich bark (Acer, Fraxinus, Sambucus); much overlooked in the past, but locally not infrequent on Sambucus along brooks, and widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: GL, GR, SZ, VS. Fr: AMa, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Bilimbia accedens Arnold

Syn.: Bacidia accedens (Arnold) Lettau, Mycobilimbia accedens (Arnold) V. Wirth ex Hafellner, Myxobilimbia accedens (Arnold) Hafellner

L – Subs.: bry, deb – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: on mosses overgrowing soil and rocks, with optimum on calciferous substrata in upland areas. Au: T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Fr: HAl, AMa. It: Frl, TAA, Lomb, Piem. Sl: SlA.

Bilimbia lobulata (Sommerf.) Hafellner & Coppins

Syn.: Bacidia sabulosa (A. Massal.) Lettau, Biatora regeliana Hepp, Bilimbia leucophaea A.L. Sm., Bilimbia regeliana (Hepp) Körb., Bilimbia sabulosa A. Massal., Bilimbia syncomista (Flörke) Körb., Catillaria subnegans (Nyl.) Arnold, Lecidea claudeliana Harm., Lecidea lobulata Sommerf., Lecidea subnegans Nyl., Lecidea syncomista (Flörke) Nyl., Mycobilimbia lobulata (Sommerf.) Hafellner, Myxobilimbia lobulata (Sommerf.) Hafellner, Toninia claudeliana (Harm.) H. Olivier, Toninia lobulata (Sommerf.) Lynge, Toninia sabulosa (A. Massal.) Samp., Toninia syncomista (Flörke) Th. Fr.

L – Subs.: ter-cal, bry-cal, deb – Alt.: 2–6 – Note: a cool-temperate to arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen found on terricolous mosses and bare calciferous soil, from the Alps to the high Mediterranean mountains; widespread and locally common throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, FR, GR, LU, SZ, TI, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, Sav, HSav, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA. Li.

Bilimbia microcarpa (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr.

Syn.: Bacidia hypnophila (Turner ex Ach.) Zahlbr. subsp. microcarpa (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr., Bacidia microcarpa (Th. Fr.) Lettau, Bacidia obscurata (Sommerf.) Zahlbr. var. microcarpa Th. Fr., Bilimbia hypnophila (Turner ex Ach.) Th. Fr., subsp. microcarpa (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr., Bilimbia obscurata (Sommerf.) Th. Fr. var. microcarpa Th. Fr., Lecidea meiobola Nyl., Lecidea microcarpa (Th. Fr.) Vain., Mycobilimbia microcarpa (Th. Fr.) Brunnb., Myxobilimbia microcarpa (Th. Fr.) Hafellner

L – Subs.: deb, bry – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: an arctic-alpine lichen found on mosses in dry grasslands, sometimes on epilithic bryophytes, with optimum near or above treeline; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: GR, LU, SZ, TI, UR, UW. Fr: AHP, HAl, Isè, Sav, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig. Sl: SlA.

Bilimbia sabuletorum (Schreb.) Arnold var. sabuletorum

Syn.: Bacidia borborodes (Körb.) Lettau, Bacidia descendens (Stizenb.) Mig., Bacidia hypnophila (Turner ex Ach.) Zahlbr., Bacidia propinqua (Stizenb.) Arnold, Bacidia sabuletorum (Schreb.) Lettau, Biatora propinqua Stizenb., Bilimbia borborodes Körb., Bilimbia hexamera De Not., Bilimbia hypnophila (Turner ex Ach.) Th. Fr., Lecidea hypnophila Turner ex Ach., Lecidea sabuletorum (Schreb.) Ach., Lichen sabuletorum Schreb., Mycobilimbia sabuletorum (Schreb.) Hafellner, Myxobilimbia sabuletorum (Schreb.) Hafellner

L – Subs.: bry, deb, ter-cal, xyl, cor – Alt.: 1–5 – Note: a holarctic, mainly temperate lichen found on mosses overgrowing soil and calciferous rocks, and tree bark, also in urban environments (e.g. on walls); widespread and locally common throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GL, GR, LU, SG, SZ, UR, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Bilimbia sabuletorum (Schreb.) Arnold var. dolosa (Duby) ined. (provisionally placed here, ICN Art. 36.1b)

Syn.: Bacidia sabuletorum (Schreb.) Lettau var. dolosa (Duby) V. Wirth, Bacidia sabuletorum (Schreb.) Lettau f. dolosa (Duby) Zahlbr., Bilimbia dolosa (Duby) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Bilimbia sabuletorum (Schreb.) Arnold f. dolosa (Duby) Arnold, Patellaria dolosa Duby

L # – Subs.: bry, deb – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: closely related to (or identical with) the typical variety; probably widespread, but poorly documented because most often not distinguished from var. sabuletorum. – Au: V, T, O, N.

Blennothallia crispa (Huds.) Otálora, P.M. Jørg. & Wedin var. crispa

Syn.: Blennothallia cheilea (Ach.) Trevis., Collema cheileum (Ach.) Ach., Collema conchilobum (Flot.) Körb., Collema crispum (Huds.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg. var. crispum, Lichen crispus Huds.

L – Subs.: cal, ter-cal – Alt.: 1–5 – Note: a mainly mild-temperate lichen found both on calcareous rocks and soil, often in rather disturbed habitats such as walls in villages below the subalpine belt, sometimes reaching beyond treeline; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, SZ, TI, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA.

Blennothallia crispa (Huds.) Otálora, P.M. Jørg. & Wedin var. metzleri (Arnold) ined. (provisionally placed here, ICN Art. 36.1b)

Syn.: Collema cheileum (Ach.) Ach. var. metzleri Arnold, Collema crispum (Huds.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg. var. metzleri (Arnold) Degel., Collema metzleri (Arnold) J. Steiner, Collema monocarpum Dufour ex Schaer., Collema platycarpum Durieu & Mont.

L – Subs.: cal, ter-cal – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a taxon characterised by constantly small thalli and one to few apothecia per thallus; on calcareous rocks, often in somewhat shaded and moist situations; probably widespread, but poorly documented because often not distinguished from the typical variety. – Au: K, St. Sw: SZ. Fr: Vau.

Botryolepraria lesdainii (Hue) Canals, Hern.-Mar., Gómez-Bolea & Llimona

Syn.: Crocynia lesdainii Hue, Lepraria aeruginosa sensu Sm. non (Weiss) Sm., Lepraria lesdainii (Hue) R.C. Harris

L – Subs.: cal, cor – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a leprarioid species with a peculiar micromorphology, the thallus being composed of minute, shrub-like clusters with subterminal groups of algal cells; usually on calcareous rocks in full shade; widespread, but not common in the Alps. – Au: S, K, St, O. Sw: LU. Fr: AHP, AMa, Drô, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, Lomb. Sl: SlA.

Brianaria bauschiana (Körb.) S. Ekman & M. Svenss.

Syn.: Biatora bauschiana Körb., Biatora rusticella (Nyl.) Walt. Watson, Biatora semipallens (Nyl.) Walt. Watson, Catillaria microspora Maslowa, Lecidea bauschiana (Körb.) Lettau, Lecidea dilutiuscula Nyl., Lecidea infidula Nyl., Lecidea rusticella Nyl., Lecidea semipallens Nyl., Micarea bauschiana (Körb.) V. Wirth & Vězda

L – Subs.: sil, ter-sil, cor – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: on a wide variety of substrata (rocks, exposed roots, consolidated soil) in shaded-dry situations (e.g. in underhangs), but restricted to humid areas. – Au: S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB. Fr: Var. It: Ven, TAA, Lomb, Lig.

Brianaria lutulata (Nyl.) S. Ekman & M. Svenss.

Syn.: Biatora anthrophila (Larbal. ex Leight.) Walt. Watson, Biatora paucula (Nyl.) Walt. Watson, Lecidea anthrophila Larbal. ex Leight., Lecidea botryiza Nyl. ex Stirt., Lecidea laxula Nyl., Lecidea lutulata Nyl., Lecidea paucula Nyl., Lecidea poliodes Nyl., Micarea lutulata (Nyl.) Coppins, Micarea poliodes (Nyl.) Vězda, Micarea umbrosa Vězda & V. Wirth

L – Subs.: sil, met – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: on siliceous, often metal-rich rocks in dry and sheltered underhangs, in humid natural habitats; widespread, but generally not common in the Alps. – Au: ?V, S, K, St. Sw: VS. Fr: AMa. It: Frl, VA.

Brianaria sylvicola (Flot. ex Körb.) S. Ekman & M. Svenss.

Syn.: Biatora smaragdina Arnold, Biatora sylvicola (Flot. ex Körb.) Müll. Arg., Lecidea aggerata Mudd, Lecidea hellbomii J. Lahm, Lecidea hypocyanea Vain. non Stirt., Lecidea incincta Nyl., Lecidea sylvicola Flot. ex Körb., Lecidea vainioi H. Magn., Micarea sylvicola (Flot. ex Körb.) Vězda & V. Wirth

L – Subs.: sil, xyl – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: on shaded, humid siliceous rocks, in underhangs, e.g. in forests; widespread in the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, N. Sw: UR, VS. Fr: HAl, HSav. It: Frl, TAA, Lomb, VA. Sl: SlA.

Brianaria tuberculata (Sommerf.) S. Ekman & M. Svenss.

Syn.: Lecidea botryocarpa Nyl., Lecidea latens Taylor, Lecidea subinfidula Nyl., Lecidea tuberculata Sommerf., Micarea tuberculata (Sommerf.) R.A. Anderson

L – Subs.: sil, cor – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: on siliceous rocks in humid forests, but also on exposed roots, mostly under overhangs, with a few scattered records from the Alps. – Au: V, T, K, St, N. Fr: AMa. It: TAA.

Brodoa atrofusca (Schaer.) Goward

Syn.: Hypogymnia atrofusca (Schaer.) Räsänen, Hypogymnia intestiniformis (Vill.) Räsänen var. atrofusca (Schaer.) Poelt, Parmelia atrofusca (Schaer.) Cromb., Parmelia ceratophylla Schaer. var. atrofusca Schaer., Parmelia intestiniformis (Vill.) Ach. var. atrofusca (Schaer.) Hasselrot

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: on wind-exposed siliceous rocks wetted by rain near or above treeline, less bound to a long snow cover than B. intestiniformis; widespread throughout the siliceous Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St. Sw: BE, GR, TI, UR, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, HSav. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA.

Brodoa intestiniformis (Vill.) Goward

Syn.: Hypogymnia encausta (Sm.) Walt. Watson, Hypogymnia intestiniformis (Vill.) Räsänen, Imbricaria encausta (Sm.) DC., Lichen intestiniformis Vill., Menegazzia encausta (Sm.) Navàs, Parmelia encausta (Sm.) Ach., Parmelia intestiniformis (Vill.) Ach.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen found in more sheltered and less wind-exposed situations than B. atrofusca, on faces of acid siliceous rocks with a long snow-cover, with optimum above treeline; widespread and locally rather common throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, N. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, TI, UR, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, Sav, HSav. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA. Sl: SlA.

Bryobilimbia hypnorum (Lib.) Fryday, Printzen & S. Ekman

Syn.: Biatora atrofusca Hepp, Biatora cartilaginea Lönnr., Lecidea atrofusca (Hepp) Mudd, Lecidea fusca (Schaer.) Th. Fr., Lecidea hypnorum Lib., Lecidea sanguineoatra sensu Nyl. non (Wulfen) Ach., Lecidea templetonii Taylor, Mycobilimbia hypnorum (Lib.) Kalb & Hafellner

L – Subs.: bry, ter-cal, deb, cor, xyl – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: a cool-temperate to arctic-alpine, probably circumpolar lichen found on mosses, plant debris, soil, bark and lignum, especially in upland areas with calcareous substrata; widespread and common throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, TI, UR, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Bryobilimbia sanguineoatra (Wulfen) Fryday, Printzen & S. Ekman

Syn.: Lecidea sanguineoatra (Wulfen) Ach., Lichen sanguineoater Wulfen, Mycobilimbia sanguineoatra (Wulfen) Kalb & Hafellner nom.illeg.

L – Subs.: cor, bry – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: optimum in open humid forests, on mosses at the base of old boles, sometimes on soil. – Au: V, St, O, N. Ge: Ge. Sw: BE, GL, GR, SZ, TI, UR. Fr: AHP, Isè, HSav. It: Piem. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Bryodina rhypariza (Nyl.) Hafellner & Türk

Syn.: Bryonora rhypariza (Nyl.) Poelt, Lecanora rhypariza Nyl.

L – Subs.: bry – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: a mainly arctic-alpine species found on mosses (Andreaea, Grimmia) near or above treeline, often associated with cyanobacteria (Stigonema). – Au: V, T, S, K, St. Sw: BE, GL, GR, UR, VS. Fr: HAl. It: TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA.

Bryonora castanea (Hepp) Poelt

Syn.: Biatora castanea Hepp, Lecanora castanea (Hepp) Th. Fr.

L – Subs.: deb, bry, ter-sil, ter-cal – Alt.: 4–6 – Note: a mainly arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen found on soil, mosses, plant remains and on other lichens in Alpine grasslands, mostly in sites with a long snow cover, on siliceous substrata; widespread in the siliceous Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Sw: GR, UR, TI, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, Sav. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA. Sl: SlA.

Bryonora corallina Poelt

L # – Subs.: bry – Alt.: 5 – Note: thallus consisting of minute, densely aggregated “podetia”; based on a sterile type (ascomata still unknown), hence taxonomic placement uncertain; on decaying tufts of mosses over siliceous rocks; known only from a single locality in the Austrian Alps. – Au: K.

Bryonora curvescens (Mudd) Poelt

Syn.: Biatora curvescens (Mudd) Th. Fr., Lecania curvescens (Mudd) A.L. Sm., Lecanora castanea (Hepp) Th. Fr. f. curvescens (Mudd) Th. Fr., Lecanora curvescens (Mudd) Nyl., Pannaria curvescens Mudd

L – Subs.: bry, ter-sil – Alt.: 4–6 – Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen found on bryophytes (e.g. Andreaea, Grimmia) in sites with periodic seepage of water, with optimum above treeline on siliceous substrata, with a few scattered records from the Alps. – Au: T, S. Sw: GR. It: TAA.

Bryonora pruinosa (Th. Fr.) Holt.-Hartw.

Syn.: Lecanora castanea (Hepp) Th. Fr. var. pruinosa Th. Fr.

L – Subs.: bry, deb – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: similar to B. castanea, but apothecial margin darker than the occasionally pruinose disc, and ascospores less than 16 µm long; on plant debris and moribund lichens; in Europe it has an arctic-alpine distribution, but is apparently rare in the Alps. – Au: T. Sw: GR, LU, SZ, VS.

Bryoria bicolor (Ehrh.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.

Syn.: Alectoria bicolor (Ehrh.) Nyl., Bryopogon bicolor (Ehrh.) Elenkin, Bryopogon jubatus (L.) Link var. bicolor (Ehrh.) Rabenh., Cornicularia bicolor (Ehrh.) Ach., Lichen bicolor Ehrh.

L – Subs.: cor, bry, sil – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: a mainly boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen found on mossy trunks of old, more or less isolated trees in areas with frequent fog, sometimes on mossy rocks; widespread throughout the Alps, but perhaps declining. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, FR, GL, GR, LU, SZ, UR, UW, VD, VS. Fr: HAl, Isè, Sav, HSav. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem. Sl: SlA.

Bryoria capillaris (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.

Syn.: Alectoria cana (Ach.) Leight., Alectoria capillaris (Ach.) Cromb., Alectoria implexa auct., Alectoria setacea (Ach.) Motyka, Bryopogon canum (Ach.) M. Choisy, Bryopogon capillaris (Ach.) Bystrek, Bryoria setacea (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw., Parmelia jubata (L.) Ach. var. capillaris Ach.

L – Subs.: cor, sil – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, with optimum in humid Fagus-Abies forests, mostly on twigs, but also on boles of isolated trees in areas with frequent fog; widespread and still locally common throughout the Alps, but perhaps declining. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, TI, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, Sav, HSav, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA.

Bryoria carpatica (Motyka) Bystrek

Syn.: Alectoria carpatica Motyka

L # – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3 – Note: a species similar and/or related to B. tortuosa, with grey to brown, dull, irregularly branched, contorted and flexuous, Pd+ yellow thalli with numerous pseudocyphellae; in moist montane forests e.g. along streams; rare in the Central European mountains, including the Eastern Alps (Austria, Switzerland). – Au: N. Sw: GR.

Bryoria chalybeiformis (L.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.

Syn.: Alectoria chalybeiformis (L.) Röhl., Alectoria jubata (L.) Ach. var. chalybeiformis (L.) Ach., Alectoria prostratosteola Gyeln., Bryopogon chalybeiforme (L.) Link, Lichen chalybeiformis L.

L # – Subs.: sil, ter-sil, xyl, deb, bry – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen found on wind-exposed rocks, but also on soil, mosses and plant remains in exposed habitats with frequent fog, with optimum near and above treeline. It could be just a terricolous morph of B. fuscescens; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, N. Ge: OB. Sw: FR, GR, SG, TI, UR, VS. Fr: HAl, Sav, HSav. It: Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA. Sl: SlA.

Bryoria crispa (Motyka) Bystrek

Syn.: Alectoria crispa Motyka

L # – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a name applied to a lichen with thallus reacting Pd+ red, soralia with spinulose margins, and isidioid soredia, perhaps a morph of B. fuscescens; on bark of various trees; distribution poorly documented, because often not distinguished. – Au: St, N.

Bryoria fremontii (Tuck.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.

Syn.: Alectoria fremontii Tuck.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, easily recognizable species found on twigs of conifers in damp forests; there is no recent record from Italy, and no other trusted record from the Alps. – Sw: ?Sw. It: TAA, Piem.

Bryoria furcellata (Fr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.

Syn.: Alectoria nidulifera Norrl., Cetraria furcellata Fr.

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a mainly boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen found on isolated conifers near treeline, sometimes on lignum; apparently rare in the Alps. – Au: S, K, N. Sw: ?Sw. It: Frl, Ven. Sl: SlA.

Bryoria fuscescens (Gyeln.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.

Syn.: ?Alectoria achariana Gyeln., Alectoria haynaldii Gyeln., Alectoria jubata auct. p.p., Alectoria jubata var. lanestris Ach., Alectoria lanestris (Ach.) Gyeln., Bryopogon jubatus (L.) Link, Bryopogon lanestris (Ach.) Gyeln., Bryoria lanestris (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw., Bryoria subcana (Nyl. ex Stizenb.) Brodo & D. Hawksw., Evernia jubata (L.) Fr.

L – Subs.: cor, xyl, sil – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: a polymorphic and chemically variable, temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar species with a broad ecological range; widespread and still locally common throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GL, GR, LU, SG, SZ, UR, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA.

Bryoria fuscidula (Arnold) Bystrek

Syn.: Alectoria cana (Ach.) Leight. f. fuscidula Arnold, Alectoria fuscidula (Arnold) Vain., Alectoria implexa (Hoffm.) Röhl. var. fuscidula (Arnold) Motyka

L # – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3 – Note: a species resembling B. implexa in the pendent, cespitose, brown thalli, but branches with fissural soralia and distinctly blackened apices and thallus K+ yellow soon turning to red; in montane forests, only recorded from the Eastern Alps (Italy). – It: TAA.

Bryoria implexa (Hoffm.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.

Syn.: Alectoria catharinae Räsänen, Alectoria implexa (Hoffm.) Nyl. non auct., Alectoria osteola Gyeln., Alectoria pseudofuscescens Gyeln., Alectoria subachariana Gyeln., Alectoria vrangiana Gyeln., Alectoria zopfii Asahina, Bryopogon implexus (Hoffm.) Elenkin, Bryoria friabilis Brodo & D. Hawksw., Bryoria osteola (Gyeln.) Brodo & D. Hawksw., Bryoria pseudofuscescens (Gyeln.) Brodo & D. Hawksw., Bryoria vrangiana (Gyeln.) Brodo & D. Hawksw., Usnea implexa Hoffm.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar, chemically heterogeneous species, most common on branches of coniferous, more rarely of deciduous trees in areas with frequent fog; frequent in the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, GL, GR, LU, SZ, TI, UR, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Bryoria kuemmerleana (Gyeln.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.

Syn.: Alectoria kuemmerleana Gyeln.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3 – Note: a species with partly pruinose thalli reacting K+ red, C-, and elongate, fusiform pseudocyphellae; on bark of various trees; distribution poorly documented because often not distinguished. – Ge: Schw. Fr: AHP, AMa. It: TAA.

Bryoria mirabilis (Motyka) Bystrek

Syn.: Alectoria mirabilis Motyka, Alectoria subprolixa sensu Motyka

L # – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a taxon resembling B. capillaris, with pendent, olive-brown, regularly branched thalli reacting K+ yellow then red, and Pd+ yellow, the branches evenly coloured, sometimes with tuberculate soralia; in mixed and coniferous forests; widespread in Central Europe but not common (likely to be not always properly distinguished); from the Alps there are a few scattered records. – Au: St. Ge: Schw. Sw: VS. Fr: Sav. It: TAA.

Bryoria motykana (Bystrek) Bystrek

Syn.: Alectoria motykana Bystrek

L # – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a species with pendent, grey to greyish – brown thalli reacting Pd+ yellow but K – (psoromic acid), branches with pseudocyphellae, fissural soralia, and distinctly blackened apices; widespread in Europe from the boreal to the nemoral zone in mixed and coniferous forests, but not common; from the Alps there are so far a few scattered records. – Au: T. Sw: VS. It: TAA, VA.

Bryoria nadvornikiana (Gyeln.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.

Syn.: Alectoria altaica (Gyeln.) Räsänen, Alectoria implexa (Hoffm.) Röhl. var. nadvornikiana (Gyeln.) Zahlbr., Alectoria nadvornikiana Gyeln., Alectoria spinulosa Ahlner nom. nud.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a boreal-montane, circumpolar, shade-tolerant species of mixed upper montane to oroboreal forests, mostly on low, dead twigs and branches of conifers; widespread in the Alps, to be looked for further in the Western Alps of France. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GL, GR, LU, SZ, UR, UW, VS. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem. Sl: SlA.

Bryoria positiva (Gyeln.) Bystrek

Syn.: Alectoria positiva (Gyeln.) Motyka, Bryoria fuscescens (Gyeln.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. var. positiva (Gyeln.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.

L # – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: the differentation from B. fuscescens, based on a different chemistry, is not accepted by several authors. – Au: V, T, K, St.

Bryoria simplicior (Vain.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.

Syn.: Alectoria nidulifera Norrl. f. simplicior Vain., Alectoria simplicior (Vain.) Lynge

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen found on isolated conifers; to be looked for further throughout the Alps. – Au: T. Sw: VS. It: TAA, VA.

Bryoria smithii (Du Rietz) Brodo & D. Hawksw.

Syn.: Alectoria smithii Du Rietz

L – Subs.: cor, sax – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a temperate to boreal-montane species found on large, more or less shaded rock walls, more rarely on bark, especially on twigs of conifers in damp montane forests; widespread, but apparently rather rare in the Alps. – Au: T, S, St. Ge: OB. Sw: SZ. It: Frl, Ven, Lomb, Piem.

Bryoria taborensis (Gyeln.) Hafellner & Obermayer

Syn.: Alectoria ostrobottnica Gyeln. var. taborensis Gyeln.

L # – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3 – Note: this name was regionally used for a species resembling B. implexa, but with the chemistry of B. fuscescens, perhaps referring to B. vrangiana; on bark of various trees; distribution poorly documented because often not distinguished. – Au: St.

Bryoria tenuis (E. Dahl) Brodo & D. Hawksw.

Syn.: Alectoria tenuis E. Dahl

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3 – Note: a species described from Greenland, with erect to decumbent thalli with blackened bases and at least some perpendicular lateral spines, therefore recalling B. bicolor (but lacking the third-order perpendicular branches of that species); Austrian specimens – despite their mention in one of the major genus monographs – are in urgent need of critical revision. – Au: V, T, S, K.

Bryostigma muscigenum (Th. Fr.) Frisch & G. Thor

Syn.: Arthonia leucodontis (Poelt & Döbbeler) Coppins, Arthonia muscigena Th. Fr., Bryostigma leucodontis Poelt & Döbbeler

L – Subs.: cor, bry – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a species with a strongly reduced thallus containing a chlorococcoid photobiont, and minute, hemispherical ascomata, sometimes confused with Arthonia apatetica; it grows on the bark of deciduous trees, but also on epiphytic bryophytes (e.g. Leucodon sciuroides) and on leaves in humid forests; widespread in the Alps, but probably often overlooked – Au: T, St. Ge: OB. Sw: GR, SG, SZ, UW, VS. It: TAA, Lomb, VA.

Buellia abstracta (Nyl.) H. Olivier

Syn.: Buellia sequax auct. non (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Lecidea abstracta Nyl.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a much misunderstood silicicolous species, in the past frequently confused with B. sequax; for the study area there is a single record from the Southern Alps (Italy). – It: TAA.

Buellia aethalea (Ach.) Th. Fr.

Syn.: Buellia aethaleoides (Nyl.) H. Olivier, Buellia atropallidula (Nyl.) J. Lahm, Buellia baltica Erichsen, Buellia impressula (Leight.) A.L. Sm., Buellia nigerrima (Nyl.) Arnold, Buellia ocellata (Flörke ex Flot.) Körb. var. tenella Müll. Arg., Buellia subatra Erichsen, Buellia verruculosa (Sm.) Mudd, Gyalecta aethalea Ach., Lecanora umbrinofusca Nyl., Lecidea aethalea (Ach.) Nyl., Lecidea aethaleoides Nyl., Lecidea atroalbella Nyl., Lecidea nigerrima Nyl., Rinodina atropallidula (Nyl.) Arnold, Rinodina ocellulata Bagl. & Carestia, Rinodina umbrinofusca (Nyl.) H. Olivier

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 1–5 – Note: on horizontal to weakly inclined, exposed, hard, crystalline siliceous rocks wetted by rain, mostly in species-poor stands; widespread in the Alps, but common only in dry areas. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: GR, UR, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Var. It: Frl, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig.

Buellia arborea Coppins & Tønsberg

L – Subs.: xyl – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a usually sterile species with bluish-greenish, roundish to elongated, flat to concave soralia, the soredia reacting K – in squash preparations; usually on periodically dry wood of logs and old fences at high elevations; widespread in the Alps and regionally rather common. – Au: V, T, K, St, O, N. Ge: Schw. Sw: GR, LU, SZ, VS. Fr: Sav. It: Frl.

Buellia arnoldii Servít

Syn.: Hafellia arnoldii (Servít) Hafellner & Türk

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a mild-temperate species found on thin twigs of conifers in humid stands, with optimum in the subalpine belt; probably overlooked and more widespread in the Alps. – Au: T, S, St, N. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, UW. It: TAA.

Buellia asterella Poelt & Sulzer

L – Subs.: ter-cal – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a mainly western European species growing on calciferous or gypsicolous soil in dry grasslands, presently extinct over much of its former range: the only verifiable extant populations being in the Vågå region of Norway. – Sw: GR, VD, VS. Fr: AHP.

Buellia atrocinerella (Nyl.) Scheid.

Syn.: Lecanora atrocinerella Nyl., Rinodina atrocinerella (Nyl.) Boistel

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a species with a brownish-grey thallus and elongated marginal areoles reacting K+ yellow, then red; on siliceous rocks in xerothermic sites at low elevations; in the study area so far only known from the Western Alps (France, Italy). – Fr: HAl. It: Lig.

Buellia disciformis (Fr.) Mudd f. disciformis

Syn.: Buellia major De Not., Buellia parasema De Not., Hafellia disciformis (Fr.) Marbach & H. Mayrhofer, Lecidea disciformis (Fr.) Nyl., Lecidea parasema (Ach.) Ach. var. disciformis Fr.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: a holarctic, humid subtropical to southern boreal-montane lichen found on smooth bark in rather humid woodlands, especially in open montane beech forests; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GL, GR, LU, SG, SZ, TI, UR, UW, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Buellia disciformis (Fr.) Mudd f. microspora (Vain.) Zahlbr.

Syn.: Hafellia disciformis (Fr.) Marbach & H. Mayrhofer var. microspora (Vain.)

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: morphology and ecology as in the typical form, but ascospores less than 20 µm long; based on a type from Northern Finland; distribution insufficiently known because not always distinguished. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB. Fr: AHP, AMa, Vau. Sl: SlA.

Buellia dispersa (A. Massal.) A. Massal.

Syn.: Buellia dispersa (A. Massal.) A. Massal. var. cinerascens Bagl. Buellia duartei Samp., Buellia italica A. Massal. var. tumida A. Massal., Buellia squamulata (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Buellia tergestina J. Steiner & Zahlbr., Buellia tumida (A. Massal.) Bagl., Catolechia maritima A.Massal. var. dispersa A. Massal., Lecidea squamulata Nyl.

L – Subs.: sil, int – Alt.: 1–5 – Note: a xeric subtropical to mild-temperate lichen of base-rich or slightly lime-containing siliceous rocks in warm-dry situations, present both in the Mediterranean area and in dry valleys of the Alps. – Au: T. Sw: GR, VS. Fr: AMa, Var, Vau. It: Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig.

Buellia ectolechioides (Vain.) Erichsen

Syn.: Melanaspicilia ectolechioides Vain.

L – Subs.: int – Alt.: 4 – Note: a species of the B. aethalea-group, characterised by small, grey thalli not reacting with K but typically with a I+ blue medulla; on stones and low siliceous rocks; based on a type from Northern Siberia; distribution in the Alps very insufficiently known. – Au: K.

Buellia elegans Poelt

Syn.: Buellia epigea (Pers.) Tuck. var. angustata (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr., Buellia epigea (Pers.) Tuck. var. effigurata (Schaer.) Zahlbr., Buellia epigaea (Pers) Tuck. var. major (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr., Diploicia epigaea (Pers.) A. Massal. var. angustata Müll. Arg., Diploicia epigaea (Pers.) A. Massal. var. effigurata (Schaer.) Körb., Diploicia epigaea (Pers.) A. Massal. var. major Müll. Arg., Lecidea epigaea (Pers.) Schaer. var. effigurata Schaer.

L – Subs.: ter-cal – Alt.: 4–6 – Note: a widespread steppe-species found on soil deriving from calciferous schists in open grasslands, most frequent in dry-warm valleys in the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, VD, VS. Fr: Sav. It: Lomb, Piem, VA.

Buellia epigaea (Pers.) Tuck.

Syn.: Buellia nivea (Anzi) Zahlbr., Catolechia epigaea (Pers.) Anzi, Diploicia epigaea (Pers.) A. Massal., Lecanora epigaea (Pers.) Ach., Lecidea epigaea (Pers.) Schaer., Lichen epigaeus Pers., Parmelia epigaea (Pers.) Ach., Psora epigaea (Pers.) Hoffm., Rinodina nivea Anzi

L – Subs.: bry, deb, ter-cal – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: widespread in Europe, from submediterranean regions to Scandinavia, on base-rich mineral soil, weathered gypsum and gypsum soil; widespread in the Alps as well, but generally not common. – Au: T, S, K, St, O. Sw: GR, LU, SG, UR, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, Sav, HSav, Vau. It: TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA.

Buellia erubescens Arnold

Syn.: Buellia disciformis (Fr.) Mudd var. saprophila (Ach.) Mudd, Buellia jorgei Samp., Buellia parasema De Not. var. saprophila (Ach.) Körb., Buellia zahlbruckneri J. Steiner non sensu T. Schauer, Lecidea parasema (Ach.) Ach. var. saprophila Ach.

L – Subs.: cor, xyl, bry – Alt.: 1–5 – Note: on acid and smooth bark in warm-humid areas; the distribution in the Alps is very poorly known: all earlier records of this species from upland areas of the Alps refer to Tetramelas chloroleucus (see Nimis 2016). – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GL, GR, LU, SZ, TI, UW, VS. Fr: Var. Sl: SlA.

Buellia fusca (Anzi) Kernst.

Syn.: Buellia spuria (Schaer.) Anzi var. fusca Anzi

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 1–2 – Note: on vertical to underhanging surfaces of siliceous rocks near the ground in warm-dry situations, such as in arid grasslands and in openings of Mediterranean garrigues; known only from the Eastern and Western Alps, and the Pyrenees. Related to B. tyrolensis, but chemically different, this taxon needs further study. – Fr: AMa. It: TAA, Lomb.

Buellia griseovirens (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Almb.

Syn.: Aplotomma turgidum (A. Massal.) Beltr., Buellia betulina (Hepp) Th. Fr., Buellia elenkinii Tomin, Buellia griseovirens (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Almb. var. superreagens (Servít) Poelt, Buellia turgida (A. Massal.) Lettau, Diplotomma betulinum (Hepp) Arnold, Diplotomma superreagens (Servít) Szatala, Diplotomma turgidum A. Massal., Lecidea betulina Hepp, Rhizocarpon betulinum (Hepp) Zwackh, Rhizocarpon efflorescens Th. Fr., Sporodichium betulinum (Hepp) Vain., Variolaria griseovirens Turner & Borrer ex Sm.

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 1–5 – Note: a probably holarctic, temperate to boreal-montane lichen found on smooth bark of deciduous trees and shrubs in rather humid, well-lit situations, more rarely on wood, with optimum in the submediterranean belt; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, FR, GL, GR, LU, SZ, TI, UR, UW, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, Drô, Isè, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA, Tg. Li.

Buellia henricii B. de Lesd.

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: mon-salp – Note: a silicicolous species with a very thin, whitish grey, continuous thallus reacting K-, delimited by a black prothallus, forming patches of 2–3 cm in diam., numerous black apothecia (c. 0.2 mm in diam.), first immersed in the thallus, then sessile, the disc first concave, then persistently plane, with a thin proper margin, epithecium brown, hymenium colourless, amyloid, hypothecium pale brown, paraphyses coherent, 8-spored asci, and 1-septate, not constricted, brown ascospores measuring 18–20 × 12–13(-15) µm; only known from the type collection at 1,500 m, and probably belonging to Diplotomma. – It: VA.

Buellia jugorum (Arnold) Arnold

Syn.: Buellia verruculosa (Sm.) Mudd var. jugorum Arnold

L – Subs.: int, sil – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar species found on small siliceous pebbles in wind-exposed ridges, sometimes overgrowing other crustose lichens; probably more widespread in the Alps. – Au: V, T, K, St. Sw: GR, UR. Fr: AHP, HAl. It: TAA.

Buellia leptocline (Flot.) A. Massal.

Syn.: Buellia gevrensis Th. Fr., Buellia hypopodioides (Nyl.) Arnold, Buellia leptocline (Flot.) A. Massal. var. mougeotii (Hepp ex Arnold) Th. Fr., Lecidea hypopodioides Nyl., Lecidea leptocline Flot., Lecidea mougeotii Hepp

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: a mainly boreal-montane species found on steeply inclined to underhanging, hard siliceous rocks. – Au: V, S, K, St, N. Ge: OB. Sw: GR, VS. Fr: HAl, HSav, Var. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig. Sl: SlA.

Buellia leptoclinoides (Nyl.) J. Steiner

Syn.: Buellia disciformis (Fr.) Mudd var. saxicola H. Olivier, Hafellia leptoclinoides (Nyl.) Scheid. & H. Mayrhofer, Lecidea leptoclinoides Nyl.

L – Subs.: cor, sil – Alt.: 1 – Note: a probably humid subtropical to mild-temperate species found on bark and on coastal siliceous rocks subject to humid, salt-laden winds; in the study area so far only known from the base of the Western Alps, not far from the sea. – Fr: Var, Vau.

Buellia leptolepis Bagl. & Carestia

Syn.: Karschia leptolepis (Bagl. & Carestia) Arnold, Karschia saxatilis (Schaer.) Rehm f. leptolepis (Bagl. & Carestia) Keissl.

L # – Subs.: sil-par – Alt.: 3–6 – Note: a parasite of crustose Lecanoraceae; hitherto known from the Alps and Scandinavia; perhaps a synonym of B. ectolechioides. – Au: T. Sw: VS. It: Piem, VA.

Buellia longispora Scheid.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a species of the B. dispersa-group with a white thallus reacting K+ yellow, then red, a I+ blue medulla, sessile apothecia, narrowly ellipsoid ascospores with a rugulate ornamentation (to 30 µm long); on steep rock faces of siliceous rocks, from the Alps known from a few localities below the subalpine belt. – Fr: AHP. It: TAA.

Buellia miriquidica Scheid.

L – Subs.: sil-par – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: recalling the related B. uberior, but thalli containing miriquidic acid and ascospores with a psilate ornamentation; on hard siliceous rocks at high elevations, lichenicolous on Schaereria fuscocinerea; widespread in the Alps, but rarer than B. uberior. – Au: T, S, K, St. Sw: BE, GR, UR, VS.

Buellia ocellata (Flot.) Körb.

Syn.: Buellia arcularum (Harm.) Lettau, Buellia frisiaca Erichsen, Buellia verruculosa auct. non (Sm.) Mudd, Lecanora victoris Harm., Lecidea arcularum Harm., Lecidea kaleida Taylor, Lecidea ocellata (Flot.) Flörke, Lecidea petraea (Wulfen) Ach. var. ocellata Flot., Rinodina ocellata (Flot.) Branth. & Rostr. non (Hoffm.) Arnold, Rinodina victoris (Harm.) H. Olivier

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a temperate, perhaps holarctic species found on small siliceous pebbles, but also on steeply inclined faces near the ground, below the subalpine belt. – Au: T, K, St, N. Sw: TI, VS. Fr: AMa, Drô, HSav. It: Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem. Sl: SlA.

Buellia sanguinolenta T. Schauer

Syn.: Hafellia sanguinolenta (T. Schauer) Hafellner & Türk

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3 – Note: a species of the B. disciformis-group with a whitish thallus reacting K+ yellow then red, and ascospores longer than 25 µm; on bark, mostly of Abies in old-growth forests; in the study area known from a few localities in the Eastern Alps. – Au: N. Ge: OB.

Buellia sardiniensis J. Steiner

Syn.: Buellia leptocline A. Massal. var. minor Bagl., Buellia lusitanica J. Steiner

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2 – Note: a species with white thalli exceeding 5 cm in diam. reacting K+ yellow then red (diagnostic against B. saxorum) and C+ red, a I+ violet medulla, sessile apothecia, and ascospores of the Physconia-type; on hard siliceous rocks in both coastal and inland habitats; in the study area so far known only from the base of the Western Pre-Alps. – Fr: Vau.

Buellia saxorum A. Massal.

Syn.: Buellia superans (Nyl.) Mong., Lecidea saxorum (A. Massal.) Hepp, Lecidea superans Nyl.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: on steeply inclined surfaces of siliceous rocks, mostly not far from the coast. – Fr: Vau. It: Ven, Lig.

Buellia schaereri De Not.

Syn.: Buellia destructans (Tobler) R. Sant., Buellia nigritula (Nyl.) Mudd, Karschia destructans Tobler, Lecidea nigritula Nyl.

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a mainly cool-temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar species found on acid bark, especially of conifers, and on wooden poles in upland areas; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GL, GR, LU, SG, SZ, TI, UR, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AMa, HSav. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig. Sl: SlA.

Buellia sororia Th. Fr.

Syn.: Buellia sororioides Erichsen

L # – Subs.: sil, int – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: a species of the B. aethalea-group with a non-amyloid medulla and ascospores longer (mean c. 16 µm) than in B. aethalea, but thallus also K+ yellow, then red; on siliceous rocks inbetween other crustose lichens; described from Sweden and not generally accepted, probably widespread, but poorly documented in countries where it is treated as synonym of B. aethalea. – Au: T, K, N.

Buellia spuria (Schaer.) Anzi

Syn.: Buellia italica A. Massal., Buellia lactea (A. Massal.) Körb., Buellia lactea (A. Massal.) Körb. var. olivaceofusca Anzi, Buellia liguriensis B. de Lesd., Buellia olivaceofusca (Anzi) Zahlbr., Catolechia lactea A. Massal., Lecidea italica (A. Massal.) Wedd. non B. de Lesd., Lecidea spuria Schaer.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a mild-temperate to subtropical, chemically variable species, most common on granite, often found on walls. – Au: T, N. Sw: GR, TI, UR, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Var, Vau. It: Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig.

Buellia stellulata (Taylor) Mudd

Syn.: Buellia candidula Arnold, Buellia lactea (A. Massal.) Körb. var. maritima (A. Massal.) Anzi, Buellia maritima (A. Massal.) Bagl., Buellia minutula (Hepp) Arnold, Buellia subalbula (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. var. adriatica Zahlbr., Catolechia maritima A. Massal., Lecidea candidella Nyl., Lecidea microtera Nyl., Lecidea stellulata Taylor

L – Subs.: cal, sil, int – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a mild-temperate to subtropical lichen found on calciferous and base-rich, hard siliceous rocks (e.g. on basalt), both near the coast and in dry-warm valleys of the Alps. – Au: T, N. Sw: BE, GR, TI. Fr: AMa, Sav, Var, Vau. It: TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig.

Buellia subdisciformis (Leight.) Jatta.

Syn.: Buellia ryssolea (Leight.) A.L. Sm., Buellia sejuncta J. Steiner, Lecidea ryssolea Leight., Lecidea subdisciformis Leight.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a mild-temperate to humid subtropical species found on siliceous rocks, chiefly Mediterranean-Atlantic in Europe. Austrian and Swiss records from high altitudes are very unlikely. – Au: ?K. Sw: ?VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, Var, Vau.

Buellia subsquamosa J. Steiner

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a rarely collected lichen of porous siliceous rocks rich in minerals, both in the Mediterranean area and in dry-continental valleys of the Alps, where it exceptionally reaches the subalpine belt. – Sw: ?VS. Fr: HAl, Vau. It: TAA.

Buellia tesserata Körb.

Syn.: Buellia cerussata Llimona & Werner

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2 – Note: this species, based on a type from Norway, is very similar B. fimbriata but has a different chemistry (barbatic acid); it grows on siliceous rocks and is apparently rare. – It: Lomb.

Buellia tyrolensis Körb.

Syn.: Buellia buellioides (Metzler) Buschardt, Buellia cinereomarginata B. de Lesd., Buellia luridula (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Buellia spuria (Schaer.) Anzi var. fusca Anzi, Lecidea luridula Nyl., Lecidea scotochroa Nyl., Rinodina buellioides Metzler

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: on siliceous rocks in dry-warm areas, related to B. fusca, but chemically different, occurring both in the Mediterranean area and in dry-continental valleys of the Alps. – Sw: GR, TI, VS. Fr: AMa, Var. It: TAA, Lomb, Lig.

Buellia triseptata A. Nordin

Syn.: Buellia lauricassiae auct. eur. non (Fée) Müll. Arg., Buellia triphragmia auct. non (Nyl.) Arnold

L # – Subs.: xyl – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: mainly lignicolous, more rarely on the bark of conifers in upland areas, this taxon needs further study. – Au: V, T, S, St, N. Sw: GR. Fr: HAl. It: TAA, Piem.

Buellia uberior Anzi

Syn.: Buellia atrocinerea (Anzi) Zahlbr., Buellia contermina Arnold, Buellia lactea (A. Massal.) Körb. var. atrocinerea Anzi, Buellia nitida Eitner, Buellia subbadia Anzi

L – Subs.: sil-par – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: a mainly arctic-alpine, circumpolar species found on hard, lime-free siliceous rocks, mainly on inclined to subvertical faces wetted by rain, initially parasitic on Schaereria fuscocinerea. – Au: V, T, S, K, St. Ge: Schw. Sw: BE, GR, TI, VS. Fr: AHP. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, VA.

Buellia uberiuscula (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

Syn.: Lecidea uberiuscula Nyl.

L – Subs.: sil-par – Alt.: 5 – Note: a species of the B. aethalea-group with a minute grey thallus reacting K+ yellow then red, and an amyloid medulla; on nutrient-rich surfaces of siliceous rocks, lichenicolous on other crustose lichens (e.g., Acarospora fuscata, Sporastatia testudinea); widespread, but rare in the Alps. – Au: T.

Buellia vilis Th. Fr.

Syn.: Buellia enteroleucoides (Nyl.) Arnold, Buellia modica (Nyl.) Lettau, Lecidea disciformis Nyl. var. enteroleucoides Nyl., Lecidea enteroleucoides (Nyl.) Lamy, Lecidea modica Nyl.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: a mainly arctic-alpine, probably circumpolar early coloniser of siliceous pebbles in windy situations, and of recently eroded granitic boulders; certainly more widespread in the Alps, but easily overlooked. – Au: T, K. Sw: UR, VS. Fr: AMa, HSav. It: Frl, TAA.

Buellia violaceofusca G. Thor & Muhr

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3 – Note: a sterile crustose lichen with a pale grey thallus and maculiform soralia of a dark brownish colour with a violet tinge; on bark of old deciduous trees in shaded montane forests (ecological requirements similar to those of Caloplaca lucifuga); from the Alps there are, so far, a few records only. – Au: V, S, K.

Bunodophoron melanocarpum (Sw.) Wedin

Syn.: Lichen melanocarpus Sw., Sphaerophorus compressus Ach., Sphaerophorus melanocarpus (Sw.) DC.

L – Subs.: sil, ter-sil, cor – Alt.: 3 – Note: a humid subtropical to mild-temperate species found on mossy bark and rocks in very moist forests; rare and probably declining in the Alps. – Au: T, K, N. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, SZ, UR. It: Lomb, Piem.

Byssoloma leucoblepharum (Nyl.) Vain.

Syn.: Bilimbia leucoblephara (Nyl.) Arnold, Calidia rhizophora Stirt., Lecidea leucoblephara Nyl.

L – Subs.: cor, fol – Alt.: 1–2 – Note: a pantropical foliicolous species, sometimes occurring also on bark; extremely rare in the Alps. – Au: K. Fr: AMa.

Byssoloma marginatum (Arnold) Sérus.

Syn.: Bacidia marginata (Arnold) Lettau, Bacidia micromma (Nyl. ex Stizenb.) Hulting, Bilimbia marginata Arnold, Tapellaria similis Kalb

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a humid subtropical to mild-temperate lichen, growing both on bark and on needles of conifers in warm-humid areas; extremely rare in the Alps. – Au: St.

Byssoloma subdiscordans (Nyl.) P. James

Syn.: Byssoloma rotuliforme (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant., Byssoloma subdiscordans sensu Lettau non (Nyl.) Vain., Byssoloma tricholomum sensu Lettau non (Mont.) Zahlbr., Chiodecton subdiscordans Nyl., Patellaria rotuliformis Müll. Arg.

L – Subs.: cor, fol – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a humid subtropical to tropical species, with isolated outliers in humid parts of the mild-temperate zone; in the Alps it is mainly found in montane, humid forests, on twigs and leaves of conifers, and it might be more widespread, but not common. – Au: T, K, St, N. Ge: OB. Fr: AMa.

Caeruleum heppii (Hepp ex Arnold) K. Knudsen & Arcadia

Syn.: Acarospora heppii Hepp ex Arnold, Myriospora heppii Nägeli ex Hepp nom. inval.

L – Subs.: cal, int – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: an easily overlooked early coloniser of small calcareous pebbles in dry grasslands, which also occurs on concrete and mortar in small settlements and on walls of calciferous sandstone; widespread in the Alps below the subalpine belt, but only locally common. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: LU, SZ, UW, VS. Fr: HSav. It: Ven, TAA, Lomb.

Calicium abietinum Pers.

Syn.: Calicium cervicatulum Ach., Calicium curtum Turner & Borrer ex Sm., Calicium minutum (Körb.) Arnold, Calicium nigrum auct. p.p.

L – Subs.: xyl, cor – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar species found on old wood of conifers, but also on bark, especially of Abies, much more rarely on deciduous trees (e.g. on Castanea) and, in humid areas, on wooden poles; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, LU, SZ, TI, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Calicium adaequatum Nyl.

Syn.: Calicium marianum (Nádv.) Nádv.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a species peculiar in having apothecia with pale (olivaceous) stalks with an amyloid reaction (as the exciple) in squash preparations; on bark (mostly on twigs) of deciduous trees (Alnus, Acer) under oceanic conditions; rare, or only seldom collected, as it can be easily overlooked. – Au: T, St. Sw: BE, GR, SZ.

Calicium adspersum Pers.

Syn.: Calicium lenticulare sensu Nádv., Calicium mutabile Ach., Calicium roscidum (Ach.) Flörke

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a holarctic, temperate species found on bark, rarely on lignum of deciduous trees, especially oaks, often in fissures of the bark, more rarely on conifers; widespread in the Alps, but generally not very common. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, UR, UW, VD, VS. Fr: HSav. It: Lomb, Piem.

Calicium corynellum (Ach.) Ach.

Syn.: Caliciella corynella (Ach.) Vain., Caliciella corynella (Ach.) Vain. var. stipitata Vain., Caliciella corynella (Ach.) Vain. var. subsessile Vain., Calicium chlorinum auct. non (Ach.) Schaer., Calicium corynellum (Ach.) Ach. var. paroicum (Ach.) Ach., Calicium corynellum (Ach.) Ach. var. stipitatum (Vain.) Zahlbr., Calicium corynellum (Ach.) Ach. var. subsessile (Vain.) Zahlbr., Calicium paroicum Ach., Chaenotheca paroica (Ach.) Zwackh., Cyphelium paroicum (Ach.) Arnold, Lichen corynellus Ach., Sphinctrina paroica (Ach.) Trevis., Strongyleuma paroicum (Ach.) Vain. non auct.

L – Subs.: sil, xyl – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a temperate, probably holarctic species found beneath overhangs of hard siliceous rocks in humid areas; probably more widespread in the Alps, but never common. – Au: S, N. Sw: GR. Fr: Isè, HSav. It: Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA.

Calicium denigratum (Vain.) Tibell

Syn.: Calicium curtum Turner & Borrer ex Sm. var. denigratum Vain.

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: similar to C. abietinum in the endoxylic thallus and the epruinose apothecia, but with more slender stalks, ascospores with a length-width ratio <2, and a coarsely areolate sculpture; on decorticated stumps and snags in montane coniferous forests; widespread also in the Alps, but not very common. – Au: T, S, K, O, N. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, LU, SZ.

Calicium glaucellum Ach.

Syn.: Calicium discoidale Ach.

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a temperate to boreal-montane, holarctic species found on lignum and acid bark, especially on decorticated stumps of conifers, but also of broad-leaved trees (e.g. on Castanea); widespread in the Alps, but not very common. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GL, GR, LU, SZ, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa. It: Frl, Ven, TAA. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Calicium lenticulare Ach.

Syn.: Calicium amylocaule Lettau, Calicium atroviride Körb., Calicium cladoniscum auct. non Ach., Calicium lenticulare Ach. var. cladoniscum auct. non (Ach.) Schaer., Calicium quercinum Pers. var. lenticulare (Ach.) Nyl., Calicium schaereri sensu Nádv. non De Not., Calicium subquercinum Asahina, Calicium virescens (Schaer.) Hepp

L – Subs.: xyl, cor – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a mainly cool-temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar species found on lignum of decorticated stumps and trunks of conifers; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Sw: BE, GR, SZ, UR, UW, VS. Fr: HSav. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem. Sl: Tg.

Calicium lucidum (Th. Fr.) M. Prieto & Wedin

Syn.: Acolium lucidum (Th. Fr.) Rabenh., Acolium viridulum Schaer., Calicium virellum Nyl., Cyphelium lucidum (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr., Trachylia lucida Th. Fr.

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a mainly boreal-montane, circumpolar species found on old conifers in humid, open forests with frequent fog; widespread in the Alps, but only locally common. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, N. Ge: Schw. Sw: BE, GR, SZ, UR, TI, UW. It: Ven, TAA, Lomb.

Calicium montanum Tibell

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a recently-described species with a relatively thick, pale grey thallus, short-stalked apothecia with a white pruina, and ascospores with coarse irregular cracks; usually on wood of conifers in the montane belt; probably more widespread in the Alps. – Au: V, O. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GL, GR, LU, SZ, TI, UR, UW.

Calicium notarisii (Tul.) M. Prieto & Wedin

Syn.: Acolium notarisii Tul., Cyphelium notarisii (Tul.) Blomb. & Forssell, Cyphelium tigillare (Ach.) Ach. subsp. notarisii (Tul.) W.A.Weber, Pseudacolium notarisii (Tul.) Vain., Trachylia notarisii (Tul.) Nyl., Trachylia tigillaris (Ach.) Fr. var. notarisii (Tul.) Th. Fr.

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a mainly cool-temperate to southern boreal-montane lichen found on dry, weathered wood (e.g. on fences, wooden poles), but also on acid bark of old trees (especially Quercus); perhaps more widespread in the Alps. – Au: St, N. Sw: SW, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa. It: Piem, VA.

Calicium parvum Tibell

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a species with a thin, verruculose, grey thallus, minute epruinose apothecia, clavate asci and ascospores with polygonal, broad warts, often accompanied by conspicuous pycnidia; on bark of conifers; widespread also in the Alps, but not very common, and in the past probably confused with other species. – Au: T, S, K, St, O. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, GR, SZ, UW. Fr: AHP, AMa, Drô, Vau. Sl: SlA.

Calicium pinastri Tibell

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a species with a thin, grey thallus, short-stalked, minute, epruinose apothecia, cylindrical asci, and ascospores with irregular cracks, found on the bark of conifers (most often Pinus sylvestris); recently-described and still with a few records from the Alps, but probably more widespread. – Ge: OB. Sw: LU, SZ, UW. It: TAA.

Calicium pinicola (Tibell) M. Prieto & Wedin

Syn.: Cyphelium pinicola Tibell

L – Subs.: xyl, cor – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a mainly temperate to southern boreal-montane lichen found on bark of conifers, especially of Pinus, near the base of the trunks; less confined to high altitudes than C. tigillare. – Au: T, S, K, St. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, LU, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, HSav. It: TAA, Lomb, Piem.

Calicium quercinum Pers.

Syn.: Calicium curtiusculum Nyl., Calicium decipiens A. Massal., Calicium lenticulare Ach. var. bacillare Ach., Calicium lenticulare Ach. var. curtiusculum (Nyl.) Lettau

L – Subs.: xyl, cor – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a holarctic, temperate species found on lignum and bark of deciduous trees, more rarely of conifers, especially on old oaks and on Castanea; widespread in the Alps, but generally rare. – Au: V, T, O. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, GR, VS. Fr: HSav. It: Lomb, Piem.

Calicium salicinum Pers.

Syn.: Calicium hyperellum (Ach.) Ach. var. salicinum (Pers.) Schaer., Calicium lichenoides (L.) Schumach., Calicium sphaerocephalum (L.) Ach., Calicium sphaerocephalum (L.) Ach. var. xylonellum (Ach.) Wahlenb., Calicium trachelinum (Ach.) Ach., Calicium xylonellum Ach.

L – Subs.: xyl, cor – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: a holarctic, temperate species, most frequent on dry parts of the boles of deciduous, acid-barked trees, but also on lignum (fence-posts, decorticated stumps); widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Lig. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Calicium tigillare (Ach.) Pers.

Syn.: Acolium tigillare (Ach.) Gray, Cyphelium tigillare (Ach.) Ach., Cyphelium trachylioides auct. non (Nyl. ex Branth & Rostr.) Erichsen, Cyphelium viridescens auct., Lichen tigillaris Ach., Trachylia tigillaris (Ach.) Fr.

L – Subs.: xyl, cor – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: a mainly boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen found on hard, dry wood, especially of conifers, on wooden fences and fence-posts, often together with Ramboldia elabens; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, TI, UR, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, Sav, HSav. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA. Sl: SlA. Li.

Calicium trabinellum (Ach.) Ach.

Syn.: Calicium adspersum Pers. var. roscidulum (Nyl.) Harm., Calicium adspersum Pers. var. trabinellum (Ach.) Schaer., Calicium incrustans Körb., Calicium roscidulum Nyl. ex F.Wilson, Calicium validiusculum Trevis., Calicium xylonellum Ach. var. trabinellum Ach.

L – Subs.: xyl, cor – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a holarctic, temperate to boreal-montane species found on hard wood, especially on old, decorticated stumps of conifers, more rarely of deciduous or even evergreen broad-leaved trees (e.g. Quercus ilex in montane Mediterranean forests); widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, HSav. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem. Sl: SlA.

Calicium viride Pers.

Syn.: Calicium baliolum Ach., Calicium hyperellum (Ach.) Ach., Calicium lygodes Ach., Calicium peltatum Ach., Calicium proboscidale Ach., Calicium trachelinum (Ach.) Ach. var. epiphloeum Ach.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a holarctic, temperate to boreal-montane lichen found on Abies and Picea, but also on the rough bark of old oaks in humid areas; widespread and locally rather common throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GL, GR, LU, SZ, TI, UR, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, Sav, HSav, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb. Sl: SlA.

Callome multipartita (Sm.) Otálora, P.M. Jørg. & Wedin

Syn.: Collema multipartiens Nyl., Collema multipartitum Sm., Lathagrium multipartitum (Sm.) Arnold, Synechoblastus multipartitus (Sm.) Körb.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: a mainly temperate to southern boreal-montane species found on calcareous rocks in rather sheltered situations; widespread throughout the Alps, but not very common. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, TI, UR, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig. Sl: SlA.

Caloplaca adriatica (Zahlbr.) Servít

Syn.: Caloplaca schaereri (Arnold) Zahlbr. var. adriatica Zahlbr.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a Mediterranean to mild-temperate lichen found on steeply inclined, hard limestone rocks, with a few records from the Southern and Western Alps. – Fr: AMa, Drô, Var, Vau. It: Ven, TAA.

Caloplaca aegatica Giralt, Nimis & Poelt

Syn.: Caloplaca quercina auct. non Flagey

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2 – Note: a species with a greyish thallus, relatively large apothecia with golden-yellow margins and orange-red discs, broadly-ellipsoid ascospores (often less than 8 per ascus), and conspicuous pycnidia with blackish ostiolar regions; on bark of broad-leaved trees in Xanthorion-communities; widespread in the Mediterranean region, including Macaronesia, also reported from the Western Alps, at low elevations. – Fr: Var.

Caloplaca albopruinosa (Arnold) H. Olivier

Syn.: Biatorina albopruinosa Arnold, Caloplaca agardhiana auct., Pyrenodesmia agardhiana (Ach.) A. Massal., Blastenia agardhiana auct., ?Blastenia agardhiana var. cinereovirens (J. Steiner) Szatala, ?Blastenia agardhiana var. minuta (J. Steiner) Szatala, Callopisma agardhianum auct., ?Caloplaca agardhiana var. nigricans Jatta

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: this species differs from C. alociza in the hymenium devoid of crystals and the apothecia with a thalline margin. It occurs on hard limestones and dolomite in sunny, exposed sites, mostly in the mountains. Austrian records are lumped together with C. alociza. – Sw: GR, VD. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Caloplaca alnetorum Giralt, Nimis & Poelt

Syn.: Athallia alnetorum (Giralt, Nimis & Poelt) Arup, Frödén & Søchting, Caloplaca flavorubescens auct. non (Huds.) J.R. Laundon

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a temperate species growing on broad-leaved trees; most common in humid areas in the mountains; widespread in the Alps, but overlooked, or confused with other taxa. – Au: T, K, St, O, N. Fr: AHP, Sav. It: TAA, Ven. Li.

Caloplaca alociza (A. Massal.) Mig.

Syn.: Biatorina alociza A. Massal., Blastenia alociza (A. Massal.) Werner, Lecaniella alociza (A. Massal.) Jatta, Sporoblastia alociza (A. Massal.) Trevis., Pyrenodesmia alociza (A. Massal.) Arnold

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–5 – Note: this species differs from C. albopruinosa in the hymenium inspersed by crystals and the apothecia without a thalline margin; on hard limestones and dolomite, with a wide altitudinal range; widespread and common throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: UR, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA. Sl: SlA.

Caloplaca ammiospila (Wahlenb. ex Ach.) H. Olivier

Syn.: Blastenia ammiospila (Wahlenb. ex Ach.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén, Blastenia ferruginea (Huds.) A. Massal. var. muscicola (Schaer.) A. Massal., Caloplaca cinnamomea (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier, Caloplaca discoidalis (Vain.) Lynge, Caloplaca ferruginea (Huds.) Th. Fr. var. ammiospila (Wahlenb. ex Ach.) Th. Fr., Caloplaca ferruginea (Huds.) Th. Fr. var. cinnamomea Th. Fr., Caloplaca ferruginea (Huds.) Th. Fr. var. muscicola auct., Caloplaca vacillans (Th. Fr.) H. Magn., Lecidea ammiospila Wahlenb. ex Ach.

L – Subs.: deb, bry-cal, ter-cal – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: a mainly arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, bipolar lichen found on terricolous mosses and plant debris, more rarely on decaying, rather soft lignum, or even on the bark of subalpine shrubs and boreal trees, most frequent above or near treeline; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, UR, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, Sav, HSav. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA. Sl: SlA.

Caloplaca anchon-phoeniceon Poelt & Clauzade

L – Subs.: sil-par – Alt.: 5 – Note: a species with minute thalli and one to several sessile apothecia, both bright red; parasitic on silicicolous Aspicilia-species at high elevations; widespread in the Alps, but rare. – Au: T, S. Sw: UR. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa.

Caloplaca anularis Clauzade & Poelt

Syn.: Caloplaca scrobiculata auct. non. H. Magn.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: a species of the Eurasiatic mountains, from the temperate zone southwards, found on steeply inclined, compact limestone and dolomite; perhaps more frequent but undercollected in the Alps because of its preference for sites which are of difficult access. – Au: K, St. Fr: HAl, AMa. It: Frl, Ven, TAA. Sl: SlA.

Caloplaca approximata (Lynge) H. Magn.

Syn.: Amundsenia approximata (Lynge) Søchting, Arup & Frödén, Caloplaca vitellinula (Nyl.) H. Olivier f. approximata Lynge

L – Subs.: cal, int – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a species with a strongly reduced, pale yellow thallus, bright orange apothecia, and narrowly ellipsoid ascospores with thin septa, perhaps closely related to C. cacuminum; on schists containing various amounts of calcium; based on a type from Novaya Zemlya and widespread from the Arctic to high elevations in the boreal zone; in the Alps so far known only from a single locality. – Sw: SZ.

Caloplaca arcis (Poelt & Vězda) Arup

Syn.: Caloplaca citrina (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. var. arcis Poelt & Vězda, Flavoplaca arcis (Poelt & Vězda) Arup, Frödén & Søchting

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a species of the C. citrina-group with thalli developing coarse blastidia in the centre, distinctly lobate at the margins, often with apothecia; on mineral-rich siliceous rocks and elsewhere also on calcareous rocks, also on man-made walls near settlements; widespread, but in the Alps poorly recorded, probably because it was not distinguished in the past. – Au: S, St, B. Fr: AMa, Var, Vau.

Caloplaca arcisproxima Vondrák, Říha, Arup & Søchting

Syn.: Flavoplaca arcisproxima (Vondrák, Říha, Arup & Søchting) Arup, Søchting & Frödén

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 1–2 – Note: a species of the C. citrina-group with a thallus consisting of subumbilicate, minute squamules with margins divided into tiny lobes, developing marginal soralia; on various rock types close to the sea; in the study area so far known from a single locality in the Western Alps. – Fr: AMa.

Caloplaca arenaria (Pers.) Müll. Arg.

Syn.: Blastenia arenaria (Pers.) A. Massal., Blastenia lamprocheila (DC.) Arnold, Caloplaca craspedia (Ach.) Szatala, Caloplaca ferruginascens (Nyl.) H. Olivier, Caloplaca festiva (Ach.) Zwackh non auct., Caloplaca lamprocheila (DC.) Flagey, Lecanora lamprocheila (DC.) Nyl., Lichen arenarius Pers., Rufoplaca arenaria (Pers.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén

L – Subs.: sil, int – Alt.: 1–5 – Note: a holarctic lichen found on calciferous siliceous rocks, including walls, often overgrowing other crustose lichens; on the whole, a heterogeneous taxon in need of revision; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, N, B. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, GR, SZ, TI, UR, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig.

Caloplaca areolata (Zahlbr.) Clauzade

Syn.: Caloplaca cerina (Hedw.) Th. Fr. var. areolata Zahlbr., Caloplaca spalatensis auct. non Zahlbr.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–2 – Note: a mild-temperate, characteristic, but much misunderstood species found on the top of calcareous birds’ perching boulders, mostly at low altitudes, with a few records from the Western Alps. – Fr: Var, Vau. It: Lig.

Caloplaca arnoldii (Wedd.) Zahlbr. ex Ginzb. subsp. arnoldii

Syn.: Calogaya arnoldii (Wedd.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting, Caloplaca biatorinoides (Clauzade & Cl. Roux) Gaya, Caloplaca saxicola (Hoffm.) Nordin subsp. arnoldii (Wedd.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Caloplaca saxicola (Hoffm.) Nordin subsp. biatorinoides Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Physcia pusilla A. Massal. f. turgida A. Massal., Physcia pusilla A. Massal. var. lobulata f. minor Arnold

L – Subs.: cal, int – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: a well-distinct taxon of the extremely critical C. saxicola-complex; on steeply inclined calciferous rocks (limestone, dolomite, calcareous schists) in open habitats; certainly more widespread in the Alps. – Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, Drô, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Piem.

Caloplaca arnoldii (Wedd.) Zahlbr. ex Ginzb. subsp. oblitterata (Pers.) Gaya

Syn.: Caloplaca discernenda (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca miniatula (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca murorum auct. f. miniatula (Nyl.) Ozenda & Clauzade, Caloplaca murorum auct. var. oblitterata (Pers.) Jatta, Caloplaca pyraceoides B. de Lesd., Caloplaca saxicola (Hoffm.) Nordin subsp. oblitterata (Pers.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Lecanora discernenda Nyl., Lecanora miniatula Nyl., Lichen oblitteratus Pers.

L – Subs.: sil, int – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a very polymorphic taxon (see Roux et al. 2014) with a mainly temperate to boreal distribution in Europe, also known from the Southern European mountains, most frequent on base-rich siliceous rocks or on decalcified calcareous rocks, usually in nutrient-poor stands, both on vertical cliffs and overhangs, and on horizontal surfaces of siliceous boulders; especially the southern populations seem to prefer rather shaded conditions. – Au: V, K, St. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, VS, SZ. Fr: AMa. It: TAA, Lomb, Piem.

Caloplaca arnoldiiconfusa Gaya & Nav.-Ros.

Syn.: Calogaya arnoldiiconfusa (Gaya & Nav.-Ros.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting

L – Subs.: cal, int – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: in the past this species, which is widespread in Central Europe, was confused with C. arnoldii, which substitutes in upland areas, on vertical, sun-exposed calcareous and dolomitic rocks. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB. Sw: GR, SZ. Fr: AHP, AMa. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Piem. Li.

Caloplaca asserigena (Stizenb. ex J. Lahm) H. Olivier

Syn.: Blastenia asserigena (Stizenb. ex J. Lahm) Zahlbr., Blastenia assigena Arnold, Callopisma asserigenum Stizenb. ex J. Lahm, Caloplaca assigena (Arnold) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Lecanora asserigena Stizenb. nom. nud.

L # – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a species with a thin grey thallus and small aggregated apothecia with brown-red to blackish discs, the epihymenium reacting K+ purple; on thin twigs of various trees, more rarely on wood; most records from the Alps are historical. – Au: T, K, St, N. Ge: OB. Sw: UR. It: Frl.

Caloplaca athroocarpa (Anzi) Jatta

Syn.: Blastenia athroocarpa (Anzi) Arnold, Callopisma athroocarpon (Anzi) Bagl. & Carestia, Gyalolechia athroocarpa Anzi, Lecanora ammiospiloides Nyl.

L # – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 4 – Note: on eutrophicated wood, more rarely on bark, on basal parts of isolated trees; a poorly understood taxon, which needs further study. – Ge: OB. Sw: GR, VS. It: Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem.

Caloplaca atroalba (Tuck.) Zahlbr.

Syn.: Placodium atroalbum Tuck.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: a species with a rimose to areolate, yellowish-brownish thallus, apothecia with zeorine proper margin, a white thalline margin, black disc and amphithecium; on limestone and calcareous sandstone; based on a type from Western North America, the identity of European records is in need of re-evaluation. – Au: V, S, K. Fr: AHP, AMa.

Caloplaca atroflava (Turner) Mong.

Syn.: Caloplaca atroflava (Turner) Mong. var. submersa (Nyl.) H. Magn., Caloplaca ferruginea (Huds.) Th. Fr. var. obscura Th. Fr., Caloplaca turneriana (Ach.) H. Olivier, Lecidea atroflava Turner, Placodium atroflavum (Turner) A.L. Sm., Placodium turnerianum (Ach.) A.L. Sm.

L – Subs.: sil-aqu – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: a rather southern species in Europe, found on base-rich or eutrophicated siliceous rocks, especially basalt, sometimes periodically submerged in Mediterranean creeks and rivulets; rare in the Alps, with a scattered distribution. – Au: T. Fr: HAl, AMa, Sav, Var. It: Lomb, Lig.

Caloplaca aurantia (Pers.) Hellb.

Syn.: Amphiloma aurantius (Pers.) Müll. Arg., Amphiloma callopismum (Ach.) Körb., Callopisma vulgaris De Not., Caloplaca aurantia (Pers.) Hellb. var. intermedia Zahlbr., Caloplaca aurantia (Pers.) Hellb. var. papillata Poelt, Caloplaca callopisma (Ach.) Th. Fr., Gasparrinia aurantia (Pers.) Syd., Gasparrinia callopisma (Ach.) Syd., Lecanora callopisma Ach., Lichen aurantius Pers., Placodium aurantium (Pers.) Vain., Placodium callopismum (Ach.) Mérat, Variospora aurantia (Pers.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a mild-temperate to subtropical species found on a wide variety of calciferous substrata; common in the Mediterranean-submediterranean belts, rarer at higher altitudes, more helio – and thermophytic than the closely related C. flavescens; widespread throughout the Alps, at low elevations. – Au: V, T, K, N. Sw: LU, TI, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig.

Caloplaca australis (Arnold) Zahlbr.

Syn.: Candelariella australis (Arnold) Zahlbr., Fulgensia australis (Arnold) Poelt, Gasparrinia australis (Arnold) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Gyalolechia australis (Arnold) J. Steiner, Physcia australis Arnold, Variospora australis (Arnold) Arup, Søchting & Frödén

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: on sun-exposed calciferous rocks, e.g. on the top of large, isolated boulders; certainly more widespread in the Alps. – Au: V, T, K, St, O. Ge: Schw. Sw: SZ, VD. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Sav, HSav. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Piem, VA. Sl: SlA.

Caloplaca austrocitrina Vondrák, Říha, Arup & Søchting

Syn.: Flavoplaca austrocitrina (Vondrák, Říha, Arup & Søchting) Arup, Søchting & Frödén

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a species of the C. citrina-group with an areolate to subsquamulose, usually yellow to greenish-orange thallus and marginal soralia; apothecia not rare; mostly on artificial substrates like concrete or mortar in strongly manured places, e.g. in sites visited by dogs; certainly much more common in the Alps and hidden behind records of C. citrina. – Au: St. Fr: AMa. It: Frl.

Caloplaca biatorina (A. Massal.) J. Steiner

Syn.: Berengeria biatorina (A. Massal.) Trevis., Calogaya biatorina (A. Massal.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting, Caloplaca baumgartneri Zahlbr., Caloplaca biatorina (A. Massal.) J. Steiner var. baumgartneri (Zahlbr.) Poelt, Caloplaca biatorina (A. Massal.) J. Steiner var. sympecta J. Steiner, Caloplaca callopiza (Nyl.) Jatta, Gasparrinia biatorina (A. Massal.) Szatala, Lecanora callopiza Nyl., Physcia elegans (Link) De Not. var. biatorina A. Massal., Placodium biatorinum (A. Massal.) M. Choisy, Placodium callopizum (Nyl.) Flagey

L – Subs.: cal, int – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: a holarctic species found in the mountains of Southern Europe; on limestone and dolomite, more rarely on base-rich siliceous rocks, most often at the top of isolated boulders in open, nitrogen-rich situations, mostly above or near treeline; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, TI, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Sav, HSav. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA.

Caloplaca bryochrysion Poelt

Syn.: Calogaya bryochrysion (Poelt) Vondrák

L – Subs.: ter, bry, cal – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: on mosses, soil and plant debris over calcareous substrata, but also directly on calcareous rocks, in sheltered but light-rich situations, with optimum above treeline; very much overlooked, or confused with other sorediate species in the Alps; the relationships with C. epiphyta await clarification. – Au: V T S K St O N. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Piem.

Caloplaca cacuminum Poelt

Syn.: Callopisma aurantiacum (Lightf.) A. Massal. var. microsporum Arnold, Caloplaca aurantiaca (Lightf.) Th. Fr. var. microspora (Arnold) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.

L – Subs.: cal, int – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: a probably arctic-alpine species found on limestone and dolomite in exposed habitats, often starting the life-cycle on other lichens; perhaps more widespread in the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O. Ge: OB, Schw. Fr: AHP, HAl, Sav. It: Frl, TAA, Piem, VA.

Caloplaca caesiorufella (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

Syn.: Caloplaca leptocheila H. Magn., Lecanora caesiorufella Nyl.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: a species of the C. ferruginea-group with an endosubstratic to thin, whitish-grey thallus and sessile apothecia with both disc and margin of a reddish-brown colour; based on a type from Bering Island offshore from Kamchatka, where it was found on twigs and plant remains, and widespread in the Arctic on driftwood, therefore records from siliceous rocks and conspecifity with C. leptocheila in need of re-evaluation. In the Alps usually on stones and low outcrops, probably widespread, but distribution insufficiently known. – Au: V, T, S, K, St.

Caloplaca castellana (Räsänen) Poelt

Syn.: Pachypeltis castellana (Räsänen) Søchting, Frödén & Arup, Placodium castellanum Räsänen

L – Subs.: sil, int – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: a species with a thallus consisting of dispersed, brownish-orange squamules, often overgrowing Spilonema, and usually a single reddish apothecium per squamule; on steep rock faces of mineral-rich schists with variable contents of calcium; widespread in the Holarctic region, with scattered records from the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St. Sw: VS.

Caloplaca cerina (Hedw.) Th. Fr.

Syn.: Blastenia nivea B. de Lesd., Callopisma cerinum (Hedw.) De Not., Caloplaca cerina (Hedw.) Th. Fr. var. erhartii (Schaer.) Trevis., Caloplaca gilva (Hoffm.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca gilvolutea (Nyl.) Jatta, Lecanora cerina (Hedw.) Ach., Lecanora gilvolutea Nyl., Lichen cerinus Hedw., Placodium cerinum (Hedw.) Nägeli ex Hepp, Placodium gilvum (Hoffm.) Vain., Zeora cerina (Hedw.) Flot.

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 1–5 – Note: a holarctic, subtropical to boreal-montane lichen with optimum on smooth, mineral-rich bark (e.g. of Acer, Fraxinus, Juglans) but also on moderately eutrophicated bark of other trees, rare in polluted areas. In the complex of C. cerina s.lat. morphological differences among taxa are slight, while ecological and distributional differences are often remarkably clear. The treatment of this group is far from being complete, and it is still difficult to handle the nomenclature: at least some of the samples growing on plant debris are now segregated into C. stillicidiorum. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GL, GR, FR, LU, SG, SZ, TI, UR, UW, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA, Tg. Li.

Caloplaca cerinella (Nyl.) Flagey

Syn.: Athallia cerinella (Nyl.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting, Callopisma cerinellum (Nyl.) Walt. Watson, Caloplaca perfida Malme, Lecanora cerinella Nyl., Placodium cerinellum (Nyl.) Vain.

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a temperate species found on base – or nutrient-rich bark (e.g. very common on Sambucus or on Juglans in open habitats); widespread throughout the Alps. See also note on C. cerinelloides. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: GR, LU, SZ, TI, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, Drô, Isè, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem. Sl: SlA.

Caloplaca cerinelloides (Erichsen) Poelt

Syn.: Athallia cerinelloides (Erichsen) Arup, Frödén & Søchting, Caloplaca pyracea (Ach.) Zwackh var. cerinelloides Erichsen

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: superficially resembling C. cerinella, but with a different number of spores per ascus. Also the ecology and distribution are different: C. cerinelloides has a more northern distribution and usually occurs on Populus tremula, or even on twigs of conifers. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GL, GR, LU, SZ, TI, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa. It: TAA, Lomb, Piem. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Caloplaca cerinoides (Anzi) Jatta

Syn.: Placodium cerinoides Anzi

L # – Subs.: sil, int – Alt.: 1–2 – Note: a poorly understood species of base-rich siliceous rocks, especially basalt. Earlier Italian records (none from the Alps) most likely refer to C. thracopontica Vondrák & Šoun, while C. cerinoides could prove to be a synonym of C. atroflava. – Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Sav.

Caloplaca chalybaea (Fr.) Müll. Arg.

Syn.: Caloplaca alpestris sensu Ozenda & Clauzade, Caloplaca olivacea (A. Massal.) Jatta, Caloplaca variabilis (Pers.) Th. Fr. f. chalybaea (Fr.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Caloplaca variabilis (Pers.) Th. Fr. f. ochracea (Körb.) Müll. Arg., Caloplaca variabilis (Pers.) Th. Fr. subsp. ocellulata (Ach.) Boistel, Caloplaca variabilis (Pers.) Th. Fr. var. ocellulata (Ach.) Boistel, Caloplaca variabilis (Pers.) Th. Fr. var. ocellulata (Ach.) Boistel f. chalybaea (Fr.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Parmelia chalybaea Fr., Placodium chalybaeum (Fr.) Hepp, Pyrenodesmia chalybaea (Fr.) A. Massal., Pyrenodesmia olivacea A. Massal.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–5 – Note: a mild-temperate species known from Europe and adjoining Africa and Asia, found on hard calciferous rocks (mostly on compact limestone) and dolomite, often, but not exclusively, on steeply inclined faces; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, LU, UW, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Caloplaca chanousiae Sambo

Syn.: Fulgensia chanousiae (Sambo) Poelt

L # – Subs.: int – Alt.: 5 – Note: on weakly calciferous schists; reported only from the Western and Southern Alps; a revision of the type material is badly needed. – Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Sav. It: TAA, VA.

Caloplaca chlorina (Flot.) H. Olivier

Syn.: Caloplaca cerina (Hedw.) Th. Fr. var. chlorina (Flot.) Müll. Arg., Placodium cerinum (Hedw.) Hepp var. chlorinum (Flot.) Anzi, Zeora cerina (Hedw.) Flot. var. chlorina Flot.

L – Subs.: sil, int – Alt.: 2–5 – Note: on siliceous, nutrient-enriched rocks, mostly in upland areas; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, LU, TI, UR, UW, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA. Sl: SlA.

Caloplaca chrysodeta (Vain.) Dombr. comb. inval.

Syn.: Callopisma chrysodetum (Vain.) Räsänen, Leproplaca chrysodeta (Vain.) J.R. Laundon ex Ahti, Placodium chrysodetum Vain.

L – Subs.: cal, int – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a temperate to humid subtropical species found on shaded, steeply inclined or underhanging surfaces of calciferous rocks, sometimes also overgrowing epilithic mosses or even occurring on the undersides of inclined old trunks of trees with base-rich bark; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, LU, SZ, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, Piem, Lig.

Caloplaca chrysophthalma Degel.

Syn.: Solitaria chrysophthalma (Degel.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén

L – Subs.: cor, xyl – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a rare mild-temperate lichen found on base-rich bark of isolated trees (e.g. Populus, Juglans and Fraxinus). – Au: T, St. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: GR, LU, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl.

Caloplaca cirrochroa (Ach.) Th. Fr.

Syn.: Amphiloma cirrochroum (Ach.) Körb., Gasparrinia cirrochroa (Ach.) Stein, Lecanora cirrochroa Ach., Lecanora murorum auct. var. cirrochroa (Ach.) Rabenh., Leproplaca cirrochroa (Ach.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting, Physcia callopisma (Ach.) A. Massal. var. cirrochroa (Ach.) A. Massal., Physcia cirrochroa (Ach.) Arnold, Placodium cirrochroum (Ach.) Rabenh.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–5 – Note: a mainly temperate, probably holarctic species found on hard limestone and dolomite in rather shaded and sheltered situations, often on faces seldom wetted by rain; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, UR, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Caloplaca citrina (Hoffm.) Th. Fr.

Syn.: Amphiloma citrinum (Hoffm.) Müll. Arg., Blastenia citrina (Hoffm.) B. de Lesd., Callopisma citrinum (Hoffm.) A. Massal., Flavoplaca citrina (Hoffm.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting, Lecanora citrina (Hoffm.) Ach., Lichen citrinus (Hoffm.) Ach., Placodium citrinum (Hoffm.) Hepp, Pyrenodesmia citrina (Hoffm.) Trevis., Verrucaria citrina Hoffm.

L – Subs.: cal, xyl – Alt.: 1–5 – Note: C. citrina is often claimed to be an almost cosmopolitan lichen. However, after a recent molecular revision of the entire complex, it seems that the species has a rather restricted distribution centered in Central Europe. The species complex, which still needs a thorough revision in the Alps, occurs on a wide variety of substrata, from asbestos-cement, concrete and mortar to basic siliceous rocks or even eutrophicated wood, being very tolerant to, and even favoured by eutrophication (e.g. urine-deposits). Several records could refer to other species in the complex. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA.

Caloplaca clauzadeana (Gaya) Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Roux

Syn.: Caloplaca arnoldii (Wedd.) Zahlbr. ex Ginzb. subsp. clauzadeana Gaya

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a taxon of the C. saxicola-group forming large rosettes of densely pruinose thalli (resulting in a salmon colour), with strongly convex lobes; on vertical to overhanging walls of limestone at low elevations; in the study area so far only known from the southern part of the Western Alps. – Fr: AHP, Var, Vau.

Caloplaca coccinea (Müll. Arg.) Poelt

Syn.: Blastenia arnoldiana Servít & Čern., Blastenia coccinea Müll. Arg., Caloplaca arnoldiana (Servít & Čern.) Servít & Poelt, Caloplaca aurantiaca (Lightf.) Th. Fr. f. nubigena (Arnold) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Caloplaca flammea (Anzi) Jatta, Placodium flammeum Anzi

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 3–6 – Note: on steeply inclined faces of limestones and dolomite in upland areas; known from the mountains of Southern Europe and ranging throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Isè, Sav, HSav, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb. Sl: SlA.

Caloplaca conciliascens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.

Syn.: Lecanora conciliascens Nyl.

L – Subs.: sil, int – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: related to C. exsecuta, known from the locus classicus in Tyrol, from a single locality in the French Maritime Alps and in Central Switzerland, and from dry-warm sites in Piemonte. – Au: T. Sw: SZ. Fr: AMa. It: Piem.

Caloplaca concinerascens (Nyl.) H. Olivier

Syn.: Lecanora concinerascens Nyl.

L # – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: this species (with a grey-brown epithecium reacting K+ weakly pale violet) belongs to the Pyrenodesmia-complex. It has been probably confused with C. conversa (with a brown epithecium reacting K+ purple), and its distribution is therefore poorly known. It was hitherto found on sun-exposed surfaces of weakly to strongly calciferous rocks in the French Southern Alps, the Mediterranean region and the warmest parts of the Massif Central. – Fr: AHP, AMa, Vau.

Caloplaca conglomerata (Bagl.) Jatta

Syn.: Callopisma conglomeratum Bagl., Caloplaca amabilis Zahlbr., Caloplaca peludella (Nyl.) Hasse, Lecanora peludella Nyl.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 1–2 – Note: a Mediterranean to xeric subtropical species of base-rich siliceous rocks, often growing with species of Peltula, and starting the life-cycle on other crustose lichens; mostly Mediterranean, but also found, although very rarely, in dry-continental valleys of the Alps. – Fr: AMa, Var, Vau. It: TAA, Lomb, Lig.

Caloplaca conversa (Kremp.) Jatta

Syn.: Callopisma conversum Kremp., Callopisma fallax Bagl., Caloplaca conversa (Kremp.) Jatta var. fallax (Bagl.) Wunder, Caloplaca fallax (Bagl.) Jatta, Caloplaca oreadum (Stizenb.) Jatta, Placodium conversum (Kremp.) Anzi

L – Subs.: cal, int, sil – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: a mild-temperate to subtropical-montane lichen found on calciferous or basic siliceous rocks (especially basalt) in sunny sites with short periods of water seepage, often on colonies of cyanobacteria. According to Vondrák (see Nimis 2016) the species, which is related to C. conglomerata, is heterogeneous, and more species are involved, some of them fully lacking anthraquinones. See also note on C. concinerascens. – Au: V, T, S, K. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: LU, SZ, TI, VS. Fr: AMa, Var. It: Frl, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA.

Caloplaca coralliza Arup & Åkelius

Syn.: Blastenia coralliza (Arup & Åkelius) Arup, Søchting & Frödén

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a recently described species, which seems to be less common than the similar C. herbidella in the Alps. – Au: K. Ge: Ge. Sw: GR, UW.

Caloplaca coronata (Kremp. ex Körb.) J. Steiner

Syn.: Callopisma aurantiacum (Lightf.) A. Massal. var. coronatum Kremp. ex Körb., Caloplaca aurantiaca (Lightf.) Th. Fr. var. coronata (Kremp. ex Körb.) Jatta, Flavoplaca coronata (Kremp. ex Korb.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting

L – Subs.: cal, cal-par – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: a mild-temperate to subtropical, mainly Mediterranean lichen found on the top of sun-exposed calcareous boulders, especially in small depressions of the rock, often starting the life-cycle on other crustose lichens; much overlooked in the past, and certainly more common; exceptionally reaching the subalpine belt on south-facing rocks in dry-continental valleys of the Alps. – Au: T, K, St, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: LU, VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, Drô, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig.

Caloplaca cravensis (Clauzade & Wunder) Cl. Roux

Syn.: Caloplaca concinerascens (Nyl.) H. Olivier subsp. cravensis (Clauzade & Wunder) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Caloplaca conversa (Kremp.) Jatta var. cravensis Clauzade & Wunder

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2 – Note: a taxon of the C. conversa-aggregate, with thallus and apothecia reacting C+ red (gyrophoric acid); on pebbles and small boulders of hard siliceous rocks at low elevations; in the study area so far only known from the Western Alps. – Fr: Var, Vau.

Caloplaca crenularia (With.) J.R. Laundon var. crenularia

Syn.: Blastenia crenularia (With.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén, Blastenia ferruginea (Huds.) A. Massal. var. plumbea A. Massal., Caloplaca caesiorufa (Ach.) Flagey, Caloplaca festiva auct. non (Ach.) Zwackh, Caloplaca sbarbaronis B. de Lesd., Lichen crenularius With.

L – Subs.: sil, int – Alt.: 1–5 – Note: a temperate to subtropical species found on horizontal to weakly inclined faces of a wide variety of siliceous rocks, very heterogeneous, and in need of revision. According to Vondrák (see Nimis 2016), records of C. crenularia from (sub-)alpine habitats belong to a still undescribed species (Blastenia psychrophila ined.), which is known from Veneto and Piemonte in Italy. – Au: V, K, St. Sw: VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA.

Caloplaca crenularia (With.) J.R. Laundon var. contigua (A. Massal.) ined. (provisionally placed here, ICN Art. 36.1b)

Syn.: Caloplaca festiva (Ach.) Zwackh var. contigua (A. Massal.) H. Olivier, Caloplaca squamulosa sensu Ozenda & Clauzade non (Wedd.) B. de Lesd.

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a taxon belonging to a polymorphic complex, hitherto reported only from the Western Alps. See also note on the typical variety. – Fr: AHP, Var, Vau.

Caloplaca crenularia (With.) J.R. Laundon var. depauperata (H. Magn.) Calat. & Barreno

Syn.: Caloplaca festiva (Ach.) Zwackh var. depauperata H. Magn.

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a taxon belonging to a polymorphic complex, differing in the very poorly developed thallus, known from the French Southern Alps (at low elevations), the Mediterranean region, the Pyrenees, and Corsica. – Fr: AMa, Vau.

Caloplaca crenulatella (Nyl.) H. Olivier

Syn.: Caloplaca lactea (A. Massal.) Zahlbr. f. aestimabilis (Arnold) Lettau, Caloplaca lactea (A. Massal.) Zahlbr. f. ecrustacea (Harm.) Zahlbr., Lecanora crenulatella Nyl., Placodium crenulatellum (Nyl.) A.L. Sm., Xanthocarpia crenulatella (Nyl.) Frödén, Arup & Søchting

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: a mild-temperate to subtropical species, often found on calcareous walls, perhaps parasitic of Verrucaria nigrescens when young. Very much misunderstood in the past (see also note on C. lactea): recently, this taxon has been considered to be paraphyletic and to contain at least four lineages. Some records from siliceous rocks could refer to C. prinii B. de Lesd. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: GR, SZ, TI, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig.

Caloplaca dalmatica (A. Massal.) H. Olivier s.lat.

Syn.: Acarospora velana A. Massal., Callopisma aurantiacum (Lightf.) A. Massal. var. placidium A. Massal., Callopisma aurantiacum (Lightf.) A. Massal. var. velanum A. Massal., Callopisma dalmaticum A. Massal., Caloplaca aurantiaca (Lightf.) Th. Fr. var. placidia (A. Massal.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Caloplaca aurantiaca (Lightf.) Th. Fr. var. velana (A. Massal.) Flagey, Caloplaca dolomiticola (Hue) Zahlbr., Caloplaca placidia (A. Massal.) J. Steiner, Caloplaca schaereri (Arnold) Zahlbr., Caloplaca velana (A. Massal.) Du Rietz, Caloplaca velana (A. Massal.) Du Rietz var. dalmatica (A. Massal.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Caloplaca velana (A. Massal.) Du Rietz var. dolomiticola (Hue) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Caloplaca velana (A. Massal.) Du Rietz var. placidia (A. Massal.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Caloplaca velana (A. Massal.) Du Rietz var. schaereri (Arnold) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Lecanora dolomiticola Hue, Lecidea schaereri Flörke ex Arnold nom.illeg., Lecidea velana (A. Massal.) Hue, Placodium aurantiacum (Lightf.) Anzi var. velanum (A. Massal.) Anzi, Variospora velana (A. Massal.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–5 – Note: extremely polymorphic and in need of revision: according to a broad species concept, C. dalmatica is the oldest name; on a wide variety of calcareous substrata in exposed, rather eutrophicated situations; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB. Sw: BE, GR, SZ, TI, UR, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA.

Caloplaca decipiens (Arnold) Blomb. & Forssell

Syn.: Amphiloma decipiens (Arnold) Bagl., Calogaya decipiens (Arnold) Arup, Frödén & Søchting, Gasparrinia decipiens (Arnold) Syd., Lecanora decipiens (Arnold) Nyl., Physcia decipiens Arnold, Placodium decipiens (Arnold) Leight.

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a temperate, somehow subcontinental species found on calciferous substrata, especially on mortar walls; not common everywhere in the Alps, perhaps because of its subcontinental character, but abundant, and locally extremely abundant in some dry valleys of the Alps, mostly on walls in small villages, much rarer in natural habitats. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: BE, GR, SZ, VD. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl. Ven, TAA, Piem, Lig.

Caloplaca demissa (Körb.) Arup & Grube

Syn.: Imbricaria demissa Flot. nom. inval., Lecanora demissa (Körb.) Zahlbr., Lecanora incusa (Flot.) Vain., Placodium demissum Körb.

L – Subs.: sil, int – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: a mild-temperate to xeric subtropical species found on south-facing, steeply inclined to underhanging surfaces of basic siliceous rocks, both in dry-warm valleys of the Alps (in the submediterranean belt) and in the Mediterranean belt; much less bound to water seepage than Peltula euploca and ecologically related species. This species, always sterile, was earlier positioned in the Lecanoraceae, in the genera Lecanora and Placolecanora, because of its general appearance, and has a quite remote position in the Teloschistaceae, with no supported sister lineage. It was segregated in the genus Olegblumia, but with a wrong basionym, which makes that name illegitimate. – Au: T, K, St, B. Sw: BE, GR, VS. Fr: AMa, Sav, Var. It: Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA. Sl: SlA.

Caloplaca dichroa Arup

Syn.: Flavoplaca dichroa (Arup) Arup, Frödén & Søchting

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a species recalling C. citrina in developing areoles dissolving more or less completely into blastidia and granules, usually fertile and then the thick-walled ascospores are diagnostic, often occurring in a yellow and an orange colour form; on limestone or more rarely on similar anthropogenic substrates, widespread in the Alps, but distribution still insufficiently documented. – Au: T, St. Sw: LU, SZ.

Caloplaca diphyodes (Nyl.) Jatta

Syn.: Callopisma diphyodes (Nyl.) Bagl. & Carestia, Callopisma variabile (Pers.) Trevis. var. lecideina Müll. Arg., Caloplaca diphyodes (Nyl.) Jatta var. helygeoides (Vain.) H. Olivier, Caloplaca helygeoides (Vain.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Caloplaca lecideina (Müll. Arg.) Clauzade & Rondon comb. inval., Caloplaca variabilis (Pers.) Th. Fr. subsp. diphyodes (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Caloplaca variabilis (Pers.) Th. Fr. var. lecideina (Müll. Arg.) H. Olivier, Lecanora diphyodes Nyl.

L – Subs.: sil, int – Alt.: 4–6 – Note: known both from the Arctic and the mountains of the temperate zone, this lichen occurs on siliceous rocks in sheltered situations, often along creeks. The species has been much misunderstood, mainly due to the synonymisation with C. lecideina (Müll. Arg.) Clauzade & Rondon, a calcicolous species. The type of C. diphyodes, from Central France, is clearly silicicolous, and the species is more or less aquatic (Roux et al. 2014). – Au: V, T, S, K. Sw: SZ, TI. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Sav, Vau. It: Frl, TAA, Piem.

Caloplaca emilii Vondrák, Khodos., Cl. Roux & V. Wirth

Syn.: Caloplaca areolata auct. p.p. non (Zahlbr.) Clauzade

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 2 – Note: a species of the C. xerica-group (a secondary species of C. areolata) with a grey thallus, areoles with simple, globose blastidia produced along the edges, apothecia rather common, with discs in shades of orange-brown, and a grey thalline margin; on horizontal to slightly inclined rock faces of limestone outcrops in habitats with steppe-like conditions; widespread in the Mediterranean region, with several records from the Western Alps. – Fr: AHP, AMa, Drô, Var, Vau.

Caloplaca epierodens Cl. Roux & M. Bertrand

Syn.: Variospora epierodens (Cl. Roux & M. Bertrand) Cl. Roux & M. Bertrand

L – Subs.: cal-par – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: a species of the C. dalmatica-group living as a parasite upon C. erodens, forming salmon-red thalli up to 1.5 cm in diam., with verruculose areoles separated by wide cracks, and broadly ellipsoid ascospores; on calcareous rocks with its host; so far only recorded from the Western Alps in France but likely to have a broader distribution. – Fr: AHP, AMa.

Caloplaca epithallina Lynge

L – Subs.: sil-par – Alt.: 4–6 – Note: a rather continental species found on well-lit surfaces of siliceous rocks, e.g. on isolated boulders in grasslands, growing on other crustose and even foliose lichens (common hosts in the Alps are Dimelaena oreina, Psorinia conglomerata, Rhizoplaca spp., Umbilicaria spp.); most frequent in dry-continental valleys of the Alps. – Au: T, S, K, St. Sw: GR, VS. Fr: HAl, AMa, Sav. It: TAA.

Caloplaca erodens Tretiach, Pinna & Grube

Syn.: Pyrenodesmia erodens (Tretiach, Pinna & Grube) Søchting, Arup & Frödén

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: a recently-described, usually sterile species, destructive to its substrate resulting in concave depressions with whitish marginal rims; on sunny rock walls and boulders of limestone, also on rock heads visited by birds; widespread in the Alps, but often overlooked. – Au: K, St, O. Ge: OB. Fr: AHP, AMa, HSav, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Piem, VA.

Caloplaca erythrocarpa (Pers.) Zwackh

Syn.: Blastenia arenaria sensu A. Massal., Blastenia lallavei (Clemente ex Ach.) A. Massal., Callopisma arenarium auct. p.p. non (Pers.) Müll. Arg., Caloplaca arenaria auct. p.p. non (Pers.) Müll. Arg., Caloplaca erythrocarpa (Pers.) Zwackh f. diffractoareolata B. de Lesd., Caloplaca lallavei (Clemente ex Ach.) Flagey, Kuettlingeria lallavei (Clemente ex Ach.) Trevis., Lecidea lallavei Clemente ex Ach., Patellaria erythrocarpa Pers., Placodium lallavei (Clemente ex Ach.) Anzi

L – Subs.: cal, int – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a mainly mild-temperate to subtropical species found on limestone, dolomite, calciferous sandstone, much more rarely mortar and brick, on horizontal to weakly inclined faces wetted by rain, often starting the life-cycle on calcicolous Aspicilia-species; optimum in natural habitats; most frequent in the Southern and Western Alps, at low elevations. – Sw: ?VS. Fr: AHP, AMa, Drô, Isè, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Caloplaca exsecuta (Nyl.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.

Syn.: Blastenia exsecuta (Nyl.) Servít, Lecanora exsecuta Nyl.

L – Subs.: sil, int – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: a mainly boreal-montane, probably circumpolar, very variable lichen of basic siliceous rocks in humid, wind-protected situations; certainly much more widespread in the Alps. – Au: T, S, K, St. Ge: Schw. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, HSav. It: Frl, TAA, Piem, VA.

Caloplaca ferrarii (Bagl.) Jatta

Syn.: Callopisma ferrarii Bagl., Xanthocarpia ferrarii (Bagl.) Frödén, Arup & Søchting

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 1–2 – Note: a temperate early coloniser of mortar walls, gypsum outcrops and other calciferous, often man-made, soft substrata at relatively low elevations; perhaps more widespread in lowland areas of the Alps. Recently, this taxon was shown to be paraphyletic and to contain at least two lineages. – Au: ?V. Sw: ?Sw. Fr: AHP, Drô, Var, Vau. It: Frl, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig.

Caloplaca ferruginea (Huds.) Th. Fr.

Syn.: Biatora ferruginea (Huds.) Fr., Blastenia ferruginea (Huds.) A. Massal., Callopisma ferrugineum (Huds.) Trevis., Caloplaca aurantiaca (Lightf.) Th. Fr. non auct., Gasparrinia ferruginea (Huds.) Tornab., Lecanora ferruginea (Huds.) Link, Lichen ferrugineus Huds., Placodium ferrugineum (Huds.) Hepp

L – Subs.: cor – Alt.: 1–4 – Note: a mild-temperate species, with optimum on oaks in the submediterranean belt, absent from heavily disturbed areas. According to Vondrák (see Nimis 2016) three widespread species looking like “C. ferruginea” are known from Europe. Two of them are probably absent from the Alps, most of the records being from oceanic Europe and Macaronesia. The species common in the Alps has a mainly southern distribution in Europe, reaching Southern England and Central Europe (no recent records from Germany), and does not belong to C. ferruginea in the strict sense. – Au: V, T, S, K, St, O, N. Ge: Ge. Sw: BE, GR, LU, SZ, TI, UR, VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Caloplaca festivella (Nyl.) Kieff.

Syn.: Lecanora ferruginea (Huds.) Link var. festivella Nyl.

L – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 3–5 – Note: a rare, mainly oromediterranean species mainly found on schists, in underhangs, with a few records from the Western Alps (France, Italy). – Fr: Sav. It: Piem, Lig.

Caloplaca flavescens (Huds.) J.R. Laundon var. flavescens

Syn.: Amphiloma heppianum Müll. Arg., Caloplaca heppiana (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca sympagaea (Ach.) Sandst., Gasparrinia heppiana (Müll. Arg.) Verseghy, Lecanora heppiana (Müll. Arg.) Hue, Lecanora sympagaea Ach., Lichen flavescens Huds., Physcia heppiana (Müll. Arg.) Arnold, Placodium callopismum (Ach.) Mérat var. plicatum (Wedd.) Leight., Placodium flavescens (Huds.) A.L. Sm., Placodium heppianum (Müll. Arg.) Puget, Placodium sympageum (Ach.) Bremme, Variospora flavescens (Huds.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting

L – Subs.: cal, int – Alt.: 1–3 – Note: a mainly temperate species found on limestone, dolomite, calciferous sandstone, sometimes on brick, mortar and roofing tiles, and walls, monuments etc., somehow less helio – and xerophytic than the closely related C. aurantia; sometimes ascending to above treeline; widespread throughout the Alps. – Au: S, K, St, O, N, B. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: VD, VS. Fr: AHP, HAl, AMa, Drô, Isè, Sav, HSav, Var, Vau. It: Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA, Lig. Sl: SlA, Tg.

Caloplaca flavescens (Huds.) J.R. Laundon var. brevilobata (Nyl.) ined. (provisionally placed here, ICN Art. 36.1b)

Syn.: Caloplaca brevilobata (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Caloplaca heppiana (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. var. brevilobata (Nyl.) A.E.Wade, Lecanora brevilobata Nyl.

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2–4 – Note: a taxon belonging to a polymorphic complex, hitherto reported only from the Western Alps (France). – Fr: Sav, Var.

Caloplaca flavocitrina (Nyl.) H. Olivier

Syn.: Caloplaca citrina (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. var. flavocitrina (Nyl.) Walt. Watson, Flavoplaca flavocitrina (Nyl.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting, Lecanora flavocitrina Nyl.

L – Subs.: cal, sil – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a species of the C. citrina-group mainly occurring on limestone, concrete and mortar, with a yellow to orange-yellow, areolate thallus, the areoles with marginal soralia, but often fertile; several records of this common, widespread and ecologically wide-ranging species might be filed under C. citrina. The entire group needs a thorough revision in the Alps. – Au: O. Ge: OB, Schw. Sw: SZ. Fr: AHP, AMa, Drô, HSav, Var, Vau. It: TAA. Sl: SlA.

Caloplaca fulvolutea (Nyl.) Jatta

Syn.: Callopisma fulvoluteum (Nyl.) Arnold, Caloplaca jungermanniae (Vahl) Th. Fr. var. fuscolutoides Räsänen, Lecanora fulvolutea Nyl.

L – Subs.: bry – Alt.: 4–5 – Note: a taxon close to C. jungermanniae with intensely yellow apothecia showing persistently protruding margins; muscicolous, almost exclusively overgrowing Grimmia on acidic rocks; based on a type from Northern Finland, with a few records from the Alps. The species was also reported from Italy (outside the Alps), but these records refer to C. chelyae Pérez-Vargas. – Fr: HAl, HSav.

Caloplaca furfuracea H. Magn.

Syn.: Blastenia furfuracea (H. Magn.) Arup, Søchting & Frödén

L – Subs.: xyl – Alt.: 3–4 – Note: all European collections are from Northern Sweden, apart from some specimens found in Wallis, Switzerland, and in France (Alps of Haute-Provence). Several specimens identified as C. furfuracea from other regions in Europe (Norway, Austria, Turkey and Croatia) were found to belong to C. herbidella. – Sw: VS. Fr: AHP.

Caloplaca fuscoatroides J. Steiner

L – Subs.: sil, int – Alt.: 1 – Note: a widespread Mediterranean lichen found on basic siliceous rocks wetted by rain, also reported from the base of the Western Alps; the species is a member of the C. xerica-group, which is close to Pyrenodesmia s.lat.. – Fr: Vau.

Caloplaca fuscorufa H. Magn.

L – Subs.: int – Alt.: 5 – Note: a species of the C. ferruginea-group with a whitish-grey, rimose to areolate thallus and sessile, brownish-red apothecia recalling those of C. crenularia, but with larger ascospores; forms with blackening margins may be also confused with C. exsecuta; on stones and low outcrops of calciferous schists, often near streams; the type is from central Sweden and the species is widespread in Northern Europe; from the Alps there is so far a single record, which needs re-confirmation. – Sw: SZ.

Caloplaca glaucescens (Bagl. & Carestia) Jatta

Syn.: Candelariella glaucescens (Bagl. & Carestia) Lettau, Gyalolechia glaucescens Bagl. & Carestia

L # – Subs.: sil – Alt.: 2–3 – Note: a species of uncertain affinity, with a grey, granulose-verrucose thallus, small, sessile apothecia with a plane, reddish disc and a paler thalline margin, articulated paraphyses with a yellow cap, 8-spored asci, and oblong-ellipsoid, 1-septate ascospores (the septum not pervious) measuring 12–15 × 4–5 µm; known only from the type collection, on granite, at c. 3,000 m; the type material would be worthy of further study. – It: Piem.

Caloplaca glomerata Arup

Syn.: Variospora glomerata (Arup) Arup, Søchting & Frödén

L – Subs.: cal – Alt.: 2 – Note: a species of the C. dalmatica-group with an areolate thallus, usually richly fertile, with several crowded apothecia per areole, and ascospores with lumina recalling the Mischoblastia-type; on limestone in Aspicilia calcarea-communities, often invading thalli of species of the C. variabilis-group; in the Alps so far only known from a single locality, but probably not distinguished in the past. – Fr: Vau.

Caloplaca granulosa (Müll. Arg.) J. Steiner

Syn.: Amphiloma granulosum Müll. Arg.,