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Research Article
Species of Hymenochaete (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) on bamboos from East Asia, with descriptions of two new species
expand article infoTing Nie, Yan Tian, Shi-Liang Liu, Jiao Yang, Shuang-Hui He
‡ Institute of Microbiology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China
Open Access

Abstract

Six species of Hymenochaete are found on bamboos in East Asia. Among them, H. bambusicola and H. orientalis are described and illustrated as new to science. Hymenochaete bambusicola is found exclusively on dead bamboos in northern Thailand and southwestern China, and characterized by the presence of dendrohyphidia and skeletal hyphae. It is phylogenetically and morphologically closely related to H. innexa, H. koeljalgii and H. tropica. Hymenochaete orientalis is found on bamboos in Taiwan and on angiosperm branches in southern China. It is distinguished by the absence of a hyphal layer and by having relatively large, oblong-ellipsoid to cylindrical basidiospores. Hymenochaete orientalis is morphologically similar to H. longispora and H. cinnamomea, and forms a distinct lineage close to H. cinnamomea in the ITS+nrLSU based phylogenetic analyses. An identification key to the six species on bamboos is given.

Key words

Bambusicolous fungi, Hymenochaetaceae, hymenochaetoid fungi, taxonomy

Introduction

Species of Hymenochaete Lév. are readily recognized by having brown basidiomes turning black in contact with potassium hydroxide, characteristic setae, generative hyphae without clamp connections, and smooth, thin-walled basidiospores. Hymenochaete is a large, morphologically heterogenous genus that includes more than one hundred and twenty species (Léger 1998, Parmasto 2004, Parmasto and Gilbertson 2005, He and Li 2011a, b, He and Dai 2012, Parmasto 2012). Wagner and Fisher (2002) separated the genus Pseudochaete T. Wagner & M. Fisch. from Hymenochaete according to phylogenetic analyses of nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Subsequently, this separation was supported by several molecular studies, and more species were described in or transferred to Pseudochaete (Larsson et al. 2006, He and Dai 2012, He and Li 2013, Parmasto et al. 2014). Yang et al. (2016) proposed Hymenochaetopsis S.H. He & Jiao Yang to replace Pseudochaete, since the latter has been used for algae since 1903. On the other hand, species in Cyclomyces Kunze ex Fr. and Hydnochaete Bres., with poroid/cyclolamellate and hydnoid hymenophores, were nested within the clades Hymenochaetopsis and Hymenochaete in the phylogenetic studies (Wagner and Fisher 2002, He and Dai 2012, Baltazar et al. 2014, Parmasto et al. 2014). Now, the former two genera are treated as synonyms of Hymenochaete (Fischer and Wagner 2001, Baltazar et al. 2014).

Although Hymenochaete s.l. is widely distributed in subtropical and tropical areas on angiosperm substrates, only one species, H. muroiana I. Hino & Katum., has been reported on bamboos in eastern Asia to date (Léger 1998, Parmasto 2005, Parmasto and Gilbertson 2005). In 2015 and 2016, several field trips were carried out in southern China, northern Thailand and central Taiwan, and many corticioid fungal specimens including those of Hymenochaete on bamboos were collected. Morphological and molecular studies of the specimens revealed six species of Hymenochaete on bamboos, two of which, H. bambusicola and H. orientalis, are described here as new.

Materials and methods

Morphological studies. Voucher specimens are deposited in the herbaria of Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China (BJFC), the Center of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, Thailand (MFLU), and the National Museum of Natural Science, Taichung, Taiwan (TNM). Samples for microscopic examination were mounted in cotton blue and 2% potassium hydroxide (KOH). The following abbreviations are used: L = mean spore length, W = mean spore width, Q = L/W ratio, n (a/b) = number of spores (a) measured from given number of specimens (b). Color codes and names follow Kornerup and Wanscher (1978).

DNA extraction and sequencing. A CTAB plant genome rapid extraction kit-DN14 (Aidlab Biotechnologies Co., Ltd) was employed for DNA extraction and PCR amplification from dried specimens. The ITS region was amplified with the primer pair ITS5 and ITS4 (White et al. 1990) using the following procedure: initial denaturation at 95 °C for 4 min, followed by 34 cycles at 94 °C for 40 s, 58 °C for 45 s and 72 °C for 1 min, and final extension at 72 °C for 10 min. The nrLSU gene region was amplified with the primer pair LR0R and LR7 (Vilgalys and Hester 1990, Lapeyre et al. 1993) using the following procedure: initial denaturation at 94 °C for 1 min, followed by 34 cycles at 94 °C for 30 s, 50 °C for 1 min and 72 °C for 1.5 min, and final extension at 72 °C for 10 min. DNA sequencing was performed at Beijing Genomics Institute, and the sequences were deposited in GenBank (Table 1).

Taxa with locality and GenBank accession numbers for ITS and nrLSU sequences used in the phylogenetic analysis.

Taxa Voucher Locality ITS 28S
Hymenochaete acerosa He 338 China: Xizang JQ279543 JQ279657
Hymenochaete adusta He 207 China: Guangdong JQ279523 KU975497 a
Hymenochaete anomala He 592 China: Hainan JQ279566 JQ279650
Hymenochaete asetosa Dai 10756 China: Hainan JQ279559 JQ279642
Hymenochaete attenuata He 28 China: Hainan JQ279526 JQ279633
Hymenochaete bambusicola He 4116 Thailand: Chiang Mai KY425674 a KY425681 a
Hymenochaete bambusicola He 4121 Thailand: Chiang Mai KY425675 a KY425682 a
Hymenochaete biformisetosa He 1445 China: Yunnan KF908247 KU975499 a
Hymenochaete cana He 1305 China: Guangxi KF438169 KF438172
Hymenochaete cinnamomea He 755 China: Heilongjiang JQ279548 JQ279658
Hymenochaete cinnamomea He 2074 USA: Minnesota KU975460 a KU975500 a
Hymenochaete cruenta He 766 China: Heilongjiang JQ279595 JQ279681
Hymenochaete cyclolamellata Cui 7393 China: Guangdong JQ279513 JQ279629
Hymenochaete denticulata He 1271 China: Guangxi KF438171 KF438174
Hymenochaete epichlora He 525 China: Hainan JQ279549 JQ279659
Hymenochaete floridea He 536 China: Hainan JQ279597 JQ279683
Hymenochaete fulva He 640 China: Yunnan JQ279565 JQ279648
Hymenochaete huangshanensis He 432 China: Anhui JQ279533 JQ279671
Hymenochaete hydnoides He 245 China: Hunnan JQ279590 JQ279680
Hymenochaete innexa He 446 China: Anhui JQ279585 JQ279673
Hymenochaete innexa He 4640 China: Taiwan KY425683 a
Hymenochaete koeljalgii TFC 1996-007 Tanzania: Tanga HE651003
Hymenochaete longispora He 217 China: Guangdong JQ279537 KU975514 a
Hymenochaete luteobadia He 8 China: Hainan JQ279569 KU975515 a
Hymenochaete megaspora He 302 China: Xizang JQ279553 JQ279660
Hymenochaete minor He 933 China: Guangxi JQ279555 JQ279654
Hymenochaete minuscula He 253 China: Guizhou JQ279546 KU975516 a
Hymenochaete murina He 569 China: Hainan JQ716406 JQ716412
Hymenochaete muroiana He 405 China: Xizang JQ279542 KU975517 a
Hymenochaete muroiana He 4044 Thailand: Chiang Rai KY425676 a KY425684 a
Hymenochaete nanospora He 475 China: Anhui JQ279531 JQ279672
Hymenochaete ochromarginata He 47 China: Hainan JQ279579 JQ279666
Hymenochaete odontoides Dai 11635 China: Beijing JQ279563 JQ279647
Hymenochaete orientalis He 4601 China: Taiwan KY425677 a KY425685 a
Hymenochaete orientalis He 1057 China: Guangxi KY425678 a KY425686 a
Hymenochaete orientalis He 1230 China: Guangxi KY425679 a KY425687 a
Hymenochaete parmastoi He 867 China: Guangxi JQ780063 KU975518 a
Hymenochaete paucisetigera Cui 7845 China: Jiangxi JQ279560 JQ279644
Hymenochaete rhabarbarina He 280 China: Yunnan JQ279574 KY425688 a
Hymenochaete rhabarbarina He 4636 China: Taiwan KY425680 a KY425689 a
Hymenochaete rhabarbarina TFC 1995-028 France: La Réunion HE651007
Hymenochaete rhododendricola He 389 China: Xizang JQ279577 JQ279653
Hymenochaete rubiginosa He 1049 China: Guangxi JQ716407 JQ279667
Hymenochaete separabilis He 460 China: Anhui JQ279572 JQ279655
Hymenochaete setipora Cui 6301 China: Hainan JQ279515 JQ279639
Hymenochaete spathulata He 685 China: Yunnan JQ279591 KU975529 a
Hymenochaete sphaericola He 303 China: Xizang JQ279599 JQ279684
Hymenochaete sphaerospora He 715 China: Yunnan JQ279594 KU975531 a
Hymenochaete tasmanica He 449 China: Anhui JQ279582 JQ279663
Hymenochaete tongbiguanensis He 1552 China: Hainan KF908248 KU975532 a
Hymenochaete tropica He 574 China: Hainan JQ279587 JQ279675
Hymenochaete ulmicola He 864 China: Jilin JQ780065 KU975534 a
Hymenochaete unicolor He 468a China: Anhui JQ279551 JQ279662
Hymenochaete villosa He 537 China: Hainan JQ279528 JQ279634
Hymenochaete xerantica Cui 9209 China: Yunnan JQ279519 JQ279635
Hymenochaetopsis corrugata He 761 China: Heilongjiang JQ279606 JQ279621
Hymenochaetopsis gigasetosa He1442 China: Yunnan KT828670 KT828674
Hymenochaetopsis intricata He 412 China: Xizang JQ279608 JQ279624
Hymenochaetopsis lamellata Cui 7629 China: Guangdong JQ279603 JQ279617
Hymenochaetopsis laricicola Dai 13458 China: Heilongjiang KT828672 KT828676
Hymenochaetopsis latesetosa He 502 China: Hainan JQ716405 JQ716410
Hymenochaetopsis olivacea Dai 12789 USA: Connecticut KT828678 KT828679
Hymenochaetopsis rigidula He 379 China: Xizang JQ279613 JQ279620
Hymenochaetopsis subrigidula He 1157 China: Yunnan JQ716403 JQ716409
Hymenochaetopsis tabacina He 810 China: Jilin JQ279611 JQ279626
Hymenochaetopsis tabacinoides Cui 10428 China: Yunnan JQ279604 JQ279618
Hymenochaetopsis yasudae He 375 China: Xizang JQ279615 JQ279627
Fomitiporia banaennsis MUCL 46950 China: Yunnan GU461943 EF429218
Fomitiporia punctata MUCL 47629 Japan GU461950 GU461982

Phylogenetic analyses. The molecular phylogeny was inferred from a combined dataset of ITS and nrLSU sequences. The sequences retrieved from open databases originated from He and Dai (2012), He and Li (2013) and Parmasto et al. (2014, Table 1). Fomitiporia banaennsis Y.C. Dai and F. punctata (P. Karst.) Murrill were selected as outgroup taxa (He and Li 2013). Sequences were aligned using the ClustalX 1.83 (Chenna et al. 2003). Alignments were optimized manually in BioEdit 7.0.5.3 (Hall 1999). Trees were shown in TreeView 1.6.6 (Page 1996).

Maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) analyses were conducted for the dataset. MP analysis were performed using PAUP* 4.0b10 (Swofford 2002). Gaps in the alignments were treated as missing data. Trees were generated using 100 replicates of random stepwise addition of sequence and tree-bisection reconnection (TBR) branch-swapping algorithm, with all characters given equal weight. Branch supports for all parsimony analyses were estimated by performing 1000 bootstrap replicates (Felsenstein 1985) with a heuristic search of 10 random-addition replicates for each bootstrap replicate. Max-trees were set to 5000, branches of zero length were collapsed and all parsimonious trees were saved. The tree length (TL), consistency indices (CI), retention indices (RI), rescaled consistency indices (RC) and homoplasy index (HI) were calculated for each generated tree. RAxML v.7.2.6 (Stamatakis 2006) was used for ML analysis. Default setting were used for all parameters in the ML analysis, and statistical support values were obtained using nonparametric bootstrapping with 1000 replicates (Hillis and Bull 1993).

Phylogeny results

The ITS+nrLSU sequences dataset contained 66 ITS and 69 nrLSU sequences from 69 samples representing 59 ingroup taxa and two outgroup taxa (Table 1). Eight ITS and 21 nrLSU sequences were newly generated. The dataset had an aligned length of 2226 characters, of which 611 were parsimony informative. MP analysis yielded 13 equally parsimonious trees (TL = 3172, CI = 0.397, RI = 0.734, RC = 0.291, HI = 0.603). ML analysis resulted in a topology similar to that of MP analysis. Only the MP tree is provided with both parsimony and likelihood bootstrap ≥ 70% labeled along the branches (Fig. 1). Alignments and trees are deposited at TreeBASE (submission ID: 20657). In the tree, samples of H. bambusicola and H. orientalis formed two distinct lineages. For H. innexa G. Cunn., H. orientalis and H. rhabarbarina (Berk.) Cooke, samples collected from bamboos and wood clustered together with high bootstrap values (Fig. 1).

Figure 1.

Strict consensus tree obtained from maximum parsimony analysis of combined ITS and nrLSU sequence data of taxa of Hymenochaete and Hymenochaetopsis. Branches are labeled with parsimony bootstrap (before slash) ≥ 70% and likelihood bootstrap (after slash) ≥ 70%.

Taxonomy

Hymenochaete bambusicola S.H. He, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: MB819604
Figs 2, 3

Diagnosis

This species is distinguished by the presence of dendrohyphidia and skeletal hyphae and the preferred substrate of bamboo tissues.

Figure 2.

Basidiomes of Hymenochaete bambusicola. A He 4116 (holotype) B He 4121. Scale bars : 1 cm.

Holotype

THAILAND. Chiang Mai Province: Mork Fa, on fallen bamboo, 25 Jul 2016, He 4116 (holotype: BJFC; isotype: MFLU).

Figure 3.

Microscopic structures of Hymenochaete bambusicola (drawn from holotype). A Basidiospores B Basidia and basidioles C Dendrohyphidia D Setae E Hyphae from hyphal layer.

Etymology

Bambusicola” (Lat.) refers to growing on bamboo.

Fruiting body

Basidiomes annual, resupinate, effused, closely adnate, coriaceous, at first as small irregular patches, later confluent up to 50 cm long, up to 200 µm thick. Hymenophore smooth, greyish red [7B(3–6)], brownish orange [7C(3–6)], greyish brown (7D3) to light brown [7D(4–6)], not cracked; margin thinning out, light brown [7D(4–8)] to brown [7E(4–8)], usually darker than the hymenophore surface, velvety, up to 1 mm wide. Tissues darkening in KOH.

Microscopic structures

Hyphal system dimitic. Tomentum absent, cortex and hyphal layer present. Cortex up to 10 µm thick, composed of densely interwoven and agglutinated hyphae, sometimes indistinct. Hyphal layer composed of loosely interwoven skeletal and generative hyphae. Skeletal hyphae dominant, golden yellow to yellowish brown, distinctly thick-walled to subsolid, frequently branched, non-septate, 1–3 µm in diam. Generative hyphae scattered, simple-septate, colorless to pale yellow, thin- to thick-walled, moderately branched, 2–5 µm in diam. Setae scattered to abundant, subulate, yellowish to reddish brown, bearing a thick hyphal sheath and an acute tip, without encrustations or sometime slightly encrusted, originating from the subhymenium or the hyphal layer, (55–)70–150(–170) × 7–11 µm, projecting above the hymenium up to 60 µm. Dendrohyphidia numerous, yellowish brown, bearing a thick-walled stem up to 5 µm wide, with branches up to 10 µm long. Basidia clavate to subcylindrical, colorless, with 4 sterigmata and a basal simple septum, 15–18 × 3–4 µm; basidioles similar to basidia but smaller. Basidiospores short cylindrical, slightly curved, colorless, thin-walled, smooth, usually with a small guttula, (4–)4.5–6 × 2–2.5(–2.8) µm, L = 5.1 µm, W = 2.2 µm, Q = 2.3 (n = 60/2).

Additional specimens examined

(paratypes: BJFC & MFLU). THAILAND. Chiang Mai Province: Mork Fa, on fallen bamboo, 25 Jul 2016, He 4121 & 4131. CHINA. Yunnan Province: Jinghong, Virgin Forest Park, on fallen bamboo, 7 Jun 2011, He 652.

Remarks

Hymenochaete bambusicola belongs to sect. Hymenochaete sensu Léger (1998) and is morphologically similar to H. tropica S.H. He & Y.C. Dai. However, H. tropica has a monomitic hyphal system, shorter setae (50–90 × 7–11 µm), and dendrohyphidia with shorter branches (He and Dai 2012). Hymenochaete innexa and H. koeljalgii Parmasto also resemble H. bambusicola, but differ from the latter species by having simple hyphidia (not or rarely branched) and absence of skeletal hyphae (Dai 2010, Parmasto et al. 2014). Hymenochaete ceratophora Job [= H. alabastrina G.A. Escobar ex J.C. Léger or Dichochaete ceratophora (Job) Parmasto] is similar to H. bambusicola by having a dimitic hyphal system with thick-walled, branched dichohyphae, numerous dendrohyphidia and short cylindrical basidiospores; however, the former species can be distinguished from the latter by having shorter setae (60–110 × 6–10 µm), crystals in hymenium and subhymenium and a distribution in Mesoamerica and South America on unknown substrates (Léger 1998, Parmasto 2000). Hymenochaete tasmanica Massee (sect. Hymenochaete) is somewhat similar to H. bambusicola by having dendrohyphidia; however, H. tasmanica lacks skeletal hyphae, has a stratified subhymenium and grows on angiosperm substrates (Léger 1998). In the phylogenetic tree, H. bambusicola formed a fully supported clade with H. innexa, H. koeljalgii and H. tropica (Fig. 1).

Hymenochaete orientalis S.H. He, sp. nov.

MycoBank No: MB819605
Figs 4, 5

Diagnosis

This species is distinguished by lacking a hyphal layer and having relatively large, oblong-ellipsoid to cylindrical basidiospores.

Figure 4.

Basidiomes of Hymenochaete orientalis. A He 4601 (holotype) B He 1230. Scale bars: 1 cm.

Holotype

CHINA. Taiwan: Nantou County, Ren’ai Township, Nandongyan Mountains, on fallen bamboo, 7 Dec 2016, He 4601 (holotype: BJFC; isotype: TNM).

Figure 5.

Microscopic structures of Hymenochaete orientalis (drawn from holotype). A Basidiospores B Basidia and basidioles C Setae.

Etymology

Orientalis” (Lat.) refers to the known distribution in East Asia.

Fruiting body

Basidiomes annual, resupinate, effused, closely adnate, crustaceous to coriaceous, at first as small irregular patches, later confluent up to 20 cm long, up to 100 µm thick. Hymenophore smooth, brownish orange [7C(5–8)], light brown [7D (5–8)], brown [7E (5–8)] to reddish brown [8E (4–8)], not cracked; margin indeterminate, concolorous with hymenophore surface. Tissues darkening in KOH.

Microscopic structures

Tomentum, cortex and hyphal layer absent. Hyphal system monomitic. Generative hyphae simple-septate, colorless to pale yellow, moderately thick-walled, frequently branched at right angles, densely interwoven, agglutinated, 2.5–4 µm in diam. Setae abundant, subulate, bearing an acute tip, yellowish to reddish brown, arranged in 1–3 overlapping rows, usually with a hyphal sheath and a basal hyphal node composed of densely interwoven hyphae, without encrustations or slightly encrusted with age, 70–120 × 7–10 µm, projecting out of the hymenium up to 85 µm. Basidia clavate to subcylindrical, usually with a constriction in the middle part, some with walls thickening towards the base, colorless, with 4 sterigmata and a basal simple septum, 15–23 × 4–5.5 µm; basidioles similar to basidia but smaller. Basidiospores oblong-ellipsoid to cylindrical, with a small apiculus, colorless, thin-walled, smooth, sometimes with one or two small guttulae, 6–8(–8.5) × 3–3.8(–4) µm, L = 6.7 µm, W = 3.3 µm, Q = 2–2.1 (n = 60/3).

Additional specimens examined

(paratypes: BJFC). CHINA. Guangxi Autonomous Region: Jinxiu County, Dayaoshan Nature Reserve, on fallen angiosperm twig, 25 Aug 2011, He 1000; Nanning, Damingshan Nature Reserve, on fallen angiosperm twig, 29 Aug 2011, He 1057; Qingxiushan Park, on fallen angiosperm twig, 15 Jul 2012, He 1230. Guangdong Province: Guangzhou, South China Botanical Garden, on fallen angiosperm twig, 5 Jul 2010, He 235; Heyuan County, Daguishan Forest Park, on fallen angiosperm twig, 18 Aug 2011, He 1212.

Remarks

Hymenochaete orientalis belongs to sect. Gymnochaete G.A. Escobar ex J.C. Léger sensu Léger (1998), and is morphologically very similar to Hymenochaete longispora Parmasto. However, H. longispora has hyphidia in hymenium and longer basidiospores, 8–10 µm according to Léger (1998). Hymenochaete cinnamomea (Pers.) Bres. also resembles H. orientalis, but differs by the presence of a hyphal layer composed of loosely interwoven hyphae and smaller basidiospores, 5–6.5 × 2.5–3 µm according to Léger (1998). Hymenochaete minuscula G. Cunn. in sect. Gymnochaete can be distinguished from H. orientalis by its smaller setae (40–56 × 5–6 µm) and basidiospores (4–5 × 1.8–2.2 µm) according to Léger (1998). In the phylogenetic tree, H. orientalis formed a lineage close to H. cinnamomea and H. minuscula, but is distant from H. longispora (Fig. 1).

Other specimens examined (BJFC)

Hymenochaete innexa : CHINA. Taiwan: Nantou County, Xinyi Township, Xitou Research Center, on fallen bamboo, 11 Dec 2016, He 4640. Hymenochaete muroiana: CHINA. Xizang Autonomous Region: Linzhi County, Gadinggou Forest Park, on dead bamboo, 25 Sep 2010, He 405. Hunan Province: Dong’an County, Shunhuangshan Nature Reserve, on bamboo stump, 13 Jul 2015, He 2379. Hainan Province: Wuzhishan County, Wuzhishan Nature Reserve, on dead bamboo, 10 Jun 2016, He 3953. Guangdong Province: Zhaoqing County, Dinghushan Nature Reserve, on dead bamboo, 30 Jun 2010, He 172. Guangxi Autonomous Region: Jinxiu County, Dayaoshan Nature Reserve, 23 Aug 2011, He 947. Taiwan: Nantou County, Ren’ai Township, Nandongyan Mountains, on dead bamboo, 7 Dec 2016, He 4608. THAILAND. Chiang Rai Province: Campus of Mae Fah Luang University, on dead bamboo, 21 Jul 2016, He 4044. Hymenochaete rhabarbarina: CHINA. Taiwan: Nantou County, Xinyi Township, Xitou Research Center, on fallen bamboo, 11 Dec 2016, He 4636. Hymenochaete tropica: CHINA. Hainan Province: Wuzhishan County, Wuzhishan Nature Reserve, on fallen bamboo, 10 Jun 2016, He 3959.

Discussion

As shown in previous studies (Larsson et al. 2006, He and Dai 2012, He and Li 2013, Parmasto et al. 2014), species of Hymenochaetopsis formed a highly supported clade in our phylogenetic tree (Fig. 1). Four species, Hymenochaete bambusicola, H. innexa, H. koeljalgii and H. tropica clustered in a fully supported clade. Morphologically, these species have some similar features, such as strictly resupinate basidiomes, presence of abundant hyphidia, and oblong-ellipsoid to short cylindrical basidiospores. In the phylogenetic tree of Parmasto et al. (2014), H. koeljalgii clustered with H. floridea Berk. & Broome, but in present analyses the latter species grouped with H. sphaericola Lloyd and H. cruenta (Pers.) Donk. The topology of these and other closely related species is still not completely resolved. Hymenochaete orientalis nested within a highly supported clade with H. cinnamomea, H. minuscula, H. acerosa S.H. He & Hai J. Li, and H. epichlora (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Cooke. This clade includes species of the H. cinnamomea group (Parmasto 2001, He and Li 2011a). In Parmasto et al. (2014), H. cinnamomea formed a fully supported clade with the generic type H. rubiginosa (Dicks.) Lév. and H. ochromarginata P.H.B. Talbot; however, in our tree, H. cinnamomea group and H. rubiginosa group are in a large clade that is not supported. This may be because our phylogenetic analysis includes more taxa related to H. cinnamomea and H. rubiginosa.

Until now, six species, H. bambusicola, H. innexa (Fig. 6A), H. muroiana (Fig. 6B), H. orientalis, H. rhabarbarina (Fig. 6C) and H. tropica (Fig. 6D) have been found on bamboos in East Asia. Among these species, H. muroiana, originally reported from Japan is a common species in East Asia. Parmasto (2012) described H. muroiana subsp. africana Parmasto on bamboo from Kenya, which is very similar to H. muroiana subsp. muroiana in morphology. However, it is not clear whether they are conspecific in phylogeny. In addition to H. muroiana, H. bambusicola is also found exclusively on dead bamboos based on present materials. Hymenochaete innexa, H. rhabarbarina and H. tropica are here reported on bamboos for the first time.

Figure 6.

Basidiomes of previously known Hymenochaete species on bamboos from East Asia. A H. innexa (He 4640) B H. muroiana (He 4608) C H. rhabarbarina (He 4636) D H. tropica (He 3959).

Key to species of Hymenochaete on bamboos in East Asia

1 Hyphidia present 2
Hyphidia absent 4
2 Hyphal layer absent, hyphidia unbranched H. innexa
Hyphal layer present, hyphidia branched 3
3 Skeletal hyphae present, hyphidia dendroid with long branches H. bambusicola
Skeletal hyphae absent, hyphidia bifurcated to dendroid with short branches H. tropica
4 Hyphal layer present, hyphae encrusted with yellow resinous granules H. rhabarbarina
Hyphal layer absent, hyphae smooth 5
5 Setae 40–50 µm long, basidiospores 4–6 µm long H. muroiana
Setae 70–120 µm long, basidiospores 6–8 µm long H. orientalis

Acknowledgements

The authors express their deep appreciations to Che-Chih Chen and Sheng-Hua Wu (National Museum of Natural Science, Taiwan) and Kevin D. Hyde (Mae Fah Luang University, Thailand) for assisting in the field trips in Taiwan and Thailand. We express our gratitude to Dr. Hai-Jiao Li (Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, China) for preparing the line drawings. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 31530002 & 31670013).

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These authors contributed equally to the paper.