Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering of the observations based on the fungal isolations. a PC1 vs. PC2. b PC1 vs. PC3. c PC2 vs. PC3. d PCA 3D plot e Hierarchical clustering dendrogram to access the ecological proximities of obtained fungi based on their respective isolation profiles. Software R 4.3.2 was used to obtain the PCA plots and the hierarchical clustering. There was no fungal isolation from hedgerows from the farm Granja when bait-insect T. molitor was used and hence, it could not be included in any of the analysis which relies on proportions, i.e. PCA plots, hierarchical clustering. To reduce any bias, the authors also discarded the soil samples (N=1) which yielded the fungal isolations, when G. mellonella was used, from the hedgerows of the farm Granja. The blue balls represent relatively more frequent EPF, i.e. Beauveria bassiana, Beauveria pseudobassiana, Clonostachys rosea f. rosea, Cordyceps cicadae, Purpureocillium lilacinum and Metarhizium robertsii. The red balls represent other fungi such as Cordyceps sp., Lecanicillium aphanocladii, Lecanicillium dimorphum, Metarhizium guizhouense and Purpureocillium lavendulum. Hierarchical clustering based dendrogram classified isolated EPF into two clusters, i.e. rarely occurring EPF (cluster 1) and relatively more frequent EPF (cluster 2). Abbreviations used are: Beauveria bassiana (B.b), Beauveria pseudobassiana (B.p), Cordyceps cicadae (C.c), Cordyceps sp. (C.sp), Lecanicillium aphanocladii (L.a), Lecanicillium dimorphum (L.d), Metarhizium guizhouense (M.g), Purpureocillium lavendulum (, Purpureocillium lilacinum (P.l), Clonostachys rosea f. rosea (C.rr) and Metarhizium robertsii (M.r).

  Part of: Sharma L, Oliveira I, Torres L, Marques G (2018) Entomopathogenic fungi in Portuguese vineyards soils: suggesting a ‘Galleria-Tenebrio-bait method’ as bait-insects Galleria and Tenebrio significantly underestimate the respective recoveries of Metarhizium (robertsii) and Beauveria (bassiana). MycoKeys 38: 1-23.