Corresponding author: Einar Timdal ( firstname.lastname@example.org )
Academic editor: Gerhard Rambold
© 2017 Einar Timdal, Mika Bendiksby, Arife Merve Kahraman, Mehmet Gökhan Halıcı.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Citation: Timdal E, Bendiksby M, Kahraman AM, Halıcı MG (2017) Psora taurensis (Psoraceae, Lecanorales), a new lichen species from Turkey. MycoKeys 21: 1-12. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.21.11726
Herein we describe the new species, Psora taurensis, from two localities in the Taurus Mountains in Turkey at ca. 1000 m altitude. Investigations of anatomy, secondary chemistry and DNA sequences (ITS and mtSSU) of P. taurensis and presumed close relatives suggest that P. taurensis is a distinct evolutionary lineage with P. tenuifolia as its sister, although it is morphologically more similar to P. russellii and P. vallesiaca.
Anatomy, DNA, phylogeny, Lecanorales, lichenized ascomycetes, taxonomy, TLC, Turkey
After publication of our recent paper on Psora altotibetica Timdal et al. (
This study is based on: (1) the two specimens of Psora taurensis referred to above, (2) the specimens with DNA sequence data in
Psora specimens used in this study with voucher information, major lichen substances, and GenBank accession numbers. New sequences are indicated by accession numbers in bold.
|Taxon, specimen||Voucher information||Major lichen substances||GenBank accession number|
|P. altotibetica 1||China, Xizang, Obermayer 5282 (GZU), holotype||gyrophoric acid||KU863638||KU863651|
|P. altotibetica 2||China, Xizang, Miehe & Miehe 9573/23/02 (GZU), paratype||gyrophoric acid||KU863639||KU863652|
|P. altotibetica 3||China, Xizang, Obermayer 5223 (GZU), paratype||gyrophoric acid||KU863640||KU863653|
|P. altotibetica 4||China, Xizang, Obermayer 4365 (GZU), paratype||gyrophoric acid||KU863642||KU863655|
|P. altotibetica 5||China, Xizang, Obermayer 3967 (GZU), paratype||gyrophoric acid||KU863641||KU863654|
|P. altotibetica 6||China, Xizang, Obermayer 4485 (GZU), paratype||gyrophoric acid||KU863643||KU863656|
|P. californica||USA, California, Timdal SON139/04 (O-L-60112)||bourgeanic acid, gyrophoric acid||EF524322||EF524292|
|P. elenkinii||Russia, Yakutia, Haugan & Timdal YAK01/98 (O-L-18520)||no substances||KY426119||KY426126|
|P. globifera 1||Greenland, Timdal 10149 (O-L-139171)||no substances||EF524323||EF524294|
|P. globifera 2||Norway, Klepsland JK11-L619 (O-L-183774)||no substances||KU873928||–|
|P. globifera 3||Norway, Bendiksby et al. 12914 (O-L-184327)||no substances||KU873930||–|
|P. globifera 4||Norway, Klepsland JK11-L213 (O-L-177145)||no substances||KU873929||–|
|P. globifera 5||Norway, Hjelmstad s.n. (O-L-184143)||no substances||KU873932||–|
|P. himalayana 1||Russia, Yakutia, Zhurbenko 98161 (M-0066792)||–||AY425635||–|
|P. himalayana 2||Canada, Yukon, Rosentreter & McCune 17154 (O-L-184672)||no substances||KY426120||KY426127|
|P. hyporubescens||USA, California, Bratt & Timdal 7052 (O-L-22483), holotype||anthraquinones, gyrophoric acid||EF524311||EF524295|
|P. indigirkae 1||Russia, Yakutia, Haugan & Timdal YAK19/03 (O-L-19148), holotype||bourgeanic acid, gyrophoric acid||–||EF524302|
|P. indigirkae 2||Russia, Yakutia, Haugan & Timdal YAK17/24 (O-L-19086), paratype||bourgeanic acid, gyrophoric acid||KU863631||KU863644|
|P. indigirkae 3||Russia, Yakutia, Zhurbenko 92185 (O-L-118686), paratype||bourgeanic acid, gyrophoric acid||KU863632||KU863645|
|P. nitida||Mexico, Baja California, Timdal SON33/06 (O-L-15546)||gyrophoric acid||EF524313||EF524296|
|P. pacifica||USA, California, Rosentreter 14580 (O-L-126265)||gyrophoric acid, unknown accessory||EF524314||EF524297|
|P. peninsularis||Mexico, Baja California, Timdal SON32/07 (O-L-15539), holotype||norstictic acid||EF524320||EF524298|
|P. pseudorussellii||Greece, Rui & Timdal 10998 (O-L-156015)||no substances||KY426121||KY426128|
|P. russellii 1||Mexico, Baja California, Timdal SON31/03 (O-L-15531)||norstictic acid||EF524321||EF524300|
|P. russellii 2||Mexico, Puebla, Rui & Timdal 7389 (O-L-22501)||norstictic acid||KY426122||KY426129|
|P. russellii 3||USA, California, Timdal SON131/02 (O-L-60087)||norstictic acid||KY426123||KY426130|
|P. taurensis 1||Turkey, Halici (ERCH-AMEKA 0.018), holotype||norstictic acid||KY426124||KY426131|
|P. taurensis 2||Turkey, Timdal 7908 (O-L-203076), paratype||norstictic acid||KY426125||KY426132|
|P. tenuifolia 1||Russia, Yakutia, Haugan & Timdal YAK17/26 (O-L-19088)||norstictic acid, zeorin||EF524309||EF524303|
|P. tenuifolia 2||China, Xizang, Obermayer 4487 (GZU)||norstictic acid, zeorin||KU863636||KU863649|
|P. tenuifolia 3||China, Xizang, Obermayer 5236 (GZU)||zeorin||KU863637||KU863650|
|P. testacea 1||Greece, Rui & Timdal TH06/04 (O-L-59263)||atranorin||EF524315||EF524301|
|P. testacea 2||Germany, Kainz 195 (M-0066793)||–||AY425636||–|
|P. testacea 3||Germany, Kainz 192 (M-0066794)||–||AY425638||–|
|P. tuckermanii||USA, Arizona, Rui & Timdal US240/05 (O-L-59926)||no substances||EF524317||EF524304|
|P. vallesiaca 1||Greece, Rui & Timdal 7993 (O-L-15186)||norstictic acid||EF524324||EF524291|
|P. vallesiaca 2||China, Xizang, Obermayer 3227 (GZU)||norstictic acid||KU863633||KU863646|
|P. vallesiaca 3||China, Xizang, Obermayer 5279 (GZU)||no substances||KU863635||KU863648|
|P. vallesiaca 4||Pakistan, Poelt K91-705 (GZU)||norstictic acid||KU863634||KU863647|
|P. vallesiaca 5||Norway, Bendiksby et al. 12979 (O-L-184392)||norstictic acid||KU873926||–|
|P. vallesiaca 6||Norway, Klepsland JK11-L624 (O-L-183778)||norstictic acid||KU873927||–|
|P. vallesiaca 7||Norway, Klepsland JK11-L601 (O-L-183760)||norstictic acid||KU873931||–|
Microscope sections were cut on a freezing microtome at 16 μm and mounted in water, 10% KOH (K), lactophenol cotton blue, a modified Lugol’s solution in which water was replaced by 50% lactic acid, as well as 25% sulphuric acid, and chlor-zinc-iodine. Amyloid reactions were observed in the modified Lugol’s solution after pretreatment in K. Chlor-zinc-iodine was used to locate remnants of algae in the cortex, and polarized light was used to locate crystals of secondary metabolites and calcium oxalate. Calcium oxalate was identified by adding 25% sulphuric acid to the section; the oxalate crystals dissolve and needle shaped crystals of calcium sulphate precipitate. Ascospore measurements are given as X ± 1.5×SD rounded to 0.5 µm, where X is the arithmetic mean and SD the standard deviation.
Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was performed in accordance with the methods of
We performed DNA extraction, PCR amplification, PCR purification, and cycle sequencing as described by
Sequences were assembled and edited using SEQUENCHER v.4.1.4 (Gene Codes Corporation, Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A.). Alignments were established in BIOEDIT 7.2.3 (
The following key characters for including P. taurensis in Psora were observed in the new species: the upper cortex contained remnants of algae throughout both the lower stainable layer and the upper epinecral layer (‘Scheinrindentyp’ of
The following species level characters were observed in P. taurensis: Upper cortex composed of thick-walled hyphae with angular to rounded lumina; crystals of norstictic acid and calcium oxalate present in medulla; no crystals in upper cortex; poorly developed lower cortex; ascospores 11–16 × 5.5–7 µm.
The results of the TLC examinations are given in Table
Altogether 14 DNA sequences were generated from 7 specimens for the present study (7 ITS and 7 mtSSU; Table
Bayesian 50 % majority rule consensus tree based on a concatenated alignment of ITS and mtSSU sequences of 42 accessions of 17 Psora species (see Table
Our molecular data strongly support Psora taurensis as a distinct evolutionary unit and, given the current taxon sampling, P. tenuifolia is its sister (Fig.
Psora altotibetica, which falls out as sister to the P. tenuifolia–taurensis clade (Fig.
Outside that clade is the complex of P. vallesiaca, which consists of several strongly supported subclades with varying branch lengths and with P. himalayana embedded (Fig.
Psora elenkinii was synonymized with P. himalayana by
The North American desert lichen P. russellii differs morphologically from P. taurensis mainly in forming closely adnate squamules with a more down-turned margin and often with a regular, central depression, and in having medium brown apothecia. The species contains norstictic acid both in the upper cortex and in the medulla and there is also sometimes a trace of gyrophoric acid (
Psora pseudorussellii differs from P. russellii mainly in lacking lichen substances and in forming smaller, more elongated squamules without a central depression (
Psora peninsularis Timdal, occurring in coastal scrubs and Sonoran desert in southern California and Baja California, differs morphologically mainly in forming castaneous brown, shiny, epruinose squamules. It contains norstictic acid in the medulla (
Two additional species are relevant for the discussion of the taxonomy of P. taurensis: P. gresinonis B.de Lesd. and P. subrubiformis (Vain.) Dzhur. Lack of sequence data makes this discussion purely morphological. We know the former species from c. 15 localities in Mediterranean Europe and Central Asia and the latter only from the type collection from Turkmenistan (
Hence, since P. taurensis is now known from two localities and its distinctness is supported by various data, we hereby describe it as a new species.
Morphologically most similar to Psora russellii, but squamules more ascending and lacking a central depression, and apothecia brownish black. Phylogenetic sister species of P. tenuifolia, but having a thicker, more adnate thallus with a poorly developed lower cortex and lacking zeorin.
TYPE. TURKEY. Mersin: Gülnar-Silifke Highway, exit of Kayrak , 36°21'24.5"N, 33°33'08.8"E, 1000-1020 m alt., on soil on calcareous bedrock, 12 Apr 2012, M.G. Halıcı (holotype: ERCH-AMEKA 0.018!)
Thallus squamulose; squamules up to 8 mm wide, rounded, adnate with ascending margin to imbricate, becoming deeply lobed, concave; upper surface medium brown, dull, pruinose in the outer part of the lobes, with regular fissures in the cortex; margin first concolorous with upper side, soon becoming white by pruina, straight or somewhat up-turned; upper cortex up to 130 µm thick, including an up to 20 µm thick epinecral layer, composed of thick-walled hyphae with angular to rounded lumina, not containing crystals, containing remnants of algae throughout (chlor-zinc-iodine!); algal layer continuous, 30–45 µm thick; medulla not amyloid, containing lichen substances (K+ yellow, red crystals precipitating) and calcium oxalate; lower cortex poorly developed; lower surface white to pale brown. Apothecia up to 1.5 mm diam., laminal or submarginal on the squamules, weakly convex and indistinctly marginate when young, soon becoming strongly convex and immarginate, brownish black, epruinose. Proper exciple yellowish brown in the rim, colourless in inner part, lacking crystals, composed of radiating, thick-walled hyphae; hypothecium colourless in lower part, pale brown in upper part, containing crystals of calcium oxalate; epihymenium yellowish brown, containing orange crystals dissolving in K, K+ purple; hymenium 70–90 μm high, colourless, amyloid. Paraphyses straight, thin-walled, moderately conglutinated, sparingly branched and anastomizing, with a slightly swollen apical cell. Ascus clavate, with a well-developed, amyloid tholus containing a deeper amyloid tube, lacking an ocular chamber (Porpidia-type); ascospores ellipsoid, non-septate, hyaline, 11–16 × 5.5–7 µm (n = 20). Conidiomata unknown.
Norstictic acid (by TLC); medulla K+ yellow turning red, C–, KC–, P+ orange.
The species is known from two localities in Turkey, both at c. 1000 m altitude. Both sites are in areas with Mediterranean climate. The holotype was collected in a rocky area with scrub vegetation derived by forest degradation; the paratype grew in an open pasture. Both specimens were terricolous, the holotype grew on soil over limestone.
The name refers to its occurrence in the Taurus Mountains.
We wish to thank Sonja D. Kistenich, Gunnhild M. Marthinsen, and Lisbeth G. Thorbek for assistance at the DNA lab at the Natural History Museum, University of Oslo. MGH and AMK acknowledge financial support of FYL-2015-6298 coded Erciyes University project.